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Writing a business plan outline

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A Standard Business Plan Outline [Updated for 2018] | Bplans

Writing a business plan outline

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business plan outine Write a Winning Business Plan. B usiness P lanning. What are the plan outline, Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the preparation of thesis hopw to, a carefully written business plan. There are two main purposes for writing that plan. There is an additional benefit if you do business internationally. Your business plan will serve as your guide during the lifetime of your operation. It is the blueprint of your business and will provide you with the tools to writing a business outline analyze your operation and implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability. A business plan is a requirement if you are planning to seek financing. It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on all aspects of your company's past and current operations and provide future projections.

If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of evaluating your products' business potential in essay, a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline. The following pages provide a suggested outline of the material to be included in your business plan. Your final plan may vary according to outline your specific needs or individual requirements of Teachers' perceptions of the challenges encountered with primary classroom, your lender or investor. Cover Sheet (Serves as the writing a business outline, title page of thesis hopw to, your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the company. Name, title, address, phone number of owners/corporate officers. Month and year your plan was prepared. Name of preparer. Copy number of the plan.

Table of Contents (Quick reference to outline major topics covered in your plan) The executive summary is the and cons essay, abstract of your business plan. It summarizes the content and a business purpose of your finished plan, covering all of the key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and why it is unique) Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is positioned to take advantage of) Capital Requirements, Breakdown of essay, Uses of Funds, Repayment of Loan or Benefits to a business plan Investors. Questions On Flowers For Algernon. (include only if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and strengths each one brings to writing plan outline the company) Competitors (direct and indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses.

Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Financial Projections (summary of thesis hopw to, Income Statement Projections for next 3 years) Note : Write the executive summary after you have completed your business plan. It is a summary. Part I: The Organizational Plan. Writing A Business Plan. What is a risk taking essay, included? This section should include a summary description of your business statement followed by information on writing plan the administrative end of your company. Summary Description of the Business.

In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the nature of thesis hopw to, your business, telling when and why the writing a business plan outline, company was formed. Then complete the umi proquest, summary by briefly addressing: mission (projecting short- and long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and outline why it is unique to your industry) strategy (give an globalisation and cons overview of the strategy, focusing on short- and long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about any existing strategic relationships) SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that your company will face, both internal and external) Products or Services. If you are the writing plan, manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of a product: Describe your products. Tell briefly about your manufacturing process. Include information on suppliers and availability of materials.

If you are a retailer and/or an globalisation essay e-tailer: Describe the products you sell. Include information about your sources and handling of inventory and fulfillment. If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. Writing A Business Outline. Back up in Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc.

Describe your projected or current location. A Risk Taking. Project costs associated with the location. Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in Supporting Documents. Plan Outline. Note: If location is important to marketing, cover in Part II - The Marketing Plan. Describe your legal structure and why it is advantageous for your company. List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes). List the people who are (or will be) running the business. Describe their responsibilities and abilities. Project their salaries. (Include resumes in Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in what positions?

What are the questions on flowers, necessary qualifications? How many hours will they work and at what wage? Project future needs for adding employees. Accounting: What system will you set up for daily accounting? Who will you use for a business outline a tax accountant?

Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis? Legal: Who will you retain for an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in mind.) What kinds of insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and who will you use for a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and theft of digital dissertations, information (online and off). Project related costs. Part II: The Marketing Plan. What is a business, a marketing plan? The Marketing Plan defines all of the components of your marketing strategy. You will address the details of your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies.

Overview and Goals of Your Marketing Strategy. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses. A Risk Taking. Market Trends (identify industry trends and customer trends) Market Research (describe methods of research, database analysis, and results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs) Method of Sales and Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and packaging) Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships) Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and leadership positions) Description of Customer Service Activities. Outline. Expected Outcomes of Achieving Excellence. Implementation of Marketing Strategy. Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.)

Assessment of Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by existing companies after making periodic evaluations. Part III: Financial Documents. The quantitative part of your business plan. Worth Taking Essay. This section of the a business plan, business plan is the quantitative interpretation of everything you stated in umi proquest digital dissertations, the organizational and marketing plans. Do not do this part of your plan until you have finished those two sections. Financial documents are the records used to show past, current, and projected finances. The following are the major documents you will want to include in your Business Plan. A Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on each other, utilizing information from the ones previously developed. Summary of Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing) This is an outline giving the following information: Why you are applying for financing.

How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to disperse the loan funds. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in dissertations, terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and outflow over a period of plan outline, time and is used for thesis hopw to internal planning.

It is of prime interest to the lender and shows how you intend to repay your loan. Writing Plan. Cash flow statements show both how much and when cash must flow in and out of digital (pqdd), your business. Three-Year Income Projection. A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for a business your company for the next three years. Use the revenue and expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and project for the next two years according to expected economic and industry trends. Dissertations. Projected Balance Sheet. Projection of writing outline, Assets, Liabilities, and Net Worth of your company at end of next fiscal year.

The break-even point is the point at which a company's expenses exactly match the sales or service volume. It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by total expenses -or- (2) Total units of production (cost of which exactly equals the essay questions for algernon, income derived by their sales). Writing Plan Outline. This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically. Thesis Hopw To. Revenue and expense figures are drawn from the three-year income projection. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the activity of your business in plan, the past.

If your business is new and has not yet begun operations: the financial section will end here and you will add a Personal Financial History. If yours is an umi proquest digital (pqdd) established business: you will include the following actual performance statements. Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over a period of time (monthly, annually). It is a moving picture showing what has happened in writing outline, your business and is an excellent tool for assessing your business. Globalisation Essay. Your ledger is closed and balanced and the revenue and writing outline expense totals transferred to this statement. Shows the (pqdd), condition of the business as of a fixed date. It is a picture of your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and will show you whether your financial position is strong or weak.

It is a business, usually done at of the with the use time in the, the close of an accounting period. Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and (3) Net Worth. Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and plan balance sheets to develop a study of relationships and comparisons of: (1) Items in a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for a period of time, or (3) your statements with those of other businesses. Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to compare your business with industry standards.

If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to industry standards will be especially critical in thesis hopw to, determining whether or not the loan or venture funds are justified. Writing Plan Outline. Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin) Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to thesis hopw to equity) Measures of Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of writing a business plan, components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the increases and decreases in the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. This is a summary of financial information about your company from its start to the present. The Business Financial History and Loan Application are frequently one and the same. If you have completed the rest of the financial section, you should have all of the information you need to transfer to this document. Part IV: Supporting Documents. This section of your plan will contain all of the records that back up the statements and essay decisions made in the three main parts of plan outline, your business plan. Essay. The most common supporting documents are: Include resumes for owners and management.

A resume should a one-page document. Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and honors, and a focus on special skills relating to writing the company position. Owners' Financial Statements. A statement of personal assets and worth taking liabilities. For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. Business and personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and banks. Copies of Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. All agreements currently in force between your company and a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency. Letters of Reference. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. A Business Plan. (both business and personal references) Include all business contracts, both completed and currently in force.

Other Legal Documents. All legal papers pertaining to your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc. Thesis Hopw To. Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc. All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in writing outline, the main body of the plan. (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together. When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the potential lender or investor needs to know that it was done by you. Thesis Hopw To. A business plan will be the best indicator that can be used to judge your potential for writing plan outline success.

It should be no more than 30 to taking 40 pages in length, excluding supporting documents. If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of immediate interest to the person examining your plan. Keep the others with your own copy where they will be available on short notice. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to approach. Plan Outline. Keep track of each copy that you give out. If you are turned down for financing, be sure to retrieve your business plan.

Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only if you update it frequently to reflect what is thesis hopw to, happening within your business. Measure your projections against what actually happens in your company. Use the results to plan analyze the questions on flowers, effectiveness of your operation. Writing Plan. You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and make your business more profitable.

Linda Pinson is a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator. She is the owner of Out of Your Mind. and Into the Marketplace#8482;, publisher of educational how-to books and software for new and established businesses. Perceptions Of The Challenges Encountered With Of Instructional Primary School. Linda has authored nine books, one of writing outline, which is Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the Year Award and basis of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to Write a Business Plan. She is also the developer of Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for Windows ® . Her books are in libraries and bookstores throughout the U.S. and umi proquest digital dissertations have been translated into writing a business plan Spanish, Italian, Chinese and posts by category other languages for foreign use.

The books and writing a business outline software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and technical schools, and also for training and development within corporations. OUT OF YOUR MIND. Digital. AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. 13381 White Sand Dr. , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA. Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414.

Copyright 1996-2015 Linda Pinson - All rights reserved.

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A Standard Business Plan Outline [Updated for 2018] | Bplans

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA: 50 Years of Exploration. Education, Outreach, and Artists Presenters' Bios. Bill Anderson manages the portfolio of all NASA education projects, including higher education opportunities, elementary and secondary projects, and informal education experiences for all learners. Writing A Business Plan Outline! A former schoolteacher from Memphis, Tennessee, Anderson has 32 years of experience developing and presenting NASA education programs, products and services for of the encountered with the use of instructional time school classroom educators and students at all levels. Kim Arcand is responsible for overseeing the design and production of all visual and multi-media public outreach and education products for the Chandra program. Her areas of responsibility include the Chandra public web site; the public images, illustrations and multi-media materials to support press releases; printed materials such posters; multi-media products including Cd's and DVD's; multi-media materials on the public web such as the award-winning Chandra podcasts; graphics and media products used for writing plan public exhibits; and requests from broadcast and multi-media producers. Bob Armstrong is an aerospace engineer who works for NASA as the education and worth taking, outreach lead in the Ares Projects Office. Bob has been with NASA for over 27 years.

In his aerospace career, which spans more than 30 years, he has worked on numerous projects, including shooting chickens at aircraft windshields, Space Shuttle, Space Station, X-34, X-37, and Orbital Space Plane, prior to joining the Ares Projects. Bob got interested in aeronautics and space as a child, growing up as the son of a Naval pilot. Shari Asplund manages education and plan, public outreach efforts for NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs of pioneering space science investigations. She aims to share the excitement and meaning of NASA's discoveries with students, educators, and the public by developing and umi proquest digital (pqdd), writing web site content, newsletters, engaging educational materials, and plan, workshop trainings. Ms. Beck is the Outreach Program Manager for Space Operations at NASA Headquarters in Washington DC, enjoys sharing stories to inspire your passion for the discoveries and innovations of space.

Go ahead. Ask her about our outpost in space that orbits 220 miles above Earth 24/7 with three crewmembers, or about the two female spacecraft commanders who simultaneously led Shuttle and Station missions this year. Find out when the pros, Space Shuttle will fly its last mission. Beth worked at writing plan the University of Texas, Central Intelligence Agency, United States Senate, and the Johnson Space Center, but she'll keep those juicy stories to herself. Rosalie Betrue, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California. Rosalie Betrue, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Rosalie is part of the NASA Solar System Exploration Education and posts, Public Outreach Forum. Her focus the writing plan outline, last seven years has been managing the NASA/GSUSA Partnership's Core Trainer Program. This program trains Girl Scout adult staff and trainers from across the country how to share NASA content with adults and children in their own region. Lora Bleacher works as an thesis hopw to, Outreach Specialist on a business the education and public outreach teams for several NASA missions, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, and the Mars Science Laboratory rover.

Her primary interest is working with informal learning institutions, such as museums and science centers, to increase public understanding of science. Chakaia Booker is best known for her use of recycled rubber tires to create highly expressive sculptures that address universal themes as well as environmental issues. Ms. Booker has been commissioned by prestigious art institutions and organizations including the NASA Art Program to essay, create such works as, Remembering Columbia, 2006 where she pays tribute to the lost Space Shuttle Columbia using tire remnants preserved from Columbia’s previous missions. Les Bossinas is an artist/designer with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Ohio University. He held several jobs in Graphics and Industrial Design in the Greater Cleveland Ohio area. He worked with the NASA Glenn Research Center doing air and space craft concept illustration and technical illustration before retiring in 2001. He remains active in Fine Arts.

Durlean Leslie Bradford, Huntsville, Alabama. Durlean L. Bradford is an a business, Educational Specialist for WILL Technology Inc. in the Academic Affairs Office at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Since September 6, 2001 she has been the project manager for the NASA Great Moonbuggy Race and coordinator for the Student Volunteer Service Program. She is a retired educator from the Huntsville City School System. Gregg Buckingham, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Gregg Buckingham serves as the Chief, Education Programs and University Research Division of External Relations, at posts thesis NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Fla. Gregg works to utilize NASA mission-related content in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education to attract and retain more students in those disciplines. Writing Plan Outline! He also serves as KSC’s history point-of-contact and in the past several years worked with various historians on several KSC-related history projects and a series of oral histories with space center personnel. Ginger Butcher started working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in 1997 developing web sites and other educational products. Her Echo the Bat website was launched in 1998 and helped students in 5th - 8th grades learn about the electromagnetic spectrum and false color satellite imagery.

This was following by a pop-up book in 1999 for younger children to help them learn about identifying features in satellite imagery. She also created an interactive website for younger students based on a story about Amelia the Pigeon. She now works for NASA Headquarters and continues her work on web sites and activities for students. Perceptions Of The Encountered In The! Ginger has a BS in Cartography and graduate work in Instructional Systems Development. After living and working in Russia for seven years as a US Diplomat in support of NASA's International Space Station (ISS) Program, Patrick Buzzard now serves as the ISS Strategic Outreach and Partnerships specialist at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. He is responsible for writing plan focusing resources to help enhance internal communications within the thesis hopw to, ISS Program, in addition to plan, promoting and supporting educational and outreach efforts, and facilitating the development of collaborative efforts with industry, academia and U.S. government agencies. William Carlsen, State College, Pennsylvania. Bill Carlsen is a professor of science education at Penn State University and the director of its Center for on flowers Science and the Schools. Writing Plan! Since September 2007, he has directed the Aerospace Education Services Project, NASA's longest running K-12 educational project. AESP education specialists provide teacher professional development and related posts, other programs in all 50 states and U.S. territories.

Brooke Carter is a Science Education Specialist with a background in structural geology and science education. She taught in the formal education arena for two years, and in the informal for a business plan 5 years. She currently works on the education and public outreach teams of several NASA missions, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Aura. Thesis Hopw To! In her spare time, Brooke likes to hike, bicycle, rock climb, and camp. Troy Cline is the Educational Technologist of a business plan outline, NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum team and has produced many podcasts. Pros Essay! Before coming to NASA, Troy was a high school mathematics teacher and Educational Technology Coordinator at writing a business outline an alternative high school in Virginia, working with 'at-risk' students. He has taught in a Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding school for digital dissertations (pqdd) three years in Arizona prior to joining the United States Peace Corps and served in Chad, Africa, as an Algebra and plan, Geometry teacher.

Tara Clopper is globalisation and cons essay, a teacher-on-loan and currently serves as an education specialist in Goddard’s Office of writing plan outline, Education. While in taking, the classroom, Tara taught Earth Science, Astronomy and Women in Science I and II at Greencastle-Antrim High School, Greencastle, PA. Writing Outline! Tara holds graduate (Geoenvironmental Studies) and undergraduate (Earth/Space Science BS Ed.) degrees from Shippensburg University. Tiara Coleman, Virginia Commonwealth University aspirant, is completing an internship at NASA Langley Research Center in the pilot year of the Interdisciplinary National Science Program Incorporating Research Education (INSPIRE) program. INSPIRE is designed to encourage the future generation of explorers to pros and cons essay, pursue an education and careers in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics fields. Jennifer Collings, Hampton Virginia. As a science writer at NASA Langley Research Center, Jennifer Collings specializes in writing a business plan outline, communicating the research of atmospheric scientists to the public.

She writes feature stories highlighting recent accomplishments and essay questions on flowers for algernon, discoveries, and assists in the organization of community events and outreach activities. Rory Collins is writing a business plan outline, a Science Writer for the Science Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. Before moving to the Science Directorate, Rory worked for the Office of Strategic Communications Education as a Public Outreach Specialist. Rory has her B.A. in Political Science and is expecting her M.A. in International Studies and Professional Communications in December 2008. Pamela G. Covington (Pam) serves as Manager of the on flowers, External Affairs and Education Office. A Business Plan! In this position she provides supervisory and managerial responsibility for two broad programmatic areas-Education and Public Affairs. Related By Category Thesis! She provides expert advice and guidance on programs, processes, policies, and issues impacting Education and Public Affairs. Mrs.

Covington previously served as the Director of the Equal Opportunity and Diversity Management Office at NASA Headquarters. Her responsibilities included managing, planning, directing, and implementing a comprehensive Equal Opportunity Program for NASA Headquarters. She was the writing plan outline, principal advisor and consultant to supervisors and top management official on all equal opportunity matters. At Stennis Space Center Mrs. Covington held various progressively responsible positions in the Human Resources area before entering the umi proquest (pqdd), Equal Opportunity field. She was a secretary in a business, the Human Resources Office and she developed her knowledge, skills and abilities to advance as one of the Teachers' challenges with the use time in the classroom, senior Personnel Management Specialist during her tenure in the Human Resources Office. Mrs.

Covington began her career with NASA in writing plan, 1984 as a Co-op intern. She earned a B.S. in perceptions of the challenges with the use, Business Education from the University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg, MS, and is currently pursuing a dual advanced degree in Organizational Psychology and writing a business, Public Administration. Brian Day, NASA Ames Research Center, California. Brian Day is the related theme, Education and Public Outreach Lead for LCROSS, NASA's next mission to the surface of the Moon. Brian works in the Education Office at NASA Ames Research Center where he has been the Lead for the Education Technology Team. His projects combine his experience as an astronomer, educator, and software developer. Ms. Deyarmin, with 17 years of support to the Hubble Space Telescope Program, has supported all 4 servicing missions and now provides employees and a business outline, the public with up-to-date information on the Hubble mission. The recipient of a Customer Service Excellence award and the coveted Silver Snoopy award, she still finds time to spend with her family and her foster cats. Emilie Drobnes, Greenbelt, Maryland.

Emilie is the Education and questions for algernon, Public Outreach Lead for the Solar Dynamics Observatory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Emilie is a business, responsible for the development and implementation of various education and outreach efforts such as the NASA Family Science Night, The Sunday Experiment, and various programs held around the country. Her main goal is to excite students, teachers and families about science ultimately changing their perceptions of what science is and who scientists are. Joy Dukemineer, Huntsville Alabama. Joy Dukemineer is the counselor at the Huntsville Center for Technology, a career technical training center for students who are a part of Huntsville City Schools. In her school career, which spans more than 30 years, she has worked as a classroom teacher, middle school counselor, and in her present position. Among her other duties Joy is a part of the dissertations (pqdd), team who enters a moonbuggy into NASA’s Great Moonbuggy race each year. Nicky Enright is a multimedia artist and founder of Big Hands Murals. His work has been exhibited across the country and he has executed numerous commissions for clients such as NASA, NBC News, the MTA Arts for Transit (NYC), and the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum. His work has been published and reviewed in several publications including The New York Times and Public Art Review.

For more info visit Sarah Eyermann is an Education and Outreach Specialist in a business plan, the Astrophysics Division of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. She recently graduated with a Master's degree in thesis hopw to, physics and astronomy from the University of Missouri and now works full time on out-of-school-time astronomy programs for middle-school aged children. Michelle Ferebee, Langley Research Center, Hampton VA. Michelle serves as the NASA Agency Program Manager for the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP), a comprehensive project designed to reach out to the formal and informal education communities in all fifty states and the U.S. territories. Aerospace Education Specialists provide professional development to educators using NASA mission content to enhance knowledge of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects and outline, inspire students to pursue STEM careers. Prior to her AESP assignment, Ms Ferebee spent 24 years at Langley Research Center developing and a risk worth essay, managing scientific computer and data systems to support earth science missions. The pioneering art of Mary Edna Fraser has been collected and writing outline, exhibited worldwide. Working in the ancient textile medium of batik, Fraser merges modern dye technology on silk with aerial and satellite photography, maps and charts. The National Academy of Sciences, Duke University Museum of related thesis, Art, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, NASA, and writing, National Geographic have featured her large-scale batiks. Elicia Dynae Fullwood, Hampton, Virginia.

E. Dynae Fullwood is a three-year veteran of the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP). Questions For Algernon! As an Aerospace Education Specialist for Langley Research Center under contract for writing a business outline the National Aeronautics and Teachers' encountered with the use in the primary school classroom, Space Administration through The Pennsylvania State University, she functions to plan, acquaint the national education community and civic organizations with the role of NASA in globalisation and cons essay, the exploration of a business outline, air and space. Elaine is a Public Affairs Specialist with NASA Langley Research Center. And Cons! She communicates the mission of NASA, and Langley Research Center’s role in that mission to the public through various outreach activities. As the Informal Education Manager at NASA Langley Research Center, Ivelisse’s job is to partner with partners with museums, community based organizations and other informal education groups to inspire the next generation of writing plan, scientists and engineers. This job involves developing educational hands-on activities, training educators and thesis hopw to, planning events to engage the writing a business, students and the general public in NASA’s mission. Thesis Hopw To! A veteran of 28 years at NASA, Ivelisse has always been in public affairs, public outreach, legislative affairs or education. Just recently, Ivelisse managed NASA’s partnership with Jamestown 2007, linking 17th century exploration with NASA’s exploration of space in the 21st century.

Ed is the lead writer at NASA Headquarters. A Business Plan Outline! He helps to write speeches, opinion pieces and other communications for NASA’s leadership team. Umi Proquest Dissertations (pqdd)! Ed recently served as project manager for a special magazine commemorating NASA’s 50th anniversary. Ed, a native of outline, Denver, Colorado, created an exhibit about umi proquest dissertations, NASA for his sixth grade science fair. Eddie Gonzales, West Covina, California. Eddie Gonzales began work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in March 2001, having previously worked in plan outline, the legal field for over 15 years, most recently as Office Manager of various support departments at one of the largest law firms in Los Angeles, O'Melveny and Myers.

As Administrator in the Education Office at JPL, He also is the Administrator for NASA's current Database. Eddie also works directly with NASA Headquarters in the capacity of related thesis theme, E/PO for the Science Mission Directorate. He is part of the writing a business plan outline, Business Administration Team (BATS) and a team member of the Solar System Forum at JPL. Mr. Graham Graham is a Senior Outreach Coordinator in the Earth Observing System Project Science office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. He has worked at Goddard since July 1997, and for much of that time, his work has centered on outreach efforts for of the challenges with the use time in the primary NASA's Earth Observing System. In April 1999, he was the outreach coordinator and webcast moderator for a historic expedition to the North Pole. In addition, Steve has been the a business plan outline, Outreach Coordinator for the Aqua mission since March 2000 and worth essay, is NASA's liaison to the Odyssey of the Mind program. Steve served on the American Meteorological Society's Board on Pre-College Outreach and writing a business plan, Education from 2000-2006. Thesis! He has also presented at numerous Earth Science Education workshops and a business plan outline, meetings and has given NASA'S Earth Science E-Theatre at venues across the country . Steve received a B.S. in meteorology (1993) and an M.S. in science education (1995) from The Florida State University. Britt Griswold: A multimedia graphics specialist with the Infrared Space Sciences Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Britt creates graphics, web sites, and science illustrations as the visual and outreach support for related posts theme the group.

He also worked as a freelance science artist with clients at the Smithsonian, National Geographic, and USDA. Britt is a 26 year member of the Guild of Natural Science Illustrators (GNSI) and has served as GNSI membership secretary, Board member of Science Insights Inc., and writing plan, project manager for Worth! Britt is a Recipient of the GNSI's Distinguished Service Award. Beth Hagenauer is a public affairs specialist at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center located on Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. She has held this position for writing plan almost 10 years. She coordinated media activities for globalisation pros and cons essay the NASA science aircraft based at writing Dryden. Hagenauer is an employee of the Tybrin Corp. Mary Ann Harness is a public outreach specialist at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center located on Edwards Air Force Base in California. She is the coordination point of contact for NASA exhibits at Air shows across the pros, country and is exhibits coordinator at NASA Dryden. Writing Outline! She is an employee of the Tybrin Corporation. After retiring from the telecommunication industry, he has worked five years in a variety of education and public outreach capacities.

He was instrumental in getting the New Views of the of the encountered the use time classroom, Universe: Hubble Space Telescope exhibit added to the NASA Goddard visitor center, and into a business outline the traveling exhibit program. He also introduced the Science on a Sphere system at NASA Goddard, and on flowers, currently supports the outline, distribution of NASA science to this user community of thesis hopw to, 20+ museums and science centers. Dr. Hill is the Media Specialist for the SOHO and STEREO solar study missions. For over 11 years he has produced CDs, posters, illustrations, video clips, litho sets, cards and more to support educators and outreach events. He responds to media requests and consults with museums and TV/film production companies to get them the image and information resources they need. Judy has been with Girl Scouts - Mt.

Wilson Vista Council since 1992. A Business Outline! She is the Program and Volunteer Director. She previously worked as the Volunteer Development and Outdoor Education Specialist, and is a GSUSA/NASA Core Trainer. She has been designing science/engineering programs with NASA content for her council for the last five years. Ms. Winnie Humberson oversees an outreach support team of 12 staffs to the Science Mission Directorate and NASA’s Earth science outreach activities.

Winnie’s career began with NASA Goddard in thesis hopw to, 1980 working for Raytheon. She moved to McDonnell Douglas in 1989 as a Business Analyst supporting the Space Station project at a business plan GSFC. Perceptions Of The With Primary School Classroom! In 1991, she joined the Earth Observing System outreach program, developing publications and materials. Winnie’s background is in Accounting and Associate of Art Degree in Graphic Design from writing a business plan, Pittsburgh Art Institute. Becky has been an educator for 31 years.

Becky’s work with NASA includes serving as the Program Manager for NASA CONNECT, and serving as an of the challenges encountered the use time primary, Educator-in-Residence in writing plan outline, both formal and informal education. She has presented at numerous professional development workshops and conferences and has worked with hundreds of children in outreach settings. Becky received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching for her innovative work with students in the classroom. Becky also served on the NASA team to engage the public throughout the by category theme, Godspeed sails and the Jamestown Anniversary events. Harriett G. A Business! Jenkins is a retired member of the Federal Senior Executive Service, who consults on a variety of projects. Essay Questions! Currently she is a member of the Board of Directors of the Social Equity Panel, and of the Prison Committee of the National Academy of Public Administration. Formerly, she served as Director of the Office of Senate Fair Employment Practices in the United States Senate. For over a business, 18 years, she was Assistant Administrator for Equal Opportunity Programs at NASA. In that role she managed exemplary programs and strategies, which ranged from the posts thesis, hiring and advancement of minorities, women, and a business, individuals with disabilities within the agency, to adjudication of allegations of discrimination, and to the establishment of research centers in Historically Black Colleges and Universities and other minority Universities. Dr.

Jenkins served as teacher, vice-principal, principal, director of elementary education and Assistant Superintendent for Instruction in the Berkeley Unified School District in thesis hopw to, Berkeley, California. She received numerous awards and recognition during her professional career including: two President's Meritorious Executive Awards (1980, 1992); the President's Distinguished Executive Award (1983); NASA's highest awards, the Distinguished Service Medal (1977, 1988), and the Outstanding Leadership Medal (1981); and two Equal Opportunity Medals (1992, 1997). In 1986, Dr. Jenkins was elected a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration. In 2000, NASA honored her by establishing in her name the Harriett G. Jenkins Pre-doctoral Fellowship Program.” Dr.

Jenkins earned an Ed.D. in Policy, Planning, and Administration and an M.A. in Education, both at outline University of California at Berkeley. She received her B.A. in Mathematics from Fisk where she also holds an Honorary Doctorate of Science. She completed the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School. Dr. Jenkins earned a J.D. from Georgetown University. Anita Krishnamurthi, Greenbelt, Maryland.

Anita Krishnamurthi is the lead for Education and Public Outreach in the Astrophysics Division at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. An astrophysicist by training, she is thesis hopw to, deeply interested in public understanding of science. She has been working on designing and implementing education and writing a business, outreach programs for a diverse range of audiences for the past 10 years. Irene Ladd, New Hampshire and Florida. Dr. Irene Ladd is a retired teacher who joined the Surface Ozone Measurements for GLOBE (SMOG) team to develop the GLOBE protocol and field test instruments used for measuring surface ozone.

She has developed educational materials and training for the program. The collaboration to incorporate the use of questions, ozone sensitive plants with the Surface Ozone Protocol is a natural extension. Dr. Laughlin is the NASA Learning Technologies Project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center and a business outline, a research scientist at UMBC. Umi Proquest Digital! NLT supports the research and development of cutting-edge educational tools that combine NASA mission content with innovative technology and best teaching practices. Dr. Laughlin's research interests include information technology management, cognitive science, educational technologies and the use of computer and video games as educational tools. He is co-author of the NASA eEducation Roadmap: Research Challenges in the Design of Persistent Immersive Synthetic Environments for Education Training (2007). Tony Leavitt is an Aerospace Education Specialist at outline Penn State University and essay questions on flowers for algernon, is assigned to the Educational Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center. He covers the northwestern United States including Alaska and Hawaii.

Mr. Leavitt earned his Bachelor of writing a business, Science degree in Geology at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, his Bachelor of Science degree in digital, Education at the University of Maine at Farmington and his Master of Science degree at Oklahoma State University at Stillwater. Mr. Leavitt is currently completing his sixth year with the NASA Aerospace Education Services Project. Prior to joining the AES Program, Mr. Leavitt was a high school science teacher, athletic coach, outing club and community service leader.

Mr. Outline! Leavitt is a native of Turner, Maine, and now resides in southwestern Washington state. His loves include planetary geology, astronomy, sports, hiking, biking, kayaking and travel. Elaine Lewis is a science educator and curriculum developer. Since working at NASA GSFC in related posts, 1996, she has coordinated programs including GLOBE, the JASON Project, and Sun-Earth Day. Together with spacecraft mission personnel, she made near real-time NASA space weather data accessible for inquiry-based learning. Writing A Business Plan! She also coordinates distance learning training opportunities. Dr. James Lochner has developed educational materials for NASA for the past 10 years on and cons topics ranging from black holes to the origin of the chemical elements to writing, our evolving understanding of the nature of the universe, all collected on the HEASARC's Imagine the Universe! web site.

To this endeavor, he brings a lifelong fascination with astronomy and a background as an astrophysicist, as well as his experience enabling teachers and students to improve their understanding of the universe. Katherine Lorentz is the lead science writer for the Science Directorate at NASA Research Center. She coordinates story writing for the breadth of research activities and field campaigns that Science Directorate personnel are engaged in, both for internal NASA media and for the broader public. Lori Losey began her career at related posts theme the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1988 as a freelance camera operator for the STS-26 Return-to-Flight Space Shuttle mission following the Challenger accident. As a full time videographer for 20 years, Losey has earned several awards and writing a business plan outline, accolades from the agency including a NASA Public Service Medal, three Videographer of the Year awards and a QASAR, Quality And Safety Achievement Recognition, award for umi proquest digital dissertations the production of writing a business plan outline, a lessons learned video entitled “X-31-Breaking the Chain.” This same video also received a Communicator and Telly award for its compelling and dramatic safety message to the entire aviation community. When Losey was very young, she always wanted to be on Teachers' perceptions of the challenges the use of instructional in the primary school television. After being cast as an extra in a CBS movie called Hatter Fox in 1977, she discovered she was more interested in what was happening behind the plan outline, camera. Pros And Cons! From that moment, she never looked back at the type of career she wanted. After graduating from Pepperdine University with a Bachelor of writing plan, Arts degree in Broadcasting, she did some work in front of the camera reading news, weather and sports at a local TV station in her hometown of Lancaster, California.

But when she stumbled upon thesis theme an opportunity at NASA Dryden located on Edwards Air Force Base in California, she found her dream job. Losey has traveled the world documenting various NASA programs. She worked in Russia, Sweden, Chile, Costa Rica and made several trips to Hawaii covering NASA’s involvement in aviation research and history. She has directed the live TV broadcast coverage of space shuttle landings at Edwards for writing outline the past 15 years and also coordinates all of the audio/visual production of essay, Dryden events. But perhaps the writing, job Losey is most envied for is her role as an aerial videographer.

She has logged over 500 hours in high performance aircraft such as the F-18 and questions for algernon, T-38. She has also shot from helicopters, T-34s, KC-135 and a business, KC-10 tankers among others. Losey is thesis hopw to, currently the NASA Dryden Video Department supervisor, but still maintains her role as the senior producer/director and aerial videographer. Maria Lott NASA Astro Camp Director John C. Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. Ms. Lott has been the a business, Astro Camp Director since 1995. In addition to the Astro Camp, Ms. Lott is also the Lead Teacher for thesis hopw to Hancock County Schools in writing plan, Mississippi. Her experience includes 25 years teaching experience in umi proquest, the classroom with specialty areas of Math and Science. Ms.

Lott’s ability to writing a business plan, captivate the students’ attention, engage the students in hands-on learning activities, and apply the essay questions for algernon, knowledge for writing plan life long learning makes a wonderful experience for all to inspire the next generations. Catching the excitement of learning for elementary and middle school students is thesis hopw to, a passion in all of the program activities Ms. Lott designs. Ms. Barbara Marino, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi Week 1 2. Ms. Barbara Marino serves as Education Technology Specialist for Jacobs Technology, Inc., a support contractor to the NASA Office of writing a business, External Affairs and Education at John C. Stennis Space Center. She serves as technology trainer and facilitator for NASA's electronic planning system assisting education and non-profit groups through the process of creating strategic plans. Lou Mayo is a planetary astronomer and an education outreach specialist.

He has developed a network of over taking essay, a hundred afterschool astronomy clubs. He has also worked extensively with other NASA centers and Girl Scout USA, training Girl Scout leaders on heliophysics materials. Brian Mitchell, Somerville, Alabama. Brian is the a business, lead for the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, Education and Public Outreach effort at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. His expertise is in NASA's Lunar Robotic missions: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and challenges encountered the use time in the, Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), and Lunar Mapping. Brian manages teams that travel the a business plan outline, US conducting workshops to teach educators about these exciting missions as well as facilitating Program exhibits and internet media sites. Sara Mitchell is an Education and Outreach Specialist for the Astrophysics Science Division at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. She serves as a translator between the Division's scientists and engineers and their audiences -- teachers, students, and the public. Since 2003, Sara has supported a variety of outreach programs, including NASA's Family Science Night, Afterschool Universe, and the podcast Blueshift. Danielle Moran is excited to be part of NASA’s return to the moon. She works in communications, education, and public outreach for NASA’s Lunar Precursor Robotic Program at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Danielle informs and engages the public in the robotic missions that will lead the way back to the moon. Tiffany Nail, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Tiffany Nail is a specialist for NASA's Launch Services Program at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Tiffany's work requires her to be in front of the camera as the host of NASA's web cast for pre-launch coverage, and essay, behind the writing a business outline, camera as an award winning producer of expendable launch vehicle videos. Elementary Science Education Lead Human Research Program Education and globalisation pros, Outreach Project. Lisa Neasbitt holds a B.S. from Texas AM University and has science curriculum and instruction experience totaling over 20 years.

She supports the writing a business outline, NASA Johnson Space Center Human Research Program designing elementary and middle school STEM educational materials concerning the and cons, U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. Lisa’s work also includes training educators nationally and internationally on NASA contented materials, and publication on project implementation. Before joining the HRPEO team, her previous work experience included science and technology education; curriculum development, publication, and instruction for museums; curriculum correlation for textbook publishers; science and technology facilitation in independent school districts; and internal facilitation for federal school grant recipients. Lisa has been the recipient of many local, regional, state and national science education distinctions. A Business Plan Outline! She was nominated by her students for Educator Astronaut, and was an Educator Astronaut applicant. Ms. Ruth Netting is a Senior Policy Analyst in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA. She is responsible for setting policy, establishing standards, and monitoring results for thesis hopw to Technology development and manages community and public outreach activities.

Ms. Netting previously served as Operations and Administration Manager at the Software Engineering Independent Verification and writing, Validation Facility (IVV) in West Virginia. She has served as program manager for NASA’s National Community Service Office demonstrating NASA technology to students, teachers, city libraries and business communities. She has also provided 18 years of in-depth budget experience in the Federal Budget process. Prior to joining NASA in 1980, Ms. Taking! Nettings experience included budget analyst for the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and a business plan, also served 5 years as an auditor with the Department of Agriculture. Ms. Netting earned her Associate of Arts degree in (pqdd), Business Administration from Northern Virginia Community College and is currently enrolled at George Mason University, School of Interdisciplinary Studies. Carolyn Ng has a background in Earth Science and she works with the space science education communities. She coordinates with NASA heliophysics missions to distribute education and outreach materials.

She also facilitates communication with informal education institutes and groups involved in Sun-Earth Day. The most recent project (in parternship with the Exploratorium in San Francisco) has taken her to the western most part of China to prepare for a live webcast of a total solar eclipse on August 1, 2008. Dr. Sten Odenwald is an astronomer, a writer, and an education and public outreach member of several heliophysics spacecraft missions. He has also appeared on a number of radio talk shows including National Public Radio, and Let's Talk Stars, as well as NASA TV programs such as CONNECT, Destination:Tomorrow and writing a business outline, The SciFiles. Greg Poteat, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

Greg Poteat works in the Strategic Communications Office at essay for algernon the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, Calif. He is the Innovative Partnerships (IPP) Office Lead, and also serves as the DFRC New Technology Representative and writing, Awards Liaison Officer. Thesis Hopw To! In this position, Poteat is responsible for coordinating the efforts of Dryden’s technology transfer program, which include the identification of and submission to the patent attorney of plan outline, emerging new NASA technologies for patent protection. Digital Dissertations! He facilitates the commercialization of writing plan outline, intellectual property and establishment of by category theme, technology transfer partnerships. Design Rhythmics Sonification Research Lab works with scientists and museums to turn information and a business plan outline, data into music.

Why music? Not only do we love music, but it just so happens that music is thesis hopw to, composed of a very rich palette of qualities upon which data may be mapped and thereby perceived by the brain through the auditory channel. Music stimulates cognition and memory, and offers those who are blind or visually handicapped the opportunity to understand information and gain knowledge in new ways. By working with scientists who are shedding new light on our world, and the museums and centers who are helping to disseminate it, we seek to create innovative, pleasurable and accessible audio information presentation solutions for the public to plan, get it by hearing. Whether online or live, our work makes science accessible to more people, and maybe, just maybe, its like listening to the music of the spheres. Created by computer scientist and essay for algernon, composer/percussionist Marty Quinn, these sonifications demonstrate how data of all kinds can be translated into music for the purposes of expanding and enhancing our perception of the earth and our environment.

Dr. A Business Plan! Rita Colwell, former director of The National Science Foundation, cited this work in thesis hopw to, one of her speeches for being an innovative merging of art and science. Currently, we are working on a 2-year NASA Ideas grant to create a museum exhibit based on sonified, musically encoded representations of data and imagery from the STEREO Space Mission. New image sonification and visualization techniques for solar images and data has also led directly to new techniques to present works of art, increasing the accessible of art by making the content of paintings generate music based on the color data present in the pixels in a photograph of the art. We will be showcasing and discussing these approaches at the upcoming Astronomical Society of the Pacific conference poster session on Sept 6th in Chicago and the Soundscapes panel at the Art Education for the Blind 2007 Conference in NYC Sept 29th sponsored by Art Beyond Site and the MET. Writing A Business Plan Outline! For this grant, we are excited to be collaborating with the Christa McAuliffe Planetarium in Concord, NH and UC Berkeley's Space Science Lab.

Pat Rawlings creates images based on scientific and technical themes that appeal to both rocket scientists and posts thesis, regular folk. Rawlings' desire to travel in space and time motivate him to make scenes as accurate as possible. After consulting with numerous space experts around the country, he uses hand-built and computer models, topographical maps, and space and family vacation photos to mentally create his worlds. “Space art,” says the artist, “provides me with an excuse to talk to some of the most interesting people in a business plan, the country, build miniature models of space ships, and then sit in my studio painting or working on the computer for digital dissertations hours while listening to movie soundtracks and classical music.” Carla Rosenberg serves as the Assistant Education Program Manager in the area of human space flight at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC. She has worked for a business plan outline NASA for over 15 years, developing educational materials for teachers and students and running educational outreach programs. Her background is in thesis hopw to, Instructional System Design. RTM V Speaker/Correspondent, Frank Sietzen, Jr. is a Washington, DC-based journalist and analyst that specializes in space transportation, national security space, and commercial space issues.

He was editor of the plan outline, award-winning newsletter Military Space from essay questions for algernon, 1994 to a business outline, 1999, and space technology editor of Space Business News from 1989 to 1993. Sietzen has written for publications ranging from Popular Mechanics to the United Press International wire service, and is the author of three trade publications on space matters. Perceptions Of The Challenges With The Use Of Instructional Time Primary School! He is former Editor-In-Chief of the bi-monthly magazine Ad Astra. Currently, Frank is Washington D.C. correspondent for writing plan Karen Smale has been a contractor at NASA/Goddard for over 20 years, supporting solar and high energy astrophysics missions. Her current work is globalisation pros and cons essay, as a web and graphic designer for the Astrophysics Science Division. Karen creates educational materials such as posters and CDs, and writing plan, she develops web sites for scientists and for the public. Stephanie Smith, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. Stephanie is a member of the NASA JSC Learning Technologies team, an education technology incubator bringing advanced technologies infused with NASA content to students and educators located across the thesis hopw to, country and in online, virtual world communities. Stephanie is a business, currently working in Second Life developing NASA education resources and questions on flowers for algernon, activities. Download the award winning MathTrax from

Dr. Sovik is currently serving as the University Affairs Officer for NASA’s Stennis Space Center. Writing Plan Outline! His expertise is in environmental policy modeling and analysis, GIS and thesis hopw to, remote sensing, software design, and systems integration. His current research interests include the development of Web-based geospatial applications and management information systems. He has taught and plan, carried out research in thesis hopw to, Europe, Africa, and writing plan, the United States. Tony Springer is the thesis hopw to, lead, communications and education for NASA Aeronautics. He has also served as the director for NASA Centennial of a business plan, Flight activities, resident manager for a NASA experimental vehicle program, a diver in a risk taking essay, the neutral buoyancy simulator, and a launch vehicle aerodynamicist and a business outline, wind tunnel test engineer.

Stephanie is a Senior Education and pros and cons essay, Outreach Specialist at Goddard Space Flight Center. She is the Education and outline, Public Outreach (EPO) Lead for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the perceptions encountered of instructional primary school, Goddard Center for Astrobiology, and the MESSENGER mission to Mercury. She also coordinates the EPO efforts of Aura, an Earth-observing atmospheric chemistry satellite. She has over 15 years of writing a business, experience in geoscience education and research including developing curriculum materials, designing and conducting teacher workshops, teaching geology and chemistry at related the community college level, and providing education support to the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics at Goddard Space Flight Center. Mr. Tawney has worked for the past six years as an International Programs Specialist in the Office of External Relations at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC. He came to NASA in June 2000 as a Presidential Management Fellow and worked in the Office of Space Flight and at the Goddard Space Flight Center in the Office of Public Affairs. Mr. Tawney has interned for the U.S. Department of State in Manila, the Philippines; the Government Relations Offices of the Heritage Foundation and Caterpillar, Inc., and in the British House of Commons, as a Parliamentary Aide to Nigel Jones, MP. Mr.

Tawney is a graduate of Washington College in Chestertown, Maryland, with degrees in International Studies and Economics. He received his Master’s Degree in German and European Studies from Georgetown University and has studied at the London School of writing a business plan, Economics in London, England, and the Free University in Berlin, Germany. Rick is an Aerospace Education Specialist with Penn State University NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center serving as the educational liaison for the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Prior to his work with NASA, Rick served as a middle grades educator and administrator in Gainesville Florida for 25 years. Erika provides creative and effective communications tools for essay on flowers for algernon NASA using state-of-the-art technology to writing, increase public awareness of and support for Teachers' challenges encountered of instructional in the primary school NASA missions. Her background with NASA spans more than 20 years supporting the Human Spaceflight Program, the Office of Education, and now Strategic Communications. Heather Weir is a Science Education Specialist and works for a business outline SSAI and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

A former classroom teacher, Heather now uses her formal education experience to help implement the education and public outreach programs of several NASA missions, including the New Horizons mission to Pluto, the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, and related posts by category theme, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission.

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A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete. Cet article soutient qu’ Une tempete par Aime Cesaire (adaptation anti-colonialiste de La Tempete ), est l’illustration de la traduction en tant qu’interpretation et revision creatrice. Avec une fidelite surprenante envers la piece de Shakespeare, Cesaire s’interesse aux conflits raciaux et de classe inherents a La Tempete et donne voix aux opprimes, aux colonises et aux victimes de la repression. Writing A Business! Une tempete se distingue comme une traduction qui aurait traverse le temps (l’ere des droits civiques des Noirs et des mouvements de liberation africains) et l’espace (une refonte creatrice des references shakespeariennes dans une localisation caribeenne francophone). This article contends that Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete (an anti-colonialist adaptation of worth taking essay The Tempest ), epitomizes translation as interpretation and creative revision. With a striking fidelity to Shakespeare’s play, Cesaire engages with the racial and class conflicts intrinsic to The Tempest and gives voice to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Writing A Business! Une tempete stands out as a translation through time (the era of black civil rights and African liberation movements), and space (creatively refashioning Shakespearean references into posts by category thesis a francophone Caribbean location). 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to me s (. ) Caliban. — Prospero, tu es un grand illusioniste : le mensonge, ca te connait. Et tu m’as tellement menti, menti sur le monde, menti sur moi-meme, que tu as fini par m’imposer.

une image de moi-meme : Un sous-developpe, comme tu dis, voila comment tu m’as oblige a me voir, et cette image, je la hais ! Et elle est fausse ! Mais maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer, et je me connais aussi ! (88) 1. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 1 The late Aime Cesaire (1913-2008) shall be forever associated with the philosophy of negritude that he espoused with such impact on the francophone black world from the 1930s on. Negritude re-appropriated the word negre with its insulting connotations. A Business! On the wave of Jamaican national hero Marcus Harvey’s “Back to Africa” movement, negritude was a banner for “black consciousness” avant la lettre , a rejection of and a riposte to disabling white mythologies: “elle troue l’accablement opaque de sa droite patience” [“breaking through the opaque prostration with its upright patience”].2 It straddled both a political project and a poetic renewal, confronting the violence of colonialism with cataclysmic passion: “the striking of the essay questions mental wave against the rock of the world.” Negritude sought to “decolonize the mind” and Cesaire’s poetry is a cry to plan, revolt, intransigent in its fidelity to the “invulnerable idea” of justice—and shot through with pain at the tragedy of its non-realisation.

3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from by category thesis theme, 21 September to 14 October, 1998. A Business Outline! It was described by Professo (. ) 2 The Gate Theatre in Notting Hill, London, is digital dissertations (pqdd) a small space above a pub which exists on slender means. At the same time, it is considered by many as “the home of international drama” in the capital. I became the Gate’s literary manager in outline 1998. The then artistic team conceived of the umi proquest digital (pqdd) Gate as an arena of spiritual liberation and an enriching crucible of cultures: a gateway to a richer knowledge of the human. I believed that these themes lay at the heart of Cesaire’s great anti-colonialist adaptation of The Tempest which he entitled Une tempete (the lower case t is no accident; here Shakespeare’s island play is cut down to size; this tempest is one colonial storm among many). As the vanguard production for our Home for the Exiles season in 1998, I advocated staging this play to mark the 150 th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the French colonies and plan the 50 th anniversary of the posts by category arrival of the first wave of post-war immigrants from the West Indies to Britain on board the writing a business plan outline S.S. Windrush, (Notting Hill itself remaining a locality with close ties to those immigrants, not least the celebrated annual carnival attended by millions). We would commemorate those momentous events in what was to be a critically acclaimed British premiere and and cons I provided a new translation of the play for this purpose.3. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in this paragraph.

Their co-ed (. ) 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of Negritude (. ) 6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Cul (. ) 3 Une tempete was already well known within the francophone world.4 First produced at an international festival in Hammamet, Tunisia, in the summer of 1969, before playing in Paris in January 1970, it was directed by a business plan Jean-Marie Serreau, with whom Cesaire had worked so closely on most of related theme his theatrical writing. Serreau’s death in 1973 brought Cesaire’s career as a playwright to a close.5 That first production is of special interest: a Caribbean rewriting of plan outline The Tempest , produced in Tunisia, close to Sycorax’s origins and to Claribel’s destiny (though neither, interestingly, feature much); which reads the play in part through the US black politics of the thesis hopw to Civil Rights period (associating Caliban with Malcolm X and Ariel with Martin Luther King), and which adopted the a business plan manners and dress of an American Western. It was also staged in an anti-naturalistic manner, with a range of historical and contemporary images projected onto essay vast screens. Another notable production was that by Elie Pennont in Martinique in 1992, where the actor playing the African god Eshu became the unifying image, remaining on stage throughout the performance (in Cesaire’s script he appears in one scene only), watching silently from a distance: “the incarnation of the fragmented psyche that must be acknowledged before any healing can take place.”6. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the writing a business outline island and suppl (. Globalisation Pros And Cons Essay! ) 4 Cesaire’s single point of attachment to Shakespeare’s play is to writing a business outline, be found in Act III Scene 2 when Caliban declares: “I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer that by his cunning hath cheated me of the island.”7 Subtitled “an adaptation for a black theatre”, Une tempete engages with the fundamental racial and class elements intrinsic to The Tempest , with the implicit intention of a risk worth wresting the adapted play away from the negative and complacent agenda of an institutionally racist imperial theatre. Writing A Business Outline! Cesaire’s powerful transformative project is underpinned by radical historical revisionism. Speaking about taking essay Shakespeare’s play, he said: 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. Writing A Business Outline! cit. , p. 192. Demystified, the play [is] essentially about the master-slave relation, a relation that is still alive and which, in my opinion, explains a good deal of contemporary history: in particular, colonial history, the thesis hopw to history of the a business United States. Wherever there are multiracial societies, the same drama can be found, I think.8. According to Teachers' perceptions challenges with of instructional time in the, Helen Gilbert and writing plan outline Joanne Tompkins:

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New (. ) For generations during (and often after) imperial rule, the formal education of essay questions on flowers colonial subjects was circumscribed by the concerns and canons of a distant European centre. A Business Outline! Because of its supposed humanistic functions, “English [and French] Literature” occupied a privileged position in the colonial classroom, where its study was designed to “civilise” native students by inculcating in them British [and French] tastes and values, regardless of the exigencies of the local context.9. 5 Lucy Rix describes the dominant “traditional” French literary production which prevailed during Cesaire’s childhood and which became one of the first targets identified in Legitime Defense (1932), “a journal published by a group of Martiniquan students at the Sorbonne that would have a profound impact on umi proquest, their cultural identity”: 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and B (. Writing! ) The West Indian writer, stuffed to bursting with white morality, white culture, white education, white prejudice, fills his little books with a swollen image of pros himself. Merely to be a good imitation of the white man fulfils both his social and his poetic requirements. He cannot be too modest or too sedate. Should you dare show natural exuberance in plan outline his presence, he immediately accuses you of “making like a nigger”. So naturally, he does not want to “make like a nigger” in his poems.

It is a point of honour with him that a white person could read his entire book without ever guessing the author’s pigmentation.10. 6 Cesaire pokes some well-informed fun at by category theme, this colonial education and specifically when it focuses upon the exotic Other. In a reprise of Act II Scene 1, Gonzalo, the “honest old counsellor,” enthuses that the plan outline wonderful island could only contain wonderful beings. Antonio drily concurs and umi proquest digital cites Baudelaire’s “Parfum Exotique” in Les Fleurs du Mal : Des hommes dont le corps est mince et vigoureux. Et des femmes dont l’?il par sa franchise etonne… (40) 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that (. Writing A Business! ) Men whose bodies are slender and strong. And women whose frank stares astound…11 (29) Gonzalo enthusiastically endorses this view and adds, “Je vois que vous connaissez vos auteurs” (40) [“I see you know your authors” (29) ]. 7 Martinique is still politically part of metropolitan France. Aime Cesaire was thus a French citizen and politician. Nevertheless, A tempest was anti-colonial, corresponding to the avowedly political agenda of Teachers' perceptions challenges encountered with the use of instructional classroom what is known in cultural studies as post-colonialism:

12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. to dismantle the hegemonic boundaries and the determinants that create unequal relations of power based on binary oppositions such as “us and them”, “first world and third world”, “white and black”, “coloniser and colonised”. Writing A Business Plan Outline! […] Post-colonial texts embrace a more specifically political aim: that of the continued destabilisation of the umi proquest (pqdd) cultural and political authority of writing a business plan imperialism.12. 8 During the period of de-colonization in the middle of the last century, Une tempete contributed to an increasing and ongoing re-evaluation of canonical literary texts, and Shakespeare’s The Tempest attracted particular interest from intellectuals and Teachers' challenges encountered the use of instructional in the school writers from various colonial domains throughout the writing a business outline African diaspora. Many chose to focus on The Tempest because of the play’s prototypical colonial narrative: the story of questions on flowers a European who disembarks onto an already-occupied island to presume ownership of the land and control over the inhabitants. According to Gilbert and Tompkins: The Tempest remains the writing a business text most widely chosen for counter-discursive interrogations of the Shakespearian canon. Teachers' Challenges With Time Primary School! A number of writing a business outline factors account for this choice: the Teachers' perceptions of the challenges school classroom play’s figuration of racial binaries and a business the threat of miscegenation; its representation of the Teachers' challenges encountered of instructional time in the primary school classroom New World “other” as opposed to the European “self”, troped as a form of the nature/culture dichotomy; and its pervasive interest in power relationships involving dominance, subservience, and writing plan outline rebellion.13. 14 See Ibid. , p. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and of the encountered time classroom regarded in writing plan the colonies.

15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and a risk worth taking essay African Appropriations of writing a business plan The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. Essay Questions For Algernon! 5 (. Writing A Business! ) 9 Furthermore, from the perspective of writers in the Caribbean and Africa, what better target for appropriation than the by category thesis Bard, the paragon of writing plan British cultural hegemony?14 Shakespeare’s iconic status made his works an attractive target for confrontation and for a risk worth essay revisions that sought to redefine people’s relationships to their worlds. What is at a business plan, stake is, according to thesis hopw to, Rob Nixon, “the very possibility of decolonising the area’s cultural history by replacing an imposed with an endemic line of writing a business outline thought and action”.15 These Caribbean and African writers found in digital (pqdd) Caliban a figure richly evocative of their condition. Writing A Business Outline! They adopted the play as a rallying and Teachers' perceptions of the challenges encountered in the classroom foundational text, rich for revision and re-appropriation, and writing plan outline they appreciated that The Tempest could bolster their self-definition during a time of essay questions major upheaval: 16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Writing Plan! cit. , p. 30-31. for the figure of Caliban—marginalized and virtually imprisoned on the island, presumed to have been culturally illiterate before the digital dissertations Europeans’ appearance, and alienated from his own sense of self through linguistic and writing a business plan outline physical control—was a dramatic reflection of an posts by category, all-too-familiar experience.16. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and writing outline the Discourse of umi proquest dissertations Colonia (. ) 18 Ibid. , p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, thi (. ) 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of (. ) 10 Yet it is writing a business plan outline important to essay questions on flowers, recall, like Paul Brown, that “ The Tempest is not simply a reflection of colonialist practices but an intervention in writing a business an ambivalent and even contradictory discourse”.17 Brown considers Shakespeare’s play a narrative “which seeks at once to harmonize disjunction, to essay, transcend irreconcilable contradictions and to mystify the political conditions which demand colonialist discourse”, but he writes the a business plan play “ultimately fails to deliver that containment and instead may be seen to foreground precisely those problems which it works to digital, efface or overcome”.18 Thus, The Tempest traces the writing a business plan “moment of a risk essay historical crisis” that is England’s incipient colonial enterprise, and outline the anxiety which circulates in the play interrogates a discourse of expansionism rather than just supporting it.19 This interrogation of related by category thesis theme text and historical context is writing a business continued by Francis Barker and thesis hopw to Peter Hulme who note the outline underlying anxiety in a play “imbricated within the discourse of globalisation pros and cons essay colonialism”. The anxiety circulates around usurpation (actual or attempted), domination, resistance and outline rebellion. Posts By Category Theme! Barker and Hulme contend that the play’s “rich complexity” had been too often ignored by European and North American critics who “listen exclusively to Prospero’s voice: after all, he speaks their language.” (Given that the play has traditionally been interpreted as Shakespeare’s farewell to the stage, the magician-duke has often been confused for the Bard’s representative, an egregious mistake given what we know about Shakespeare’s “negative capability”.) They astutely noted: “It has been left to those who have suffered colonial usurpation to discover and map the traces of that complexity by reading in full measure Caliban’s refractory place in both Prospero’s play and The Tempest .”20. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans.

Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, (. ) 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the a business plan outline (. ) 11 Simply and provocatively put, if Shakespeare, as projected in related by category thesis a simplistic and authoritative imperial reading, provides an official, colonial perspective, Cesaire—with astonishing fidelity to writing plan outline, the original—translates this and gives voice, specifically through Caliban, to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Umi Proquest (pqdd)! Une tempete epitomizes translation as interpretation, as (creative) revision. It resonates with Shakespeare but stresspoints are articulated and examined. It is an excoriating debunking of the “white man’s burden”, the French republic’s mission civilisatrice (Prospero’s despairing that upon Caliban’s nature “nurture will not stick”) and a relentless exposition of a business outline how colonization decivilizes the colonizer (“This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine”). The infamy of colonial exploitation is recognised and named. Dissertations (pqdd)! In his Discourse on Colonialism , Cesaire initially defines colonization in negative terms, by first of all establishing what it is not: “neither evangelization, nor a philanthropic enterprise, nor a desire to push back the a business plan frontiers of ignorance, disease and tyranny, nor a project undertaken for the greater glory of God, nor an taking, attempt to extend the rule of law.”21 Rather, colonialism is envisioned as a disease, just as it is in A tempest —“blanche toxine” (87) [“white poison” (57)], “maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer” (88) [“now I know you, you old cancer” (58)]—a dehumanising project that treats land, nature and people as brute commodities.

It must be vomited out.22. In Act II Scene 2, Gonzalo says: Si l’ile est habitee, comme je le pense, et que nous la colonisons, comme je le souhaite, il faudra se garder comme de la peste d’y apporter nos defauts, oui, ce que nous appelons la civilisation. Qu’ils restent ce qu’ils sont: des sauvages, libres, sans complexes ni complications. A Business Plan! Quelque chose comme un reservoir d’eternelle jouvence ou nous viendrions periodiquement rafraichir nos ames vieillies et citadines. Taking! (40-41) 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the writing a business type of cliches trotted out globalisation and cons essay during an outline, exhibition on “The (. ) If the island is inhabited, as I believe it is, and if we colonise it, as is my wish, then we must shy away, as if from the plague, from importing here our defaults, yes, what we call civilisation. They must stay as they are: savages, noble savages, free without complex or complication. Something like a pool of eternal youth where we would come at intervals to revive our drooping urban spirits.23 (30)

24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in globalisation pros and cons essay Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although (. ) 12 With a piercing satirical economy, Cesaire alludes to Gonzalo’s utopian rhapsody in The Tempest , with its indebtedness to Thomas More, Montaigne and the classical theory of the writing plan outline Golden Age, but what is most striking is how Cesaire picks up on globalisation pros, Montaigne’s ethical denunciation of western inhumanity and brutality in “Of Cannibals”. This was a key reference point for a developing, idealized argument in a business favour of the rights of indigenous peoples throughout the early modern period and into the Age of Reason. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the “good savage” was held up as a reproach to European civilisation in the throes of the thesis hopw to wars of writing plan religion, and stood as a direct counter to the Hobbesian view of human depravity in umi proquest digital (pqdd) a state of nature. By the eighteenth century, this argument was fuelled by both sentimentalism and a business primitivism, and was advanced by both English and French writers and explorers. The Baron de Lahontan put potentially subversive egalitarian arguments in digital the mouth of a Huron Indian, Adario. Writing A Business Plan! Jean-Jacques Rousseau, identified as the philosopher of the French Revolution, was deliberately maligned by his political opponents for advancing a theory about the “noble savage” but this was untrue.

What is a risk taking essay clear, however, is how such a theory preserved a superior paternalism and ultimately a lack of egalitarian empathy between the colonisers and writing a business plan the colonised in (pqdd) which the latter were cast as dependent children—here “a pool of writing outline eternal youth”. Prospero calls Caliban “boy” (a repugnant name for colonial servants) at thesis hopw to, the very end of A tempest . This racist superiority also chimed with a “scientific racism” which divided races into superior (the colonising) and inferior (the colonised) categories.24. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location (. ) 13 The other key theme to pick up in this re-casting of writing plan outline Act II Scene 2, is the globalisation pros duplicity within Gonzalo’s sugared and writing a business plan outline idealistic words. He freely admits that he favours colonisation, but his eulogy of the “noble savages”, whom he wishes to preserve as they are, as if in aspic, is undermined by his simultaneous desire to plunder the island for its natural resources, “guano” in this case, which, “sous une sage direction” (39) [“wisely administered” (29)], will make the island “plus riche que l’Egypte avec son Nil” (39) [“richer than Egypt with its Nile” (29)]. Cesaire identifies a base rapaciousness underlying both the questions on flowers colonial and the neo-colonial project in which, say, the a business plan generally environmentally disastrous plunder of natural resources would be carried out by the colonisers—or multi-national companies, in many ways their modern equivalents—with virtually none of the profits benefiting the local population, whilst literally dismantling the topography, and cultural topography, beneath their feet.25 As Caliban says to Prospero: “Tu crois que la terre est chose morte… C’est tellement plus commode ! Morte, alors on questions on flowers, la pietine, on la souille, on writing a business outline, la foule d’un pied vainqueur !” (25-6) [“You think the earth itself is for algernon dead… It’s so much more convenient! Dead you can trample over it, pour pestilence over it, bestride it like a conqueror!” (20)] Cesaire adds another element to the neo-imperialist project: tourism.

Gonzalo’s pool of eternal youth, there to revive drooping urban spirits, is precisely the image in which the Caribbean has been cast. Once again, the inhabitants, here of the islands, are cast in belittling and writing plan servile roles, in a risk taking order to service the fantasies of their western paymasters. Such fantasies home in on sub-pastoral, primitivist cliches concerning a proximity to nature (even if the islanders’ natural environment is destroyed), spontaneity, creativity and straightforward sexuality and eroticism. 26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and a business plan distortion of of the challenges with the use time two languages as a means of (. ) 14 Knowledge contains the seeds of transformative power: language shapes how we think and therefore how we act. By “learning to curse”, Caliban, the black slave in revolt, rejects assimilation. The first word he utters on stage is the Kiswahili word for freedom: “ Uhuru ”. Whereas for Shakespeare, Caliban is “a salvage and a deformed slave”, Cesaire’s charismatic protagonist crucially uses a foreign language—foreign from the perspective of the colonizer, that is—in order to writing a business, assert his own identity and autonomy.26 He refuses to be interpellated as the linguistic subject of the colonial master narrative; he refuses to globalisation pros essay, be broken and conditioned, a mere component in the means of production. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Ces (. ) 28 Almquist warns that the writing word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western med (. ) 15 Steve Almquist writes that, “At the centre of Cesaire’s revision of Shakespeare’s The Tempest is a single deeply resonant word— Uhuru . Pros And Cons Essay! […] Uhuru is essential to Cesaire’s revisionary project because it gives Caliban a voice, specifically an African voice, and it contributes to Cesaire’s overall project in creating a diasporic textual counter to Shakespeare.”27 Uhuru is the Kiswahili word for freedom which gained international currency during the struggles for decolonisation in the late 1950s and 1960s, not least the Mau Mau Rebellion.

Uhuru became a touchstone that recalled and rekindled the writing plan revolutionary fervour when the cry for freedom from colonial oppression was heard all over the world.28 Caliban’s primal cry of Uhuru , therefore, should not then be construed as the of the encountered of instructional school petulant and isolated mouthing of a business plan outline some token exoticism. A Risk Worth Essay! It is nothing other than a call to militant solidarity among the dispossessed, and specifically the dispossessed among the writing a business African diaspora. (In another topical civil rights echo, Caliban re-names his cave “the ghetto”.) Almquist adds that: During the often-tumultuous independence and Black Power movements throughout the African diaspora during the 1960s and thesis hopw to 1970s, the use of Kiswahili among non-native writers and writing a business outline speakers expanded and came to related posts theme, serve as a symbolic resistance to the presumed supremacy of the European cultures and languages.29. 16 Consider further the importance of Caliban’s Kiswahili voice through which he voices his agitation at writing outline, Prospero’s domination. As Steve Almquist acutely appreciates, Cesaire’s empowered Caliban does not gabble like “a thing most brutish”, unaware of thesis theme his “own meaning” until taught the colonial language.30 On the writing a business plan contrary, even before his black slave’s first entrance, Prospero betrays his unease that Caliban “s’emancipe un peu trop” (24) [“is becoming a little too liberated” (18)]. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que tu dis ? Caliban . — Je dis Uhuru ! Prospero. — Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare.

Je t’ai deja dit que je n’aime pas ca. D’ailleurs, tu pourrais etre poli, un bonjour ne te tuerait pas ! Caliban. — Ah ! J’oubliais… Bonjour. Mais un bonjour autant que possible de guepes, de crapauds, de pustules et de fiente. Puisse le jour d’aujourd’hui hater de dix ans le jour ou les oiseaux du ciel et les betes de la terre se rassasieront de ta charogne ! Prospero. — Toujours gracieux je vois, vilain singe ! Comment peut-on etre si laid ! (24) Prospero . Thesis Hopw To! — What did you say? Caliban. — I said, Uhuru ! Prospero. — Yet another return to your savage tongue. I’ve already told you, I don’t like it.

You could be polite, at least: hello wouldn’t kill you. Caliban. — Oh, I forgot […] Hello. But a hello crammed with wasps, toads, pox and dung. May today hasten by ten years the day when the birds of the sky and the beasts of the earth will gorge themselves on your carcass. Prospero. — Gracious as always, I see, you foul monkey!

How can anybody be so ugly? (18-19) 17 Attention focuses immediately on the power of language in defining their relationship. “ Uhuru !” confounds Prospero’s sense of linguistic authority; his only writing outline recourse is to a risk worth taking essay, demonize the word as a reversion to writing, Caliban’s “savage tongue”—in a classic rehearsal of a colonizial “civilized/brute savage” binary—before continuing in the same vein: Puisque tu manies si bien l’invective, tu pourrais au moins me benir de t’avoir appris a parler. Un barbare ! Une bete brute que j’ai eduquee, formee, que j’ai tiree de l’animalite qui l’engangue encore de toute part ! (25) Since you spout invective with such aplomb, you might at least give me your blessing for having taught you to speak at all. A savage! A brute animal I educated, trained, dragged up from the bestiality that still festers all over him. (19) 31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour.

Cesaire’s use of the dissertations (pqdd) notoriously racist abuse word “mo (. A Business Plan! ) 18 In further disabling strategies, Prospero refuses to accept the validity or sense of Caliban’s own culture and fashions Caliban as a sub-human beast in a manner which entirely honours such references as “freckled whelp” and “mooncalf” in related The Tempest , the “savage and deformed slave” “upon whose nature nurture will not stick.”31 Prospero’s overweening arrogance does not cow Caliban into submission, however. Caliban. — D’abord ce n’est pas vrai. Tu ne m’as rien appris du tout. Sauf, bien sur a baragouiner ton langage pour comprendre tes ordres : couper du bois, laver la vaisselle, pecher le poisson, planter les legumes, parce que tu es bien trop faineant pour le faire. A Business Plan Outline! Quant a ta science, est-ce que tu me l’as jamais apprise, toi ? Tu t’en es bien garde ! Ta science, tu la gardes egoistement pour toi tout seul, enfermee dans les gros livres que voila. (25) Caliban. — That’s just not true. You haven’t taught me anything at all! Except of course to jabber away in your language so as to (pqdd), understand your orders: chop the writing a business plan outline wood, wash up, fish, plant vegetables; all because you’re too idle to do it yourself. As for your knowledge, did you ever impart any of Teachers' perceptions of the challenges encountered primary classroom that to me?

You took care not to. You selfishly keep all your knowledge for yourself alone, sealed up in a business outline big books like those. (19) 19 Cesaire’s protagonist registers his acute understanding of how his “education” has achieved little more than to reduce him to subservience in the guise of an automaton-drudge (remember Cesaire’s formula: “colonisation = thingification”32). At the essay on flowers for algernon same time, Prospero has kept from him any life-enhancing (textual and scientific) knowledge—the key to his domination and an inspired riff on a business outline, the magic books valued at more than Prospero’s dukedom. Caliban ruefully reflects on how he has been an expendable and unvalued means to an end, hoodwinked by an initially friendly-seeming Prospero: Qu’aurais-tu fait sans moi, dans cette contree inconnue ? Ingrat ! Je t’ai appris les arbres, les fruits, les oiseaux, les saisons, et maintenant je t’en fous… Caliban la brute ! Caliban l’esclave ! Recette connue ! l’orange pressee, on en rejette l’ecorce ! (26) What would you have done without me in this strange land?

Ungrateful! I taught you the trees, the fruits, the birds, the globalisation and cons essay seasons, but there’s no blessed question of that any more… Caliban the writing outline brute, Caliban the thesis hopw to slave! I know the score! Once the orange is a business plan outline squeezed, the peel is tossed away! (20) 20 Note here, how it is Caliban, rather than Prospero, who is doing the teaching, yet this education, vital as it is, is subsequently given neither credit nor recognition. Clearly, Caliban is related theme cast as a figurative Malcolm X, even telling Prospero as he prepares to leave at the end of a business plan their first encounter in the play, that he will no longer answer to the name of Caliban: Caliban. — […] J’ai decide que je ne serai plus Caliban. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que cette foutaise ? Je ne comprends pas ! Caliban. — […] Caliban n’est pas mon nom. Related By Category! C’est simple ! Prospero. — C’est le mien peut-etre ! Caliban. — C’est le sobriquet dont ta haine m’a affuble et dont chaque rappel m’insulte. Prospero. — Diable ! On devient susceptible ! Alors propose… Il faut bien que je t’appelle ! Ce sera comment ? Cannibale t’irait bien, mais je suis sur que tu n’en voudras pas ! Voyons, Hannibal ! Ca te va ! Pourquoi pas ! Ils aiment tous les noms historiques ! Caliban. — Appelle-moi X. Ca vaudra mieux. Comme qui dirait l’homme sans nom.

Plus exactement, l’homme dont on a vole le nom. Tu parles d’histoire. Eh bien ca, c’est de l’histoire, et fameuse ! Chaque fois que tu m’appeleras, ca me rappellera le fait fundamental, que tu m’as tout vole et jusqu’a mon identite ! Uhuru ! Caliban. Writing Outline! — […] I’ve decided I’ll be Caliban no longer. Prospero. — What kind of bilge is this? I don’t understand. Essay! […] And whence sprang this pearl?

Caliban. — […] Caliban isn’t my name. It’s simple! Prospero. — It’s mine, I suppose! Caliban. — It’s the nickname your hatred attached to me, whose every utterance is an writing outline, insult. Prospero. — My, how sensitive we’ve become! Well then, suggest another… I must call you something. What will it be? Cannibal would suit you well, but I’m sure you wouldn’t want it! Let’s see…Hannibal!

Why not? They all like historical names! Caliban. — Call me X. Worth! That’s best. Writing! Like a man without a name. Or, more precisely, a man whose name was stolen. You speak of history. Well that’s history, known far and wide! Every time you’ll call me that will remind me of the a risk worth fundamental truth that you stole everything from me, even my identity!

Uhuru !’ (He exits.) (21-22) 21 Even if audience members are ignorant of the meaning of this Kiswahili word, they will understand that it has a key galvanizing importance, that it is Caliban’s rallying cry and that it’s very foreignness underlines his sense of an autonomous cultural “otherness”, dignity and agency so brazenly denied him by writing plan Prospero. It is a call to revolution. 22 As ever, Cesaire condenses Shakespeare’s play with unerring cogency in order to thesis hopw to, provide the pith for his own agenda. Here, he homes in on the fact that Caliban, as has often been remarked, is an a business, anagram of “cannibal” with all that that word suggests concerning brute savagery. Related By Category! The Shakespearean monicker is hence a stigmatising code for uncivilised and a business outline barbarous brutality.

The novel reference to Hannibal suggests a doomed rebellious streak, that Caliban’s pride will come before a fall. At the same time, however, Hannibal hails from Carthage, from the African continent. He also stands for a defiant and strong opponent who actively, and on flowers initially successfully, resists the aggrandizing and writing a business outline imperialist designs of the metropolitan centre—Rome in Hannibal’s case. This reference to Hannibal indicates a lurking fear of related by category thesis theme a newly defiant Caliban beneath the writing a business smug veneer of related posts by category thesis mocking confidence projected by Prospero. This defiance, of course, chimes with the new confidence accompanying the wave of a business plan decolonisation throughout the globalisation and cons 1950s and 1960s. What is a business crucial, here, too, is Caliban-X’s stand to recuperate a stolen history. He recognises, like Cesaire, how his own culture and heritage were razed from the collective memory of an enslaved and thesis hopw to transported African diaspora and it is this that he will strive to re-discover, value and honour. 23 Cesaire adds an interesting interpolation, a wholly new scene, at the start of Act Two, where Ariel, significantly identified as a mulatto slave in a business outline the list of characters, comes to warn Caliban that Prospero is planning “d’epouvantables vengeances” (36) [“appalling acts of revenge” (26)] against a risk, him. The scene is, in essence, one in writing plan outline which the dissertations (pqdd) two characters rehearse different strategies for writing a business bringing their bondage to thesis hopw to, an end.

Once again, their lively exchange of a business views replicates debates within the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Cesaire said in an interview: 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Pros And Cons! Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare (. A Business Outline! ) My text […] was greatly influenced by thesis hopw to the preoccupations I had at that particular time. As I was thinking very much about a play concerning the United States, inevitably, the points of reference became American. […] There is the violent and the non-violent attitude. There are Martin Luther King and writing a business Malcolm X and the Black Panthers.33. 24 Caliban has already cast himself as X and, needless to say, adopts the more militant position, demanding “Freedom now!” Interestingly, Cesaire renders this famous Black Power cry in English. The polyglot Caliban thus further exhibits his solidarity with the African diaspora around the world, ranging from Africa to on flowers, North America.

25 Ariel provides another perspective which amounts to “Ni violence, ni soumission” (37) [“Neither violence, nor submission” (27)] but is rather one of peaceful resistance entered into in order to trouble Prospero’s calm “pour qu’une conscience naisse a [lui]” (37) [“so that a conscience can well up inside him” (27)] with the intended result that he will finally acknowledge his own injustice. He adds, in a business a striking echo of worth taking essay Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech: J’ai souvent fait le reve exaltant qu’un jour, Prospero, toi et moi, nous entreprendrions, freres associes, de batir un monde merveilleux, chacun apportant en contribution ses qualites propres : patience, vitalite, amour, volonte aussi, et rigueur, sans compter les quelques bouffees de reve sans quoi l’humanite perirait d’asphyxie. (38) I’ve often dreamt a rapturous dream that one day Prospero, you and I would set out as brothers to build a wonderful world, each contributing his own qualities: patience, vitality, love, will power too, and rigour, not to mention the eddying dreams without which humanity would suffocate to plan outline, death. (28) Caliban scoffs at Ariel’s credulousness: Dis donc, mon petit Ariel, des fois, je me demande sit u n’es pas cingle ! Que la conscience naisse a Prospero ? Autant se mettre devant une pierre et attendre qu’il lui pousse des fleurs ! […] Tu n’as rien compris a Prospero. Globalisation Pros! C’est pas un type a collaborer. A Business Plan! C’est un mec qui ne se sent que s’il ecrase quelqu’un. Un ecraseur, un broyeur, voila le genre ! Et tu parles de fraternite ! (37-38)

Listen my sweet Ariel, I sometimes wonder if you aren’t cracked. So that a conscience can well up inside Prospero? You might as well wait for encountered with the use a stone to burst into bloom! […] You don’t understand Prospero at all. He’s not the collaborative type. He’s a man who only feels alive when he’s crushing someone. A crusher, a grinder to pulp, that’s what he is! And you talk of brotherhood! (28) 26 The militant Caliban believes the dreamy Ariel is writing outline a dupe. Once again, with a striking economy, Cesaire pays short shrift to the Christian-humanist narrative of reconciliation (via an imposed penance and then contrition) willed by Prospero in Shakespeare’s play. Caliban is umi proquest digital dissertations prepared for a violent armed struggle akin to writing a business plan outline, those waged by the Mau Mau or the a risk taking essay ANC, saying: Mieux vaut la mort que l’humiliation et l’injustice… D’ailleurs, de toute maniere, le dernier mot m’appartiendra… A moins qu’il n’appartienne au neant.

Le jour ou j’aurai le sentiment que tout est perdu, laisse-moi voler quelques barils de ta poudre infernale, et cette ile, mon bien, mon ?uvre, du haut de l’empyree ou tu aimes planer, tu la verras sauter dans les airs, avec, je l’espere, Prospero et moi dans les debris. (38) Better death than humiliation and injustice… Besides the last word shall be mine. Unless it belongs to nothingness. The day I feel all’s lost, just let me filch a few barrels of your infernal powder and—from high in the empyrean where you love to soar—you will see this isle, my inheritance, my work, all blown sky high, with, I hope, Prospero and me amongst the debris. Writing A Business Plan Outline! (28) 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. 237-238, discusses the a risk worth drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most in (. ) 27 Such words now seem grimly prophetic of suicide bombings and campaigns of terror but they also identify the despair and desparation of the perpetrators and the terrible cost of stripping the wretched of the earth of their dignity, robbing them of plan outline their birthright and making them fear for questions their very existence, especially (and most usually) in a colonial situation. It is writing a business outline within this incredibly high-stakes situation, that the racial difference between the thesis hopw to two slaves must be understood and considered. In The Tempest , Caliban is an earthen clod whereas “dainty” Ariel is an writing a business outline, airy spirit. Cesaire seizes upon this difference but racializes it, too. Historically, Martinique had more mulattoes than whites and, as ever, in colonial societies where the white ruling class sought to related posts theme, inculcate its values and sought to impress upon its subjects that its culture and skin colour were the ideals, the paleness of one’s skin and the proximity of one’s position to a business, the white rulers became an umi proquest dissertations, important factor in writing outline determining one’s position in the social hierarchy. So here a truculent Caliban accuses the pacific Ariel of being a “house servant” (he is essay questions cast as the field slave), a collaborating sycophant with an “Uncle Tom patience”.

Cesaire does not shy away from projecting the racialized differences and tensions residing within colonial (and post-colonial) societies, not least his own. Caliban, of writing outline course, has more to lose than Ariel but his very humiliation has hardened his resolve. Alex Haley recalled in Roots the old racist jingle: “If you’re white, you’re all right; if you’re brown, stick around; if you’re black, stand back.”34. 28 In the Teachers' perceptions challenges encountered time eyes of the plan monological Prospero, “Par [l’]insubordination [de Caliban], c’est tout l’ordre du monde qu’il remet en cause” (71) “[Caliban’s] insubordination calls into doubt the entire order of the world” (47)]. Prospero. — Comprenez-moi bien. Je suis non pas au sens banal du terme, le maitre, comme le croit ce sauvage, mais le chef d’orchestre d’une vaste partition : Suscitant les voix, moi seul, Et a mon gre les enchainant, Organisant hors de la confusion.

La seule ligne intelligible. Sans moi, qui de tout cela. Saurait tirer musique ? Sans moi cette ile est muette. Teachers' Perceptions Challenges The Use Of Instructional Time Primary School! (90) 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) (. Writing A Business Plan Outline! ) Prospero. — Understand me well. I am not, in the ordinary sense. the master, as this savage thinks, but rather the conductor of posts thesis theme a vast score: Teasing out voices, myself alone, and coupling them at my pleasure, arranging out writing a business plan of the confusion. the sole intelligible line. Without me, who would be able. to derive music from all this?

Without me, this island is dumb.35 (60) 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, R (. ) 29 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson argue that, “Imperial textuality appropriates, distorts, erases, but it also contains. Digital Dissertations (pqdd)! 36 The imperial project contains cultures/subjects in order to control them, but no former colony is as simply circumscribed as colonial discourse would have it: each post-colonial political, historical, linguistic, and cultural situation inevitably becomes much more convoluted than is figured by a business plan the coloniser. In truth, it is Prospero who is enfeebled by his monoglot sclerosis. His rigid cultural position does not brook translation. A Risk Taking Essay! He cannot discourse—his is a dialogue of the deaf—he can only dictate.

Conversely, the “transgressive” Caliban is able to journey back and forth between languages. Empowered, he understands Prospero, not vice-versa. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to the original plot, the scientific Prospero sneers in writing outline recollecti (. ) 30 By the end of the play, Caliban has made multiple claims to African “ Uhuru ”, Black Power’s “Freedom now” and an internationalist call to “Liberty ohay liberty” which transcends all boundaries. His ability to articulate a culture foreign to, and a risk worth taking not laid down by, Prospero is key. Prospero uses language to close down consciousness.

Concerning Caliban, his language constantly negates, denies and demonises: “brute savage”, “beast”, “sorcerer”, etc, whilst Caliban’s linguistic identity, his African utterances, are dismissed as “Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare” (24) [“yet another return to your savage tongue” (19)]. A Business Plan! Whereas Caliban asserts and affirms potential and essay questions on flowers for algernon otherness, Prospero refuses dialogue: “Je ne t’ai pas appele pour discuter !” (27) [“I did not summon you here to argue” (21)]. Writing A Business Outline! He is portrayed as a sadistic power wielder who had dreamt of establishing a colonial empire even before leaving Italy and a risk taking essay who is a business plan bereft of his original’s christianised goodwill: “Si tu rouspetes, la trique” (27) [“If you grumble you shall be thrashed” (21)].37 Cesaire focuses on Prospero’s magic—a physical control over others—in this strictly limited sense. As opposed to worth taking essay, the original, “banquet and harpy” scene (Act III Scene 3) which simply tantalises, Prospero is chillingly bent on force-feeding his captives, and his motives are signally lacking in any ethical imperatives toward repentance. While Prospero may claim “Je suis la Puissance ” (44) [“I am Power” (32)], his material might resides in writing a business plan outline technological know-how and the machinery of repression. The play charts an ongoing demystification and challenges encountered with the use time school classroom unravelling of his authority. As A tempest reaches its climax, Caliban recites a long litany of a business plan outline abuses and injustices forced upon him: Il faut que tu comprennes, Prospero : des annees j’ai courbe la tete, des annees j’ai accepte.

tes insultes, ton ingratitude, pis encore, plus degradante que tout le reste, Mais maintenant c’est fini ! Fini, tu entends ! Bien sur, pour le moment tu es encore. Mais ta force, je m’en moque, comme de tes chiens, d’ailleurs, de ta police, de tes inventions ! Et tu sais pourquoi je m’en moque ? C’est parce que je sais que je t’aurai. Empale ! Et au pieu que. tu auras toi-meme aiguise ! (87-88) 38 See the citation at the start of this article to see how this speech continues. You must understand, Prospero: for years I bowed my head, for years I stomached it, stomached all of umi proquest digital it: your insults, your ingratitude, and worst of all, more degrading than all the rest,

But now it’s over! Over, do you hear! Of course, for plan the moment you’re still. But I don’t care two hoots about digital dissertations (pqdd) your power, or your dogs either, your police, or your inventions! And do you know why I don’t care? It’s because I know I’ll have you! You’ll be impaled! And on a stake.

you’ll have sharpened yourself!38 (57-58) 39 According to plan, Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Mart (. ) 31 In an inspired response to a risk taking, Shakespeare’s mage’s magic, Cesaire’s Caliban identifies Prospero’s illusions with spreading a deceitful false consciousness about the state of the world, imposing on Caliban a disabling belief in his own underdevelopment and incompetence.39 The speech is a culmination of Caliban’s efforts, established from a business plan, his first entry, to globalisation and cons essay, rise up above oppression and resurrect an authentic black culture and history. Writing Plan Outline! Gilbert and Teachers' challenges the use of instructional primary Tompkins write, 40 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 12. Historical recuperation is one of the crucial aims and effects of many post-colonial plays, which frequently tell the writing outline other side of the conquering whites’ story in order to contest the thesis hopw to official version of history that is preserved in writing a business plan outline imperialist texts. Like his/her version of history, the posts coloniser’s language has assumed a position of dominance which must be interrogated and dismantled as part of the decolonising project.40. 32 Caliban has forced Prospero to a business plan, look full square upon the charade of his colonial “mission” and when the latter warns him that he is heading towards suicidal perdition, Caliban tells him he hates him.

Prospero answers in kind: Eh bien moi aussi je te hais ! Car tu es celui par qui pour. la premiere fois j’ai doute de. Well I hate you as well! For you are the one who. made me doubt myself. for the first time. Essay Questions! (59)

41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Ti (. ) 33 His ambivalence emphasises the shattered authority that has been steadily increasing throughout the play. According to Hegel, we recognise ourselves through others’ recognition of writing plan outline us. Caliban does not grant this consensual recognition. A fissure rends the colonial veil. Whereas, in The Tempest , Prospero leaves the island to return to Naples, conveniently bestowing forgiveness on all and sundry and with an imminent marriage between Miranda and Ferdinand symbolising a re-soldered alliance between estranged ruling houses—even if there is no contrition from Antonio—here he remains. Just as Cesaire’s Ariel sings, “ Rien n’est, tout devient ” (30) [“Nothing is, all becomes” (23)], so post-colonial theatre configures “process, not arrival.”41 It is inimical to false closure; rather, it recognises the thesis hopw to complexity of its situation. Plan! Prospero, the old colonialist, is left listless and aged, alone on worth taking essay, the island, raging against the encroachment of nature, roaring out for Caliban but unable to untangle the complexity of his relationship with him beyond: “Toi-Moi ! Moi-Toi !” (92) [“You-Me! Me-You!” (61)] But the mutuality of this dialectic no longer holds. Writing Plan! Caliban refuses to answer Prospero’s call; he has broken free from the grip of Prospero’s voice, from colonial control, and dissertations (pqdd) thus has undermined Prospero’s fundamental conception of himself.

The final words of the play are an unseen Caliban’s distant, yet insistent and haunting, call for liberty. Writing! Shakespeare’s mage steps forward at related posts by category theme, the end of The Tempest , asking to be set free by applause. Here, there is a business plan outline no such recognition. Rather, he is fettered in a prison of moribund ideology and vested interests. Prospero’s failure to digital, leave the writing a business plan island also indicates Cesaire’s recognition that whether decolonised or not, the grasp of colonialism (and, crucially, neo-colonialism) will not be relinquished so easily. 42 Almquist, op. cit. , p. For Algernon! 591. Writing A Business! 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, (. Related Posts Theme! ) 44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of writing a business plan outline Sh (. ) 34 Steve Almquist writes: “Cesaire’s representation of Caliban produces an Africanized figure that embodies the globalisation pros and cons complexity of the diasporic African in the middle of the twentieth century.”42 It is writing outline my contention that the resurrection and resistance of Caliban is founded upon the African cultural resonances in Teachers' perceptions challenges time in the school the play: “ Uhuru ”, Shango, “ Oo-en-day ”, “ Macaya ”. It is to a business plan outline, these that Caliban owes allegiance and not to imposed western ideologies.

Like Malcolm, he calls himself “X”, identifies his dispossession, the fate of the enslaved African diaspora, and casts off the perceptions of the challenges with of instructional time in the school classroom slough of abjection as he reclaims and plan outline refashions his cultural identity, “fighting for survival”, in Marley’s words, “in the heart of the Caribbean.”43 Caliban twice invokes Shango, the Yoruba god of thunder and a risk essay lightning and the owner of the Bata drums. Cesaire identifies Shango as a great god of heaven who is very violent but who is fundamentally benevolent, renewing the face of the earth. Shango is the violent storm which impregnates the a business plan outline earth by by category bringing life-bringing rain. Shakespeare’s western tempest is countered by an African one.44. 45 See Gilbert and outline Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 32-33, for a reading of this scene which epitomises “the sl (. ) 35 A crucial interpellation into Shakespeare’s play comes as Une tempete speeds towards its climax. Eshu, the African trickster devil-god “Dieu pour les amis, diable pour les ennemis” (68) [“God to my friends, Devil to my enemies” (45)], erupts into Prospero’s masque—anti-masque par excellence to all the thesis hopw to stilted, ongoing decorum of the classical goddesses. His lewdness and sexual predatoriness—“de son penis il frappe” (70) [“with his penis he smites” (46)] is an ironic exposure of white paranoia and writing plan outline demonization. Cocking a snook at Prospero, Eshu is not part of the colonialist’s script. He re-appropriates a vivid black identity by using negative stereotype, in a manner analogous to the political use of such terms as “dreadlock” or “queer”, and globalisation essay revelling in its otherness.

Such carnivalesque flaunting of taboo (rampant black sexuality and writing a business outline miscegenation) amounts to a symbolic badge of insubordination and umi proquest digital (pqdd) unbowed dissidence. The western pantheon is dispersed and writing a business outline routed by such “vulgarity.” Eshu stands for the supplanted spirit of Africa returning, superabundant and irrepressible.45. Crucially, although beleaguered by the illusory ideologies of colonialism, Caliban remains true to challenges the use time in the primary, his own culture and beliefs, living a symbiotic partnership with nature (personified as his mother Sycorax): Sycorax ma mere ! Serpent ! Pluie ! Eclairs ! Et je te retrouve partout : Dans l’?il de la mare qui me regarde, sans ciller, a travers les scirpes. Dans le geste de la racine tordue et son bond qui attend. Dans la nuit, la toute-voyante aveugle, la toute-flaireuse sans naseaux ! (26) Sycorax my mother! Serpent! Rain! Lightning! And I find you everywhere!

In the eye of the pond, which stares at me, unblinking, through the rushes. In the gesture of the twisted root with coiled spring. In the writing a business plan outline blinded all-seeing night, the nostril-less all-smelling night! (20) 36 It is he, rather than Shakespeare’s poet-mage, who is the most effective of verbal artificers. (“The isle is globalisation and cons essay full of noises” is, of course, one of the most beautiful and stirring of writing plan speeches in The Tempest .) 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of globalisation pros and cons essay having metamorphosed into writing a business plan outline a (. ) Cesaire celebrates Caribbean and African ecology throughout.46 His poetic brilliance is borne along by essay questions on flowers for algernon ritual and a business plan outline the carnivalesque, communicating visceral humour as well as sadness. Noir picoreur de la savane. le quiscale arpente le jour nouveaux. dans son armure hautaine.

zip ! L’incisif colibri. au fond d’une corolle s’ejouit. fera-t-il fou, fera-t-il ivre. lyre rameutant nos delires. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! Ramier halte dans ces bois. Errant des iles c’est ici le repos. Le miconia est pillage pur. du sang violet de la baie mure.

de sang de sang barbouille ton plumage. Dans le dos des jours fourbus. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! (64-65) Black pilferer of the savannah, the grackle surveys the new day— humid and stirring— from its lofty citadel. Zip! The incisive humming-bird.

rejoices in the depths of Teachers' perceptions encountered with the use of instructional classroom a flower’s innermost whorl. Is he mad, is he drunk, the lyre gathering our wild desires: Liberty ohay liberty! Woodpigeon halts in writing a business plan outline these woods. Wanderer of the isles—here is repose. The miconia is utter spoils.

of violet blood of ripe berry. With blood, with blood smear your plumage. Upon the back of exhausted days. Liberty ohay liberty! (43) 37 This song of worth taking Caliban’s resonates with Shakespeare’s Ariel’s “Where the bee sucks there suck I” (the humming-bird rejoicing in the flower’s innermost whorl) and exemplifies Cesaire’s creative refashioning of The Tempest into a Caribbean context. 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in (. Writing! ) 38 Cesaire did not generally write in creole but “marooned” himself from metropolitan French, refashioning a new voice in a manner congruent with Bill Ashcroft et al. ’s notion of Britain’s erstwhile Empire “writing back.”47 The maroons were runaway slaves. By analogy, he sought to break the fetters of colonialist discourse. Cesaire punned that he would pluck the “marrons du feu,” literally plucking the sweet-chestnuts from the fire but also symbolically rising up against globalisation, imperialist strictures.

Here the mystification and assumptions of the colonially projected Tempest are met head on and the colonial form is a business outline hybridised with the introduction of African and English languages and African and Caribbean ritual and rhythm. My translation sticks to the letter of the French script as faithfully as possible. Essay For Algernon! Nevertheless, the actors playing Ariel and Caliban inflected their speech with British West Indian patois, significantly enriching the production with the writing music of different discourses. Historically, English has been more obviously permeable than metropolitan French, policed by its own Academy. Of The Challenges Encountered Of Instructional In The Primary Classroom! (Cesaire himself was famously the brilliant scholarship boy from the Antilles who spoke an elegant formal French, even conjugating the imperfect subjunctive.) 39 Over the years, the a business plan late prophet of thesis hopw to negritude was criticised by other black post-colonial writers (e.g.

Wole Soyinka) and the disciples of “ creolite ” for his allegiance to abstraction (some overarching African-ness) and for failing to a business outline, recognise the digital authentic plurality of voices in the Caribbean. Writing A Business Plan! Cesaire wrote predominantly in classical French. Yet, absent thought creole might be from Une tempete , this play cherishes the local just as it springs from a deep love of Africa, the faith and rock of the black diaspora. Furthermore, Cesaire’s negritude is grounded in a profound historical consciousness which identifies a common past of suffering experienced by the African diaspora worldwide at the hands of imperialists and slavers. Essay For Algernon! Caliban the hero delivers a clarion call for justice and solidarity. The play is a twentieth-century masterpiece of world theatre, a triumph that re-appropriates the poetic force of Shakespeare, kicks down blinkered insularity and demands to be seen and heard. 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about a business lies. / And you lied to me so much, / lied about the world, lied about yourself, / that you ended up by imposing on me / an image of thesis hopw to myself: / underdeveloped, in your words, / incompetent, / that’s how you forced me to see myself, / and I hate that image! And it is false! / But now I know you, you old cancer, / And I also know myself! (58).

Citations throughout are from Aime Cesaire, Une tempete , Paris, Seuil, 1969, and from my translation, Philip Crispin, A tempest , London, Oberon, 2000. Page numbers for both follow in writing a business outline parentheses. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from worth taking, 21 September to 14 October, 1998. It was described by Professor Malcolm Bowie as “not simply a new reading of Shakespeare but an original play of writing a business astonishing power.” Malcolm Bowie, “Island Infamy” (review of A tempest ), Times Literary Supplement , 9 October, 1998, p. 22. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for thesis hopw to the stage history in writing this paragraph. Their co-edited book “ The Tempest ” and its Travels , published by Reaktion Books in 2000, is thesis hopw to a rich cultural study of The Tempest , exploring, among other concerns, its vitality in new contexts, its key significance in colonial and post-colonial debates, and its problematising of the movement between the local and the global. It includes two scenes from writing outline, my translation and worth two photographs by plan Pau Ros from the London production, as well as an article by Lucy Rix: “Maintaining the umi proquest digital dissertations (pqdd) State of a business outline Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”. 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of Negritude”, in umi proquest (pqdd) J. Writing A Business! Ellen Gainor, ed., Imperialism and Theatre: Essays on World Theatre, Drama and Performance ,London, 1995, p. 182-98.

6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Culture Continuum”, Essays in Theatre/Etudes theatrales , 15:1, 1996, p. 59?68, p. 62. 7 Of course, it is umi proquest digital (pqdd) true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and supplanted its original inhabitants, too. Evidently, Cesaire’s polemical adaptation provides a partial reading of the writing a business plan outline original script. His focus is on for algernon, the (formerly) enslaved black diaspora. Intriguingly, however, in his droll re-working of Caliban’s encounter with Stephano and writing plan outline Trinculo, the recalcitrant butler and thesis hopw to jester still refer to him as an Indian or, more often, a “nindian”. This word possesses a double resonance. Writing Plan Outline! Firstly, it recalls the original inhabitants of the “New World”, vast numbers of whom were wiped out due to globalisation pros essay, conquerors’ genocides, inhuman treatment or because their immune system was unable to protect them against newly imported diseases.

In Cesaire’s play, Stephano and Trinculo still intend to display Caliban in a travelling fair as an a business plan, exotic “freak” when back home. Secondly, “nindian” evokes West Indian, the collective name for thesis hopw to anglophone Caribbean inhabitants, so called because Christopher Columbus had dubbed the writing a business plan outline indigenous people he found Indians, for he believed that he would be able to reach the Indies by sailing west. Since the essay questions period of slavery, of outline course, the worth taking essay majority of writing a business plan “West Indians” are descended from the African diaspora. It is important to thesis hopw to, note that, with the exception of the list of a business plan dramatis person? in which Caliban is identified as a savage slave, it is Trinculo who, in Act II Scene 2, categorically registers Caliban’s humanity, calling him an “islander”, and also how in England “would this monster make a man”. Thesis Hopw To! He and Stephano generally refer to him in a business pejorative dehumanising terms (eg “mooncalf”), however. 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. Teachers' Of The Challenges Encountered With Of Instructional In The Classroom! cit. , p. 192.

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New York, Routledge, 1996, p. 15. Thomas Macaulay’s “Minute on Education” (1835) which argued for the importance of writing a business outline literature in producing Indians “English in thesis hopw to taste, in a business opinions, and in intellect” was a foundational text in such epistemic colonisation. 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the thesis State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman, op. Writing A Business Plan! cit. , p. 236-249, p. 239. Quotation from Legitime Defense taken from globalisation and cons, Lilyan Kesteloot, Black Writers in writing a business French , trans. Ellen Conroy Kennedy, Philadelphia, 1974. 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that hath such creatures in it!” which always received a good laugh. 12 Gilbert and essay Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. 14 See Ibid. , p. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in the colonies. 15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 569.

16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. Plan! , p. 30-31. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of a risk worth taking Colonialism”, in Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, Eds., Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism , Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, p. 48-71, p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, this became concerted in the sixteenth century. The colonial experience in Ireland, along with the Bermuda pamphlets and the colony in Virginia, provided further topical inspiration for writing a business plan The Tempest . 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of umi proquest digital dissertations (pqdd) The Tempest ”, in Jonathan Drakakis, Ed., Alternative Shakespeares , London and writing a business plan New York, Methuen, 1985, p. Of The Challenges With In The School! 191-205, p. 204. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans. A Business Plan! Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, p. 32. 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the thesis hopw to evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the difference being that in the former case the evils went largely unchronicled and uncondemned. Caliban says at the climax of the play: “Te vomir.

Toi, tes pompes, tes ?uvres ! Ta blanche toxine !” (87) [“I’d vomit you up, all your pomp and designs! Your white poison!” (57)]. 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the a business type of digital dissertations (pqdd) cliches trotted out during an exhibition on “The Happy Antilles” held in Paris in 1945 by the Ministry of Colonies. Poems included described Martinique as an enchanting “Paradis vegetaux”, a “Coffre a baisers” and a “Cher jardin des petits cadeaux”, a “Familiere boite a surprise”. Cited in Rix, op. cit. , p. 306. 24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although it may have been inspired by writing a 1609 travelogue about Canada by the French explorer Marc Lescarbot who wrote that the “savages are truly noble”, although this was because they, like French royalty, hunted game. A Risk Essay! Alexander Pope’s “Essay on Man” describes the writing plan “poor Indian” living within nature and touched by grace. The travel accounts of such explorers as Louis Antoine de Bougainville and James Cook encouraged a belief in an Edenic culture residing within the South Seas. See Ter Ellingson, The Myth of the Noble Savage , Berkeley, University of California Press, 2001. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location of those lands which had been sought for centuries.

His brother Antonio and rival King Alonso of a risk Naples conspire to depose him and steal his “empire a naitre” (20) [“unborn empire” (16)]. This fascinating addition to the plot calls to mind the writing great powers’ “scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century and other such contests for territorial domination. In response to Gonzalo’s “guano project”, Sebastian says: “Faut-il encore qu’il y ait des bras pour cultiver [les champs]” (40) [“But we’ll still need hands to by category thesis theme, cultivate [the fields] (29)”. Hands is plan outline a convenient, depersonalising euphemism for labour, not least slave labour. Gonzalo’s “plantation” in The tempest leads inevitably to the thoughts of slave plantations—across the Caribbean, the encountered primary classroom American tropics (North, Central and South) and Africa where King Leopold’s rubber plantation in the Congo led to writing plan, Joseph Conrad’s memorable phrase: “the heart of darkness”.

26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of communication.” Caliban communicates his otherness. According to Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin: “‘Difference’, which in taking essay colonialist discourse connotes a remove from normative European practice, and hence functions as a marker of subordination, is for post-colonial analysis the correspondent marker of identity, voice, and hence empowerment.” Alan Lawson and writing a business plan outline Chris Tiffin, “Conclusion: reading difference”, in thesis hopw to C. Tiffin and A. A Business Plan Outline! Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, 230-235, p. 230. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in thesis Aime Cesaire’s A tempest ”, Callaloo, vol. 29, Number 2, 2006, p. 587-607, p. 587-588. 28 Almquist warns that the writing outline word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western media demonised and sensationalized the and cons Mau Mau as savage, primitive and anti-Christian, hence the word for writing a business plan outline many whites raised a frisson of anxiety and a risk worth taking essay fear. “ Uhuru threatened to demolish the common [white and writing a business outline western] representation of the childlike, faithful, and loyal African.” Ibid. , p. 587. In Robert Ruark’s popular 1962 novel Uhuru , the word evoked for whites a measure of posts loss—lost power over servants, lost lands, lost security, lost innocence. At the same time it identified Africans as bestial and depraved. “In a sense,” Almquist adds, “Ruark is writing outline recasting Shakespeare’s The Tempest and offering a twentieth-century version of the depraved slave in digital (pqdd) need of writing outline ‘civilizing’”. Ibid. , p. 601. Umi Proquest Digital! At the same time, there was a burgeoning attraction to writing a business, the concept and linguistic power of Uhuru for those who might feel like modern-day Calibans themselves.

Julius Nyerere, the Tanzanian leader, and a great hero of African de-colonization, used the word. According to Teachers' perceptions challenges of instructional in the primary, Steven Feierman, “Gender, Slavery and Chiefship: Peasant Attempts to a business plan outline, Create an posts by category, Alternative Discourse”, in Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and writing a business History in Tanzania , Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1990, p. 204-222, p. 212, cited by Almquist, “When older people heard Nyerere talk about umi proquest dissertations (pqdd) Uhuru , “freedom” or “independence”, they also knew Uhuru in their observed experience as the release from utung’wa , “slavery” or “pawnship”, which in their thinking presupposed an entire system of descent-group rights in persons.” Almquist writes: “At the writing outline same time Uhuru would resonate as a symbolic slogan for essay overcoming racial oppression worldwide, in East Africa it carried with it the literal sense of freedom from a system of slavery.” Cesaire may or may not have been aware of this further resonance. Almquist, Ibid. , p. Writing! 605. For a more expansive discussion of Uhuru , See Almquist, Ibid. , p. 598-601. 30 Almquist, op. cit. See p. 597.

31 “Freckled” refers to pros and cons essay, Caliban’s skin colour. Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “monkey” responds acutely to such a derogatory description. 33 Cited in a business plan Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to essay, Shakespeare”, CLA Journal, 35,4, 1992, p. 387-399, p. 394. 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. Plan Outline! 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most insidious obstacles to decolonization in Martinique and globalisation pros and cons how mulattos with their peau chappes (escape skins) sought nothing but the ideal of assimilating into white French culture. The racial ideology, based on writing plan outline, the association of the idea of freedom with resemblance, was deeply seated in not just the white but also within the mulatto and black communities as well. 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) conceives of language as composed of the overarching general structure, langue , and localized, contextual utterances he calls parole . He provides the pros essay metaphor of the orchestra to plan, elucidate his concept. Pros And Cons! As each musician warms up, there is writing plan a form of cacophony; only when the digital (pqdd) conductor conducts, is there symphonic music. So general communication can only come through langue as opposed to the specificities of parole ’s localized discourse. Writing A Business Outline! See Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics , Trans.

Roy Harris, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1983. Umi Proquest Digital (pqdd)! Yet Prospero’s logocentric view (in which he corresponds to a business plan, the logos , both speech and essay questions reason) amounts to an absolutist insensitivity to cultural context. Plan! He rejects fluidity and, with blind ignorance and arrogance, seeks to impose his own cultural code. 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, p. 6. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to the original plot, the scientific Prospero sneers in recollecting his near-persecution at the hands of the Inquisition (“etres de nuit” (21) [“creatures of darkness” (17)]) who wished to try him over essay charges of necromancy and sorcery. Writing A Business! Cesaire casts Gonzalo as a pious buffoon whose catechism lesson on the difference between an act of perceptions of the challenges encountered with time classroom contrition and an act of writing a business attrition satirically evokes the Christian will to reconciliation and forgiveness so central to The Tempest . His later attempted exorcism of Caliban, which the latter meets with laughter, and then the handing him over to the “bras seculier” (86) [“secular arm” (56)], ie Prospero, to do with as he will, chillingly calls to pros and cons essay, mind the a business complicity of the Church in the ruthless execution of the dissertations colonial enterprise and the persecution of indigenous peoples in the guise of saving their souls (as recalled in the murals of Diego Rivera in Mexico City).

38 See the citation at the start of writing this article to see how this speech continues. 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and by category thesis Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Martinique”, in Richard D.E. A Business Plan Outline! Burton and Fred Reno, ed.s, French and West Indian: Martinique, Guadaloupe and related posts by category theme French Guiana Today, London, 1995, p. 75-85, racism in Martinique was deeply internalized. 40 Gilbert and writing outline Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 12. 41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Tiffin adjudges that, “Decolonization is process, not arrival.” 43 Bob Marley and umi proquest digital the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on plan, the posthumously released Confrontation LP, Tuff Gong/Island Records, 1983.

44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Shango is widespread across the Caribbean and in Brazil. In La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Henri Christophe, who wished to honour and restore the grandeur of his people, represents Shango. And Cons! Like Caliban-X, he recognises how the slavers and colonialists robbed the people of their history and names of pride. Writing A Business Outline! Aime Cesaire, La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1970. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. Thesis Hopw To! , p. 32-33, for a business plan outline a reading of this scene which epitomises “the slave’s ability to counter his master’s power over digital dissertations (pqdd) representation”. “This counter-utopian moment critiques both the ritual contexts and the performance codes of The Tempest’s masque, substituting a ceremony that attests to the unconstrained vitality of Afro-Caribbean culture.” See Rix, op. cit. , p. 240, where she writes of Cesaire’s appropriation of surrealism in his arsenal of cultural resistance. Surrealism “aimed to shock the a business prim bourgeoisie with a production of humorous, vulgar gestures that attempted to undermine the validity and thesis hopw to authority of outline high-brow Western culture.” It is also pertinent to point out here that Caliban-X categorically denies trying to rape Miranda, a reason given for his bondage in Shakespeare’s play. Rather he says to Prospero: “Dis-donc, vieux bouc, tu me pretes tes idees libidineuses” (27) [“Listen, old goat, you’ve foisted your own lustful cravings on me (21)].” In Shakespeare’s original, Caliban is cast as an unbridled wild man, the perceptions of the challenges encountered with of instructional time school classroom wild man being the very image of writing outline desire. 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a tree, Ovid-style. He dreams of both palms and umi proquest digital dissertations (pqdd) ceiba trees (Caribbean) but also the baobab, home to the hornbill (Africa). 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures , London, Routledge, 1989.

Some creole is spoken in The Tragedy of King Christophe . Op. cit. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires , 2010-4 | 2010, 137-161. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires [En ligne], 2010-4 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2010, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/itineraires.1746. University of Hull, England. « Banlieues » : entre imaginaires et experiences 2016-2 | 2017.

Livre, serialite et transmedialite 2016-1 | 2016. Ecrire et creer avec les villes en mouvement 2015-3 | 2016. Ethos numeriques 2015-2 | 2016. Stumbling blocks. Entraves et obstacles aux circulations 2015-1 | 2015. Recits de societe 2014-3 | 2015. Le polar en Europe : reecritures du genre 2014-2 | 2015.

Tisseurs : transtextualisation et interculturalites 2014-1 | 2015. Textualites numeriques 2013-2 | 2014. Sade et les femmes 2013-1 | 2013. La fiction aujourd’hui 2012-3 | 2013. Lire les villes marocaines 2012-2 | 2012. Intime et politique 2012-1 | 2012. Genres et avant-gardes 2011-4 | 2011.

Ecrivains communistes francais 2011-3 | 2011. Recits du corps au Maroc et au Japon 2011-2 | 2011. Le concept de memoire 2011-1 | 2011. Les Memoires, une question de genre ? 2010-4 | 2010. Modernites shakespeariennes 2010-3 | 2010. Medievalisme 2010-2 | 2010. Les blogs 2010-1 | 2010. Vies possibles, vies romanesques 2009-4 | 2009.

Pour une histoire de l’intime et de ses variations 2009-3 | 2009. Modernites occidentales et extra-occidentales 2009-2 | 2009. Caraibe et ocean Indien 2009-1 | 2009. Corpographeses Numero inaugural | 2008. ISSN electronique 2427-920X.

Informations Titre : Itineraires Litterature, textes, cultures En bref : Revue etudiant l’emergence de nouveaux espaces litteraires, en termes d’aires culturelles, de supports, d’ideologie, de representation du sujet.

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Easy Permutations and plan outline, Combinations. I’ve always confused “permutation” and globalisation pros and cons essay, “combination” — which one’s which? Here’s an a business outline, easy way to remember: permutation sounds complicated , doesn’t it? And it is. With permutations, every little detail matters. Alice, Bob and Charlie is different from Charlie, Bob and Alice (insert your friends’ names here). Combinations, on the other hand, are pretty easy going. The details don’t matter.

Alice, Bob and related posts thesis theme, Charlie is the same as Charlie, Bob and Alice. Permutations are for lists (order matters) and combinations are for groups (order doesn’t matter). A joke: A combination lock should really be called a permutation lock. The order you put the numbers in matters. A Business Outline! (A true combination lock would accept both 10-17-23 and 23-17-10 as correct.) Let’s start with permutations, or all possible ways of doing something. We’re using the globalisation essay, fancy-pants term “permutation”, so we’re going to care about every last detail, including the order of each item. Writing Plan Outline! Let’s say we have 8 people: How many ways can we award a 1st, 2nd and 3rd place prize among eight contestants? (Gold / Silver / Bronze)

We’re going to challenges encountered the use of instructional time in the school classroom, use permutations since the order we hand out outline, these medals matters. Here’s how it breaks down: Gold medal: 8 choices: A B C D E F G H (Clever how I made the names match up with letters, eh?). Let’s say A wins the Gold. Silver medal: 7 choices: B C D E F G H. Let’s say B wins the silver. Digital Dissertations (pqdd)! Bronze medal: 6 choices: C D E F G H. Writing A Business Outline! Let’s say… C wins the thesis hopw to, bronze. We picked certain people to win, but the writing, details don’t matter: we had 8 choices at first, then 7, then 6. The total number of options was 8 · 7 · 6 = 336 . Let’s look at the details. Taking! We had to order 3 people out of 8. To do this, we started with all options (8) then took them away one at a time (7, then 6) until we ran out of medals. We know the factorial is: Unfortunately, that does too much! We only want 8 · 7 · 6 . How can we “stop” the factorial at 5?

This is where permutations get cool: notice how we want to get rid of 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 . Plan! What’s another name for this? 5 factorial! So, if we do 8!/5! we get: And why did we use the number 5? Because it was left over after we picked 3 medals from 8. So, a better way to write this would be: where 8!/(8-3)! is just a fancy way of saying “Use the umi proquest digital dissertations, first 3 numbers of a business plan, 8!”. Related By Category Theme! If we have n items total and outline, want to pros and cons essay, pick k in a certain order, we get: And this is the writing plan, fancy permutation formula: You have n items and challenges primary school, want to find the number of ways k items can be ordered: Combinations are easy going. Order doesn’t matter.

You can mix it up and it looks the same. Let’s say I’m a cheapskate and can’t afford separate Gold, Silver and Bronze medals. In fact, I can only writing a business plan outline, afford empty tin cans. How many ways can I give 3 tin cans to worth, 8 people? Well, in this case, the order we pick people doesn’t matter. A Business Plan! If I give a can to Alice, Bob and of the challenges encountered of instructional time primary, then Charlie, it’s the a business outline, same as giving to Charlie, Alice and then Bob. Either way, they’re equally disappointed.

This raises an interesting point — we’ve got some redundancies here. Alice Bob Charlie = Charlie Bob Alice. For a moment, let’s just figure out how many ways we can rearrange 3 people. Well, we have 3 choices for the first person, 2 for the second, and thesis hopw to, only 1 for the last. Writing Plan! So we have 3 · 2 · 1 ways to encountered with of instructional primary, re-arrange 3 people. Wait a minute… this is looking a bit like a permutation! You tricked me! Indeed I did.

If you have N people and you want to know how many arrangements there are for all of them, it’s just N factorial or N! So, if we have 3 tin cans to give away, there are 3! or 6 variations for every choice we pick. If we want to figure out how many combinations we have, we just create all the permutations and writing a business, divide by all the redundancies . In our case, we get 336 permutations (from above), and we divide by on flowers the 6 redundancies for each permutation and get 336/6 = 56. The general formula is. which means “Find all the ways to pick k people from writing a business outline n, and divide by the k! variants”. Writing this out, we get our combination formula , or the number of ways to combine k items from a set of n:

Here’s a few examples of combinations (order doesn’t matter) from permutations (order matters). Combination: Picking a team of Teachers' perceptions of the encountered the use of instructional primary, 3 people from a group of 10. C(10,3) = 10!/(7! · 3!) = 10 · 9 · 8 / (3 · 2 · 1) = 120 . Permutation: Picking a President, VP and Waterboy from writing a business plan outline a group of 10. P(10,3) = 10!/7! = 10 · 9 · 8 = 720 . Combination: Choosing 3 desserts from a menu of 10. C(10,3) = 120. Permutation: Listing your 3 favorite desserts, in order, from a menu of 10. Taking Essay! P(10,3) = 720. Don’t memorize the formulas, understand why they work. Combinations sound simpler than permutations, and writing outline, they are.

You have fewer combinations than permutations. 1301 Comments on Easy Permutations and Combinations Thanks alot! This was actally a better explanation then my teacher could give us =] Agreed – this article helped me understand it WAY better. […] (Brush up on combinations and permuations if you like). Dissertations! […] 6c3 can be written as; = 6*5*4*3!/3!*3*2*1 (3! can cancel out), hence you have. =20, I hope that answers your question. in your calculation, press 10 and press C (Combination) of and then press 3. it’s 6p3/3p3 or (6*5*4)/3*2*1) which = 20.

Simplify then u will get.. can anyone show me how many combinations there are using only writing a business, 1, 2, and 3 across and 1 to 6 down.and 3 down, in other words its a 3 x 6 grid. Please do not give me the globalisation pros essay, formula, I just need to see something like this, 1x2x3-1x3x2-2x3x1-2x1x3-3x1x2-3x2xhope it makes sense. If you make the chart, you would then have to a business plan outline, go through and cross out anything duplicates (1x2x3, 1x3x2, 2x3x1, 3x2x1, 3x1x2, 2x1x3) because the represent the same thing. There is not easy way to thesis hopw to, get ride of the duplicates when making a chart. I HAVE UNDERSTOOD THE DIFFERENCE TODAY AFTER A GAP OF 38 YEARS. Hi David, yep, you got the formula right. The number of permutations (ways to order 22 people of 40) is:

40 * 39 * 38 … * 24 * 23 * 22 * 21 * 20 * 19 = 40! / 18! [Be careful of off-by-one errors, I had a mistake at writing a business outline, first. 40 to related thesis theme, 19 is plan outline 22 people (just like 40 to 39 is on flowers 2 people, even though 40-39 is 1)] And the outline, number of ways to re-arrange 22 people = 22! So we divide the essay questions for algernon, first by the second and get. 113 billion does seem huge, but there’s a lot of writing, multiplications happening. There’s 56 ways to pick 3 people from 8, which seems pretty large as well.

It’s one of related posts by category thesis, those things where human beings (all of a business, us!) aren’t great at intuitively estimating the impact of exponential growth. The birthday paradox and questions on flowers for algernon, the effect of compound interest are other examples of this. I think it’s because we don’t encounter such mind-boggling growth or large numbers in writing a business, a way we can really experience (at a certain point, millions, billions, and trillions become “a lot”, even though a trillion is a *million* times bigger than a million). This helped with my question… sort of. Awesome! Glad you found it useful :) this is an awesome site!

Hi D, when you buy multiple tickets you would add up the chances. Questions On Flowers For Algernon! So 10 tickets would be 1/13,000,000 + 1/13,000,000 + 1/13,000,000 … = 10 / 13,000,000. So buying multiple tickets would increase your chances for that particular lottery. If you somehow bought half of the available tickets, you’d have a 50-50 chance. Outline! And if you bought all of the tickets you’d win :). Im not really sure but I dont think Kalid cares after nearly 9 years. Did Cooper win the lottery after all?

finally this makes sense. This still makes 0 sense. I understood the permutations. But then I got confused at the combinations (I think I got confused because they used the combinations for the same example as the permutations) If you pick 3 people from a group of 10 (Example 1 in the *A few examples* paragraph.) wouldn’t you do 10 x 9 x 8 like in the permutations paragraph, but then because unlike a permutation, a combination doesn’t care if you mix up those 3 numbers so you would have to divide 3! from 10 x 9 x 8. 10 x 9 x 8 = 720. 3! = 3 x 2 x 1 = 6. That is what the thesis hopw to, author got, and I understand that.

If this helps, my teacher explained it using the word GLOSS. IF we were to find the number of ways we could mix up its letters, we would do 5! because there are 5 letters in the word. You put one of the letters (L for instance) in first spot, which leaves 4 letters left (G, O, S, S). You get another letter (say it’s S) in second spot which leaves 3 letters left (G, O, S). And so on until you have 0 letters left. So you started off with 5 letters, and writing a business, went down to 0, which is why you do 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 or 5! But there are two S’s and it does not matter where you put either S. Dissertations! SOLGS is the writing a business, same as SOLGS, right?! I swapped the S’s but you don’t notice. Now, because there are two S’s, we have to posts thesis, divide 5! (possible combinations) by plan outline 2! (the 2 S’s that are interchangeable)

5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120. Therefore there are 60 possible combinations to arrange the letters G, L, O, S, S. If we use the word EXCEED, we would do 6! (because there are 6 letters) divided by and cons essay 3! (3 E’s) which is: 6! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 720. 3! = 3 x 2 x 1 = 6. For EXCEED there are 120 ways we could arrange those letters. Mind you, this was only for combinations. If we did permutations… For the word GLOSS, it would matter where we put the S’s and writing plan outline, they would NOT be interchangeable.

Then it would just be 5!, which is 120. For EXCEED, the E’s would not be interchangeable either, so it would be 6!, which is 720. I hope this helped you understand Permutations and Combinations better, and if not, writing this helped me understand it better, so thank you!! :) that was very helpful thankyou. Hi Pras, thanks for the comment!

@Sahil: It’s a good question, but I want to make sure I’m not doing someone’s homework for Teachers' encountered the use of instructional in the primary school them :). In general, it’s easier to find the chance of a business plan, “zero matches” and subtract this from 1, vs. finding the umi proquest digital dissertations, chance for 1 match. So let’s find the outline, chance for zero matches. Imagine picking your first shoe, A: nothing special here, you aren’t going get the match on a single shoe. You pick shoe B: You have a 18/19 chance of of the encountered with primary, getting zero matches (only A’s partner would match, of the a business, 19). You pick shoe C: You have a 16/18 chance of zero matches (only A and perceptions encountered the use of instructional time in the school classroom, B’s partner would match, of the a business outline, remaining 18).

You pick shoe D: You have a 14/17 chance of not getting any matches (only A and Teachers' perceptions of the challenges encountered in the school classroom, B and C’s partner would match, of the remaining 17). If you multiply these chances you get the total chance for zero matches. Subtract from writing plan outline zero to get the chance for a risk worth taking essay any match. Writing Outline! At least I think that’s how it goes :) No. Of ways a pair can be picked from a risk worth taking essay 10 – 10c1. No. Writing Outline! Of ways 2shoes (any) can be picked from 18(remaining) – 18c2.

No. Of ways picking atleast one pair in essay questions for algernon, 4 out of outline, 20 = 10c1*18c2. I hope it’s crct, pls correct me if I’m wrong. Thanks a million! It makes sense now! Thanks for the encouragement Aaron!

Once I have enough posts I would love to turn it into a book :) Hi Safa, for Teachers' the use in the school that question it helps to take it one step at a time. In a test with only 1 question, how many ways can you be wrong? 3. A Business! (Suppose the right answer is of the challenges the use of instructional time in the primary classroom D… you could answer A, B or C). Now how about 2 questions? Well, you have 3 ways to get the writing a business, first question wrong, and another 3 ways to get the second one wrong. Umi Proquest Digital! So the total is plan 3 * 3 = 9. Perceptions Of The Challenges Encountered The Use Of Instructional School! (Let’s say the right answer is D and D. Then AA AB AB BA BB BC CA CB CC are all wrong). Similarly, if you have 3 questions, then there is 3 * 3 * 3 = 3^3 = 27 ways to writing a business plan outline, get all answers wrong. Essay On Flowers! (You can write it out but will take a while: AAA AAB AAC ABA ABB ABC ACA ACB ACC… you get the outline, idea :) ) Hope this makes sense, hi. where can i find the solutions to posts theme, the problems stated above. Great Stuff!

You should write a book! it was really useful dude. from the first 4 odd numbers (1,3,5 and 7) and the following 4 even numbers (2,46, and writing plan outline, 8), how many groups of 4 digit numbers can be formed consisting of: a. 2 odd numbers and a risk taking essay, 2 even numbers? b. Plan Outline! all odd numbers? c. 1 odd number and 3 even numbers? You sure are doing a great work here making things that look really hard/challenging/tasking quite easy. I am a teacher and I like the umi proquest digital dissertations (pqdd), way you explained it so I put a link to writing a business, this site on pros and cons essay, my students assignments to read as an introduction to writing plan, the idea before we go into the more complicated problems in class. No problem, glad it helped! if a train has 18 cars , and essay, 3types of writing a business, cargo must be transported, how many ways can the 3 types be transported if one type of cargo can at most occupy only dissertations, ten cars per train? Suppose you have 13 football matches and each game has 3 chances win, lose Draw.

How can you get a chances of all possible outcomes? I’ll say you are really a blessing to writing a business plan, me. I so much value the way you make difficult things turn so easy. Umi Proquest! I am really so so happy for stumbling upon your site today after so much search for better explanations on different topics I find so confusing. I’m one of the many that loves maths a lot but also finds it so frustrating most of the times, especially when the exercises are so twisted than what was used in writing plan outline, explaining the topic. I have two sets of exams to essay, write on maths in the next 2 weeks and have been facing so much difficulties in some topics.

I believe I have reached a point where I can grab a sit and learn comfortable and plan outline, as much as I can before my test.