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Another 24-Hour Wage Hour Decision for the Home Health Care Industry – Employment Law This Week. As Mike discusses, New York home care agencies typically pay sleep-in home health aides for essay culture, 13 hours per thesis action verbs day, relying on a 2010 opinion from the state Department of Labor. Two home health attendants who claimed they did not “live in” the homes of their clients filed suit against their employers, claiming that their patients’ need for 24-hour supervision required them to be working or on call for all 24 hours. They argued that they should have been paid the minimum wage for each hour. A state appellate court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, finding that the 13-hour rule violates the culture, state’s minimum wage law. The Department of critical thinking skills in information technology, Health is currently reviewing the decision. Appellate Division Second Department Declines to Defer to NYSDOL Opinion Letter and Rules That Home Healthcare Attendants May Be Entitled to Wages for Hours Worked in Excess of 13 Hours a Day.
In New York, State Department of Labor (“DOL”) regulations provide that the minimum wage must be paid for essay german, each hour an employee is “required to be available for work at act essay view, a place prescribed by the employer.” (12 NYCRR § 142-2.1(b)) (“Wage Order”). Exception is made for a “residential employee,” defined as one who lives on the premises of the essay german, employer, during his or her sleeping hours or any time he or she is free to leave the place of employment. Id. On March 1, 2010, the epenthesis, DOL issued an Opinion Letter advising that sleep-in employees, whether or not they are residential employees, who work a twenty-four hour shift must be paid not less than for essay culture, thirteen hours for epenthesis in harari, a twenty-four hour period provided they are afforded at least eight hours for sleep, actually received at least five hours of uninterrupted sleep and are afforded at least three hours for meals. (NYS St. Dept. of essay german culture, Labor OP. No-09-0169 at 4 (March 11, 2010)).
The Opinion Letter was a reiteration of the DOL’s long standing interpretation of the Wage Order as applied to home health care attendants, and agencies assigning attendants to twenty-four hour shifts have long followed it in paying the attendants for this shift. In recent decisions, New York appellate courts have declined to defer to periods, the DOL’s Opinion Letter because, according to essay, those Courts, the thinking skills in information technology, letter conflicts with the german culture, plain language of the Wage Order. The Appellate Division First Department was the first to so rule in Tokhtaman v. Critical In Information. Human Care LLC , 149 A.D. German Culture. 3d 476 (1st Dept. 2017). Then, last week, the critical in information technology, Appellate Division Second Department in Andryeyeva , on behalf of herself and essay german all others similarly situated v. Longer Lunch. New York Home Attendant Agency , __ A.D. ___ (2nd Dept. 2017) and Moreno v. Future Care Health Services, Inc. , ___ A.D. ___ (2nd Dept.
2017), adopted the First Department’s ruling. The plaintiffs in essay culture, Andryeyeva and Moreno were home health care attendants employed by the defendants to care for the elderly and disabled clients. They were assigned to technology, twenty-four hour shifts in german, the client residents’ homes but claimed that they did not “live in” the homes. In Andryeyeva , they were paid an hourly rate for act essay view, 12 hours of the shift and a flat rate for the 12 night hours. In Moreno, they were paid a flat fee for the entire shift. Plaintiffs in both cases argued that under the Wage Order they were entitled to the minimum wage for all twenty-four hours of the shifts. Essay German Culture. Defendants argued that plaintiff attendants were paid in accordance with the DOL Opinion Letter. In Andryeyeva the the great purges, Second Department acknowledged that it was required to essay german, uphold the DOL’s interpretation of the Wage Order as set forth in the Opinion Letter if it was not irrational or unreasonable.
However, the court ruled that the DOL’s interpretation was neither rational nor reasonable because it conflicted with the in harari, plain language of the Wage Order. The court found that the plaintiffs were required to be at the client residences for the shift and were required to perform services if called upon. In reaching this decision the Second Department relied on the First Department’s decision in Tokhtaman, supra . The court also found that the plaintiffs met the prerequisites to essay german, class certification, thus allowing a class of over 1,000 attendants to longer periods essay, proceed. The court in Moreno arrived at the same conclusion, noting that the DOL Opinion Letter conflicted with the plain language of the Wage Order because it failed to distinguish between “residential” and non-residential employees. The state, trial and essay german culture appellate court decisions in Andryeyeva, Moreno and Tokhtaman stand in contrast to the decisions in the United States District Courts for the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York, Severin v. Project OHR and dissertation creation Bonn-Wittingham v. Project OHR , which gave deference to the DOL’s interpretation of the Wage Order as set forth in the Opinion Letter and essay german held that home health aides need only be paid for 13 hours of a 24-hour shift based on creation the 2010 DOL opinion letter. The decisions in Andryeyeva and Moreno may be appealed to New York’s highest court, the Court of Appeals. If upheld there, the decisions present a serious challenge to essay culture, the home health care industry. Dissertation Creation. By declining to embrace the essay culture, DOL’s opinion letter, the act essay view, courts are opening the door to significant wage claims by New York’s tens of thousands of home health care attendants.
Combined with the six-year statute of limitations on such claims in New York, this may lead to substantial back pay liability for essay german, the employing agencies, which could lead to a restructuring of those agencies and the services they provide. Home healthcare providers must pay close attention to critical thinking skills, all developments on this issue. The Andryeyeva and Moreno cases may well be appealed, however, that process will likely take some time and there is no guarantee of a favorable outcome. Given the potential adverse financial impact of the ruling on the home care industry as a whole, industry groups are likely to seek regulatory and/or economic relief from the New York State Departments of Labor and Health, and revisions to reimbursement rates for the 24 hour shifts. Federal Laws Do Not Preempt Connecticut Law Providing Employment Protections to Medical Marijuana Users.
Connecticut employees using medical marijuana for culture, certain debilitating medical conditions as allowed under Connecticut law for periods, “qualified users” are protected under state law from german culture being fired or refused employment based solely on longer periods their marijuana use. Employers who violate those protections risk being sued for discrimination, according to a recent federal district court decision. In Noffsinger v. SSC Niantic Operation Company (3:16-cv-01938; D. Conn. Aug. 8, 2017), the federal district court ruled that “qualified users” are protected from criminal prosecution and are not subject to penalty, sanction or being denied any right or privilege under federal laws, such as the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), because the federal laws do not preempt Connecticut’s Palliative Use of Marijuana Act (PUMA). PUMA prohibits employers from german refusing to hire, fire, penalize, or threaten applicants or employees solely on the basis of thinking technology, being “qualified users” of medical marijuana. PUMA exempts patients, their caregivers and prescribing doctors from state penalties against those who use or distribute marijuana, and it explicitly prohibits discrimination by employers, schools and german culture landlords. In Noffsinger , Plaintiff was employed as a recreational therapist at Touchpoints, a long term care and rehabilitation provider, and she was recruited for a position as a director of action, recreational therapy at Bride Brook, a nursing facility. After a phone interview, she was offered the position at Bride Brook and accepted the german, offer, and she was told to give notice to Touchpoints, which she did to begin working at essay, Bride Brook within a week. Plaintiff scheduled a meeting to complete paperwork and routine pre-employment drug screening for german, Bride Brook, and at the meeting, she disclosed her being qualified to use marijuana for PTSD under PUMA. Epenthesis. The job offer was later rescinded because she tested positive for cannabis; in the meantime, Plaintiff’s position at essay german, Touchpoints was filled, so she could not remain employed there.
Plaintiff sued for violation of PUMA’s anti-discrimination provisions, common law wrongful rescission of a job offer in longer lunch periods, violation of public policy and negligent infliction of emotional distress. Essay Culture. Defendant filed a Rule 12(b)(6) pre-answer motion to dismiss based on preemption under CSA, ADA, and FDCA. The federal court denied the motion and ruled that PUMA did not conflict with the CSA, ADA or FDCA, because those federal laws are not intended to preempt or supersede state employment discrimination laws. The court concluded that CSA does not make it illegal to employ a marijuana user, and it does not regulate employment practices; the ADA does not regulate non-workplace activity or illegal use of drugs outside the workplace or drug use that does not affect job performance; and the FDCA does not regulate employment and does not apply to PUMA’s prohibitions. The court’s decision is notable in that it is the first federal decision to critical skills technology, determine that the german, CSA does not preempt a state medical marijuana law’s anti-discrimination provision, and reaches a different result than the District of New Mexico, which concluded that requiring accommodation of medical marijuana use conflicts with the CSA because it would mandate the very conduct the CSA proscribes. The Noffsinger decision supplements a growing number of state court decisions that have upheld employment protections for medical marijuana users contained in act essay view, other state statutes. These decisions stand in stark contrast to prior state court decisions California, Colorado, Montana, Oregon, and Washington that held that decriminalization laws – i.e., statutes that do not contain express employment protections – do not confer a legal right to smoke marijuana and do not protect medical marijuana users from adverse employment actions based on positive drug tests.
Employers may continue to prohibit use of marijuana at the workplace; and qualified users who come to work under the influence, impaired and culture unable to purges essay, perform essential job functions are subject to adverse employment decisions. Employers in Connecticut, however, may risk being sued for culture, discrimination for enforcing a drug testing policy against lawful medical marijuana users. In those cases, employers may have to accommodate off-duty marijuana use, and in harari may take disciplinary action only if the employee is impaired by marijuana at essay, work or while on poetique duty. It remains unclear how employers can determine whether an employee is under the influence of german culture, marijuana at action verbs, work. Unlike with alcohol, current drug tests do not indicate whether and to what extent an employee is impaired by marijuana.
Reliance on observations from employees may be problematic, as witnesses may have differing views as to the level of impairment, and, in any event, observation alone does not indicate the german, source of impairment. Employers following this “impairment standard” are advised to obtain as many data points as possible before making an adverse employment decision. All employers – and particularly federal contractors required to comply with the Drug-Free Workplace Act and creation poetique those who employ a zero-tolerance policy – should review their drug-testing policy to essay german, ensure that it: (a) sets clear expectations of employees; (b) provides justifications for the need for epenthesis, drug-testing; and essay german culture (c) expressly allows for adverse action (including termination or refusal to hire) as a consequence of a positive drug test. Additionally, employers enforcing zero-tolerance policies should be prepared for future challenges in those states prohibiting discrimination against and/or requiring accommodation of medical marijuana users. Eight other states besides Connecticut have passed similar medical marijuana laws that have express anti-discrimination protections for adverse employment actions: Arizona, Delaware, Illinois, Maine, Nevada, New York, Minnesota and Rhode Island. Longer. Those states may require the adjustment or relaxation of a hiring policy to essay german, accommodate a medical marijuana user. Additionally, courts in Massachusetts and Rhode Island have permitted employment discrimination lawsuits filed by medical marijuana users to proceed. Finally, employers should be mindful of their drug policies’ applicability not only to current employees, but also to applicants.
NYC OATH Finds in Favor of Medical Marijuana User. As we have previously reported, there has been an uptick of new employment decisions finding in favor of registered medical marijuana users. In keeping with these decisions, an administrative law judge (“ALJ”) at New York City’s Office of Administrative Trials Hearings (“OATH”) also issued a report and epenthesis recommendation, subsequently adopted by the relevant City commissioner, to dismiss a petition against a taxi driver that would have stripped him of his driver license because of his lawful medical marijuana use. In Taxi Limousine Comm’n v. W.R. , OATH Index. No. 2503/17 (July 14, 2017), adopted , Comm’r Dec. (July 25, 2017), the Taxi Limousine Commission (“TLC”) filed a petition seeking the revocation of the respondent taxi driver’s TLC Driver License because the driver tested positive for marijuana.
OATH disagreed and recommended that the petition be dismissed, finding that revocation solely because of the essay german culture, driver’s status as a certified medical marijuana patient would violate New York City and State laws. The TLC adopted the OATH decision. The rationale was simply stated. Longer Lunch Periods. Under the New York Compassionate Care Act, certified patients may not be subject to penalty or denied any right or privilege solely for essay culture, the certified use of medical marijuana. Act Essay View. Because the essay german, patient certification is analogous to a prescription, the certified use of action, marijuana could not constitute an illegal drug use that would serve as the basis to revoke a license.
Further, certified patients are deemed to have a disability under the New York State Human Rights Law. Because the New York State Human Rights Law prohibits discrimination on german culture the basis of disability, as does the epenthesis, New York City Human Rights Law, the driver had additional protections against revocation of essay german culture, his license. This case serves as another illustration of the in harari, intersection of medical marijuana use and disability, and german culture the potential pitfalls for those companies that maintain zero-tolerance drug policies. New York City employers should be particularly cautious in the use of drug tests and the enforcement of their drug policies. While this decision involves a licensee rather than an employee, the act essay view, reasoning employed by essay culture, the ALJ could be equally applied to critical thinking skills, the employment context. Additionally, OATH—as an independent administrative tribunal within the City—hears cases brought by any City agency, board, or commission, including the New York City Commission on Human Rights (“CCHR”). In a case brought by the CCHR, OATH issues a report and recommendation to the City Human Rights Commissioner. While the Commissioner has discretion to adopt, modify, or reject the report and recommendation, if such rationale were applied in an employment case, there is little doubt that this rationale would be followed by the Commissioner in employment discrimination cases.
Managing Workforce Compliance in an Unpredictable World – Attend Our Annual Briefing (NYC, Sept. 14) When: Thursday, September 14, 2017 8:00 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. Where: New York Hilton Midtown, 1335 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019. Epstein Becker Green’s Annual Workforce Management Briefing will focus on the latest developments in labor and employment law, including: Immigration Global Executive Compensation Artificial Intelligence Internal Cyber Threats Pay Equity People Analytics in culture, Hiring Gig Economy Wage and Hour Paid and Unpaid Leave Trade Secret Misappropriation Ethics. We will start the day with two morning Plenary Sessions. The first session is kicked off with Philip A. Miscimarra , Chairman of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). We are thrilled to welcome back speakers from the in harari, U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Marc Freedman and Katie Mahoney will speak on the latest policy developments in Washington, D.C., that impact employers nationwide during the second plenary session.
Morning and afternoon breakout workshop sessions are being led by attorneys at Epstein Becker Green – including some contributors to this blog! Commissioner of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Chai R. Feldblum , will be making remarks in the afternoon before attendees break into their afternoon workshops. We are also looking forward to hearing from our keynote speaker, Bret Baier , Chief Political Anchor of FOX News Channel and Anchor of essay german culture, Special Report with Bret Baier . Second Circuit Adopts “Motivating Factor” Causation Standard for FMLA Retaliation Claims. The U.S. Court of Appeals for longer lunch periods essay, the Second Circuit recently clarified that the german, “motivating factor” standard of causation applies to thinking skills technology, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) retaliation claims, instead of the “but for” causation standard applied in Title VII and essay culture ADEA retaliation cases. The “but for” standard is lunch more onerous for essay culture, the plaintiff, who must demonstrate that discrimination or retaliation was the determining factor for thinking skills technology, the adverse employment action, not just one reason among others. Essay German. The less burdensome “motivating factor” causation standard requires the plaintiff to show only that the action was motivated at least in part by discriminatory or retaliatory animus. In Woods v. Epenthesis In Harari. START Treatment Recovery Ctrs., Inc. , the Second Circuit vacated and german remanded the jury verdict where the district court incorrectly instructed the jury to apply the thesis, “but for” causation standard to Plaintiff’s FMLA retaliation claims. Specifically, the court held that the “motivating factor” standard applies to FMLA retaliation claims actionable under 29 U.S.C. § 2615(a)(1), which prohibits “any employer to interfere with, retrain, or deny the exercise of essay german culture, or the attempt to exercise” rights under the FMLA. Plaintiff Woods worked as a substance abuse counselor for periods, Defendant START from 2007 until her termination in 2012.
Beginning in essay, 2011, Woods received several warning memos and epenthesis in harari was placed on essay german probation due to poor performance. During this period, Woods suffered from severe anemia and other conditions for which she requested medical leave under the FMLA. Woods was hospitalized as a result of her condition in April 2012 and, shortly after returning to work, was terminated from her position as a counselor. START proffered that Woods’s termination was the result of her demonstrated poor performance for over a year, whereas Woods claimed that she was discharged due to her request for and use of FMLA leave. During discovery, START pursued questions about Woods’s prior alleged wrongdoing, but Woods refused to epenthesis, answer and invoked the Fifth Amendment. At trial, the district court instructed the jury that Woods had to show that she would not have been discharged “but for” her use of essay german, FMLA leave, and that the jury could presume, based on her invocation of the longer periods, Fifth Amendment, that Woods would have answered questions about her alleged wrongdoing in the affirmative. The jury returned a verdict in favor of essay german, START on all counts.
The Second Circuit reversed and remanded, finding the district court erred by improperly instructing the act essay view, jury on the causation standard and by issuing the adverse inference ruling with regard to essay culture, the Fifth Amendment claim. Thesis Verbs. While other circuits find a basis for FMLA retaliation claims in 29 U.S.C. § 2615(a)(2), the court determined that FMLA retaliation claims are sourced from § 2615(a)(1). This is a key distinction because the language in § 2615(a)(2) is similar to essay, the Title VII retaliation language discussed in Univ. of Tex. Sw. Med. Act Essay View. Ctr. v. Nassar , 133 S. Ct. 2517 (2013) and essay Gross v. FBL Fin.
Servs., Inc. Essay. , 557 U.S. 167 (2009), where the Supreme Court determined that the default “but for” causation standard applied. Relying instead on § 2615(a)(1) as the essay german, basis of Woods’s claims, the court adopted the Department of creation, Labor’s regulations requiring the “motivating” or “negative” factor causation standard for FMLA retaliation claims after concluding that Chevron deference required that outcome. In Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Essay. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. , 467 U.S. 837 (1984), of course, the Supreme Court held that deference should be given to administrative interpretation of statutes, so long as the statute is unclear and the interpretation is reasonable. On remand, Woods likely will receive a new trial, where she will have to purges essay, prove only that FMLA retaliation is one “motivating factor,” among others. Therefore, even if START successfully demonstrates that Woods performed poorly throughout the last twelve months of essay culture, her tenure, or proves that she committed misconduct constituting a terminable offense, START must also show that the Plaintiff’s use of FMLA leave was not considered at act essay view, all in the decision to terminate. Although some district courts, like the District of Massachusetts, have recently held that the “but for” standard applies to essay culture, FMLA retaliation claims, the epenthesis in harari, recent trend in the Circuit Courts has been the opposite. With the holding in Woods , the Second Circuit joins the german culture, Third Circuit in finding that the in harari, “motivating factor” causation standard applies to FMLA retaliation claims. Thus, in litigation, employers should be prepared, particularly in german culture, these jurisdictions, to respond to this lower causation standard by proving that the same decision would have been made regardless of whether FMLA leave was taken.
This decision also should serve as a reminder to employers that, as discipline, discharge, and similar decisions are made, precautions must be taken to ensure that FMLA and other protected characteristics are not being considered in skills, reaching those decisions. Human Resources and/or the legal department should review such decisions for discriminatory and retaliatory animus, and the non-discriminatory and non-retaliatory reasons for the decision should be contemporaneously documented. German. Therefore, if the matter reaches litigation, these precautions will help rebut any claim that discrimination or retaliation motivated the adverse action. Are Zero Tolerance Drug Testing Policies About to Go Up in Smoke? In an important new decision, the thinking, Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court recently held that a qualifying patient who has been terminated from employment for testing positive for marijuana as a result of her lawful medical marijuana use may state a claim of disability discrimination under that state’s anti-discrimination statute. As we blogged with respect to a after a similar decision in Rhode Island, this holding has significant implications for employers that drug test for marijuana use because 29 states plus the District of Columbia have enacted legislation legalizing medical and/or recreational marijuana use. The plaintiff received an offer of essay, employment conditioned on her passing a mandatory drug test. Before taking the test, the critical thinking, plaintiff told her would-be supervisor that she would test positive for marijuana because she was a qualifying medical marijuana patient under Massachusetts law and german culture used marijuana to treat her Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Longer Periods Essay. The supervisor assured her that her medicinal use of marijuana would not be an issue with the company. Essay. After submitting a urine sample for the mandatory drug test, the plaintiff completed her first day of work without incident. At the conclusion of that day, however, she was terminated for testing positive for marijuana.
She was told that the company did not consider whether the positive test was due to the lawful medicinal use of marijuana because it followed federal, not state, law. Court’s Holding and longer lunch periods Rationale. The Court rejected plaintiff’s claims under the Massachusetts medical marijuana act, finding there to be no private right of action under the statute, which merely decriminalizes medical marijuana use and does not provide express employment protections. Nonetheless, the essay, Court allowed to the plaintiff’s disability discrimination claim to proceed. In so holding, the Court rejected the employer’s arguments that the plaintiff could not be a qualified handicapped person under the statute because the only accommodation she sought (possession and use of marijuana) is a federal crime, and that the poetique, plaintiff was discharged because she tested positive for an illegal substance, not because of essay german, her disability. Rather, the Court concluded that, at least in the great purges essay, some circumstances, an employer may have an obligation to accommodate the off-duty use of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Like the Rhode Island trial court in essay culture, Callaghan v. Darlington Fabrics Corporation , the Massachusetts Court determined that the medical marijuana act implicitly recognizes that off-site medical marijuana might be a permissible accommodation of an individual’s disability, and further concluded that the fact that marijuana may be illegal under federal law does not make it per se unreasonable as an accommodation. The court rejected arguments that the dissertation creation poetique, federal classification of marijuana as a controlled, and thus illegal, substance should preempt the state law classification. German Culture. First, the court noted that only the plaintiff, and purges not the german culture, employer, risked federal prosecution for using marijuana, and therefore the legality of its use should not impact a determination of its reasonableness as an in harari, accommodation.
Second, the court concluded that to adopt the federal classification would be to culture, improperly reject the determination of Massachusetts voters to legalize the drug for medical use. Notably, just because the plaintiff may proceed on her disability discrimination claim does not mean she ultimately will succeed. This decision comes at the motion to dismiss stage, and the employer still has the act essay view, opportunity to demonstrate on summary judgment or at trial that accommodating the plaintiff’s marijuana use would constitute an undue hardship. This decision is the first in any state in which the applicable medical marijuana act merely decriminalizes to permit a disability discrimination claim to proceed on such facts. The decision calls into german culture question whether, even in creation, these states, employers may maintain zero tolerance marijuana testing policies. Prior to essay german culture, this year, decisions in other jurisdictions have held that employers operating in such jurisdictions may enforce such policies and take adverse action against action, medical marijuana users simply for testing positive.
With claims in Rhode Island and now Massachusetts surviving motions to dismiss, these decisions may indicate a trend by courts to provide greater protections for german culture, lawful medical marijuana users. Wherever employers operate, it is clear that they must take added precautions in administering their drug testing policies. While employers may continue to prohibit the act essay view, on-duty use of german, or impairment by marijuana, employers must consider the critical in information, following when testing for marijuana: Employers should review their drug-testing policies to ensure that they (a) set clear expectations of employees; (b) provide justifications for essay, the need for drug-testing; and (c) expressly allow for adverse action (including termination or refusal to thinking skills in information, hire) as a consequence of a positive drug test. Employers may consider or be required to adjust or relax certain hiring policies to german culture, accommodate lawful medical marijuana users. When an individual tests positive ostensibly because marijuana is used to treat a disability, employers, particularly those in Massachusetts, may be required to engage in the interactive process.
First, however, employers should evaluate whether the individual has a qualified disability that warrants an accommodation and whether allowing the in harari, individual to use medicinal marijuana would allow rather than hinder the individual’s ability to german, perform the essential functions of the job. Employers concerned with the application of federal law may, during the act essay view, interactive process, explore whether another equally effective medical alternatives to marijuana use may enable the individual to perform the essential functions of the essay german culture, job. Note, however, employers in thesis action verbs, states requiring accommodation of medical marijuana use may be prohibited from exploring these alternatives. Essay German Culture. Where no such alternative exists or can be agreed upon, employers who cannot accommodate even lawful, off-duty medicinal marijuana use must be prepared to demonstrate that such accommodation would constitute an thesis action verbs, undue hardship. Any such decision should be well-documented and well-coordinated by the relevant stakeholders.
In any case, hiring managers should be trained not to provide assurances as to whether and how marijuana use may be accommodated. If an applicant or employee discloses marijuana use, that disclosure should immediately be referred to Human Resources and addressed by a Human Resources professional in coordination with counsel. Clearly, employers enforcing zero-tolerance policies should be prepared for future challenges to such policies. In Massachusetts as well as in those states prohibiting discrimination against and/or requiring accommodation of medical marijuana users, such challenges are now more likely to survive a motion to dismiss. DFEH Publishes Materials to Assist Employers with Handling Harassment Allegations. The Department of Fair Employment and Housing (DFEH) recently released a brief, nine-page guide for California employers, which was prepared in conjunction with the California Sexual Harassment Task Force.
This guide is intended to assist employers in developing an effective anti-harassment program, including information about how to properly investigate reports of harassment and understand what recourse is available. The guide addresses all forms of workplace harassment, including harassment based on sex. Specifically, the guide provides employers with information regarding the particular components for an effective anti-harassment program in the workplace. Essay Culture. The DFEH also gives employers step-by-step guidance for epenthesis, how to properly handle harassment complaints and any resulting investigations. The guide discusses topics such as confidentiality during the investigation, the timeliness of an german, investigation, and investigator qualifications and training. In its discussion of proper investigations, the DFEH provides nine “credibility factors” which an investigator may utilize in making a determination. These factors include a party’s motive to lie, any history of dishonesty, the manner of testimony – including hesitant speech and skills indirect answers – and the party’s demeanor during the investigation. German. The guide also addresses what employers should do in unusual situations, such as: what to do when the target of dissertation, harassment asks an employer not to act, how to investigate anonymous complaints, and how to handle retaliation.
The DFEH emphasizes the german, employer’s legal obligation to prevent and correct unlawful harassing behavior, and provides information regarding remedial measures. While some of the great purges essay, these tips may seem intuitive, this guide is a good refresher for even the savviest of employers. In conjunction with the guide, the essay, DFEH also released an easy-to-follow brochure and corresponding poster specifically addressing sexual harassment, which employers can provide to their employees, in compliance with California Government Code section 12950(b). Periods Essay. The brochure and poster echo many of the essay german culture, same tips as the guide, but focus solely on sexual harassment. The poster and brochure include an explanation of what constitutes sexual harassment, provide examples of harassing behavior that may occur in the workplace, detail the civil remedies for harassing conduct, and outline an dissertation, employer’s responsibilities and liability when allegations of sexual harassment are made.
Employers should utilize these DFEH resources when investigating and responding to claims of harassment made in the workplace. Latest ADA Decision Gives Businesses Another Reason to Consider Their Website’s Accessibility. Our colleague Joshua A. Stein, a Member of the Firm at Epstein Becker Green, has a post on the Retail Labor and Employment Law blog that will be of interest to many of our readers in the health care industry: “Latest Website Accessibility Decision Further Marginalizes the culture, Viability of Due Process and Primary Jurisdiction Defenses.” Following is an excerpt: In the latest of an increasing number of recent website accessibility decisions, in Gorecki v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. (Case No.: 2:17-cv-01131-JFW-SK) , the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California denied Hobby Lobby’s motion to dismiss a website accessibility lawsuit on due process and primary jurisdiction grounds. In doing so, the Hobby Lobby decision further calls into question the verbs, precedential value of the Central District of California’s recent outlier holding in Robles v. Dominos Pizza LLC (Case No.: 2:16-cv-06599-SJO-FFM) which provided businesses with hope that the essay german, tide of recent decisions might turn in their favor. … Employee Laid Off Six Weeks After Taking Medical Leave Fails to Show Reassignment to “Sham Position”; FMLA Claims Dismissed. What obligations does an thesis action, employer have to an employee returning from leave under the essay german culture, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)? What must the employer do if it was forced to fill that employee’s position during the employee’s absence? How long after the employee returns must the critical thinking skills in information, employer wait before taking an adverse action against that employee?
The U.S. Court of essay culture, Appeals for the Fourth Circuit recently provided guidance to employers who frequently face these questions in the context of FMLA administration. In Waag v. Sotera Defense Solutions, Inc. Epenthesis In Harari. , the employer, Sotera, filled the position of an employee, Gary Waag, while he was out on FMLA leave, and german culture assigned Waag to a different position when he returned. Less than six weeks later, Sotera laid off Waag in a workforce reduction. Waag filed suit claiming FMLA interference and retaliation. The Fourth Circuit affirmed the lower court’s dismissal of the case, holding that Sotera was not required to return Waag to his original position and that Sotera reassigned him to longer periods, a bona fide equivalent position, not a “sham position” meant to mask a discriminatory or retaliatory reason for his termination. Most importantly, the court held that the essay culture, “temporal proximity” of six weeks’ time between Waag’s return from action verbs medical leave and his termination was insufficient by itself for him to succeed on essay culture his FMLA interference claim. Plaintiff Waag took a two-month medical leave to recuperate from creation poetique a severe head injury. During Waag’s absence, Sotera filled his position.
Upon his return, Waag was assigned to a new position in a different division, albeit with the same salary, benefits, and terms and culture conditions of employment. Six weeks after Waag returned to work, a drastic drop in work and revenue caused Sotera to begin a series of reductions in force, and Waag was included in the first round of dissertation creation, layoffs. Waag filed suit, alleging that Sotera violated his FMLA rights by putting him in german culture, a “sham position” that Sotera planned to eliminate shortly after his return from epenthesis in harari leave. The Fourth Circuit rejected Waag’s claims. Addressing Waag’s claim of FMLA interference for failure to restore him to the same or an equivalent position, the court emphasized that Waag did not have an absolute right to reinstatement to culture, his original position. Rather, an employee “has the right to be restored either to his original position or to an equivalent position,” and an employer is not required to poetique, restore the employee to essay culture, his original position if that position is no longer vacant. Sotera fulfilled its obligations under the creation poetique, FMLA by german, reassigning Waag to a bona fide equivalent position with “substantially similar duties and responsibilities.” Regarding Waag’s claim of FMLA interference based on his termination, the court held that although the essay, close, six-week temporal proximity between his protected activity (medical leave) and the adverse action (termination) could demonstrate causation for purposes of establishing a prima facie case, it was insufficient standing alone to satisfy Waag’s burden of showing that his reassignment and the budgetary reduction-in-force were pretext for his termination. Finally, the essay german culture, court rejected Waag’s claim of FMLA retaliation for act essay view, failing to prove retaliatory intent. This decision provides important guidance for employers reintegrating employees returning from FMLA leave.
It makes clear that employers are not required to restore an employee to the exact same position held before taking leave, particularly where the original position had to be filled during the employee’s leave. Indeed, employers are not required to hold open the employee’s original position while that person remains on essay german leave. Employers instead may place the employee in an equivalent position with the same status, pay, benefits, and “substantially similar duties and responsibilities.” If intervening factors arise causing the employer to terminate the employee, either while on leave or shortly after returning from act essay view leave, the temporal proximity between the leave and the termination decision alone will not substantiate an FMLA claim – at least in the Fourth Circuit. (Employers should be aware that courts in other jurisdictions may more closely scrutinize the temporal proximity and rely upon it in assessing pretext.) In these instances, however, it is german culture particularly important that an employer can point to documentary evidence of the legitimate, non-discriminatory reasons supporting the termination decision. As a best practice, employers should contemporaneously document and clearly communicate their reasons for taking such adverse actions. Finally, while the subject was not raised in this case, employers should always be cognizant of their obligations under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), especially after an employee has exhausted FMLA leave. Depending on the employee’s reason for creation poetique, leave, the ADA may impose additional obligations – beyond those of the FMLA –to extend the employee’s leave, transfer or reassign the employee, or otherwise accommodate the essay german culture, employee.
In matters involving the interplay of the FMLA and ADA, employers are advised to consult with counsel to determine the proper course of action.
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The Gun: A Violent History of the AK-47. It is perhaps the essay most potent question to echo from the the great cold war: Who lost Vietnam? Well, there were certainly many factors, but an important new book forces us to consider this: For the first time in human history, a poorly trained peasant army humbled a great power with the essay culture gun its fighters carried in their hands. Skills? This is the story of that gun, and of the scandalous way that Washington responded to german culture it. An exclusive adaptation. The Marines of Hotel Company's 1st Platoon spread out as they walked through the act essay view shin-high grass. Culture? In front of them was their next destination: the village of in harari Ap Sieu Quan, a cluster of buildings surrounded by german culture paddies and critical thinking in information technology dikes just south of the demilitarized zone in the Quang Tri province of Vietnam. The village looked deserted and menacing in the rising late-morning heat. Culture? At least three North Vietnamese army battalions had infiltrated the area, an agricultural belt in the coastal lowlands where the longer periods essay jungles and mountains drained into essay, the South China Sea. Hotel Company's 2nd Platoon had been hit by an NVA unit in Ap Sieu Quan a short while before. Now the the great company was converging.
The Marines were exposed as they moved. The only approach passed over essay open ground. Staff Sergeant Claude Elrod, the platoon commander, was on edge. The Great Purges Essay? It was his first mission in the delta since being shot and patched up several weeks before. Ordinarily, a lieutenant would lead a Marine platoon, but in culture, H Company, too many lieutenants had been shot. The Great Purges? He walked near the front of the formation, sensing trouble ahead. Hotel Company was one of the bloodied outfits in 2nd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, which in 1967 served as a mobile reaction force for much of Vietnam. It was July 21. Early the previous morning, several CH-46 helicopters had landed to the northwest, left the company behind, and roared back toward their ship off the essay german culture coast. The insertion marked the opening of Operation Bear Chain, a mission to interdict food and ammunition caches along the road to Hue City, Da Nang, and Saigon.
In theory, the battalion resided on amphibious ships as a theater reserve. In practice, its units were constantly ashore, shuttled from fight to fight. This had been the periods rhythm for essay months. Mission by mission, firefight by firefight, booby trap by booby trap, the critical in information rhythm had exacted its toll. The battalion's ranks had been thinned. The survivors were tired.
Even after absorbing replacements who showed up between operations, the essay german platoons fought at one-half to two-thirds strength, including men, like Elrod, who had been wounded but were judged fit enough to send back out. For the United States military, which had defeated the Japanese army in the 1940s and repelled communist divisions from South Korea a decade later, Vietnam presented a confounding foe. The Vietcong guerrillas and North Vietnamese regulars were marginally educated, lightly equipped, minimally trained. More than half the purges essay NVA soldiers in late 1966 had six years or less of education, and three quarters of them had less than eighteen months in their army. They were peasants, agrarian villagers indoctrinated in Marxist-Leninist ideology and fighting according to tactics articulated by Mao. American intelligence officials marveled that few of them had undergone significant training with live ammunition before being sent out against South Vietnamese and essay American forces.
Many captured enemy fighters told of critical thinking skills technology firing weapons for the first time only in essay german, combat. And yet by 1967 the Vietcong and act essay view the NVA were killing nearly eight hundred American servicemen each month. One reason for their success was their weapons. In the mid-1950s, the Kremlin had provided Mao's arms engineers with the technical specifications for its new assault rifle, the AK-47. China had set up assembly lines to make its own version — the Type 56 — and by essay german 1964 had distributed huge quantities of these weapons in Southeast Asia. The weapons were in some ways the ultimate compromise firearm: Shorter and purges lighter than traditional rifles but larger than submachine guns, they could be fired either automatically or a single shot at a time. Their smaller, intermediate-power cartridges allowed soldiers and guerrillas to essay carry more ammunition into critical, battle than before, and reduced the costs and burdens of german resupply.
All this and poetique they were an eminently well designed tool — reliable, durable, resistant to corrosion, and with moderate recoil and a design so simple that their basics could be mastered in a matter of hours. German? A large fraction of the Vietcong and North Vietnamese army combatants now carried these new assault rifles as their primary weapons. In some units the saturation rate was as high as 75 percent, and creation many soldiers had been given a basic load of 390 cartridges to go with their new gun. Vietnam was this new breed of rifleman's war: The majority of American combat fatalities, statistics would show, were caused by small-arms fire. This was new. For the first time, local fighters were a technological match against the well-equipped expeditionary forces of an empire. Essay German Culture? The battlefield had been leveled. Stalin's rifle, once a hushed secret, had broken out. Act Essay View? It was changing the experience of small-unit war. Then came reaction. Since the AK-47, or Kalashnikov, had first surfaced, the American military had dismissed it as cheap and ineffective.
But as this new weapon's cracking bursts were heard in battle each day, the Eastern bloc's assault rifle at last captured the essay german culture Pentagon's attention. It marked the Kremlin's influence on how war was experienced by combatants of longer essay limited means — the Kalashnikov-carrying guerrilla, a common man with portable and easy-to-use automatic arms, was now in essay, the field by the tens of thousands, and these men were outgunning American troops. To close the gun gap, the epenthesis in harari Pentagon rushed the M16 into service. Staff Sergeant Elrod was crossing the last ditch when a bullet smacked a bamboo branch near his head. He heard Kalashnikov fire as he dropped. Down the Marines of 1st Platoon went — shouting, returning fire, dashing in the pandemonium of first contact.
There are moments in firefights when combat can become, in an instant, lonely and isolating. Since World War I, after automatic weapons had become prevalent and tactics evolved to account for them, foot soldiers had learned to spread out, scattering the targets they presented. Dispersion reduced risks to units. It also served to increase the individual's sense of disassociation. One moment the german soldier was part of a group. The next, in act essay view, sudden battle, he could find himself alone. A man's world compressed to a frantic and companionless space, punctuated by the disorienting roars and blasts of incoming and outgoing fire. Private First Class Alfred Nickelson, one of the platoon's Marines, had entered one of these inner zones.
A bullet had passed so close by that it seemed to clap beside his ear. More bullets thumped the soil around him. He pressed himself down, trying to culture make himself small. For a few seconds, he had the selfish thought of a trapped man in what might be his last moment alive. All these guys out the great purges here in the field to shoot, he thought. Essay German Culture? Why are they trying to purges essay shoot only culture me? Then he collected himself. He knew each man's fate was tied to the platoon, and the platoon survived only if it fought. Longer Lunch Periods? He would fight.
He lifted his head and saw a Vietnamese soldier in a tree line. He raised his M16, lined up the rifle's sights, and eased back on the trigger. He had set his M16 selector switch on essay culture automatic. One round blasted out. Then nothing. His M16 had jammed. Oh, fuck , he said. At the edge of the village, Staff Sergeant Elrod estimated that he had met an NVA platoon. The Marines of the dissertation creation 1940s and 1950s had faced human-wave attacks in german, Asia. This was something else. Dissertation Poetique? Two dozen of this new breed of combatant, armed with assault rifles and german using modern tactics, could stop two hundred.
First Platoon's Marines were flat to the ground. Bullets whipped around them. Epenthesis In Harari? The staff sergeant needed firepower to match what was coming in. But something was wrong. The Marines assigned to protect the M60 machine-gun crew were not firing.
They were crouched, madly working on their M16's. He ran to one of them. The man's rifle was jammed. The staff sergeant looked at the others. Their weapons were jammed, too. The United States Marine Corps, built around its riflemen, was in battle with rifles that did not work.
Adrenaline pulsed through the german staff sergeant. Dissertation Creation Poetique? He was slicked with sweat, furious, confused. First Platoon was stuck. Of the many effects of the german culture international distribution of the Kalashnikov assault rifle, its influence on epenthesis the American military was among the least understood and most profound. The AK-47's utility for guerrilla war, terror, and crime could have been readily foreseen.
The bad choices it spurred in the Pentagon were not so predictable. Throughout the german culture 1950s, the United States had missed the significance of the spread of Eastern-bloc small arms. Jolted alert by the communist assault rifle's large-scale arrival in Vietnam, the Pentagon realized it was outmatched. Epenthesis In Harari? The Army abruptly selected the M16 for general service in the war. Had the early M16 been reliable, this might have been a straightforward and simple development, a story as old as war.
One side gets a new weapon, the other side matches it in kind. In this way, Vietnam became the essay german first large conflict in which both sides carried assault rifles — initially in small numbers but eventually as the predominant firearm. But the American adoption of assault rifles flowed from reaction rather than from foresight or planning, and it was painful and bungled. Today the M16 is a quintessential American arm, the longest-serving standard infantry rifle in GI history, and a weapon familiar to millions of soldiers who have carried it and who have strong feelings about thesis verbs it, good or bad. Essay German Culture? The early M16 and its ammunition formed a combination not ready for war. They were a flawed pair emerging from a flawed development history. Prone to malfunction, they were forced into troops' hands through a clash of wills and egos in Robert McNamara's Pentagon. Instead of act essay view a thoughtful progression from prototype to general-issue arm, the german M16's journey was marked by salesmanship, sham science, cover-ups, chicanery, incompetence, and no small amount of essay dishonesty by a manufacturer and senior military officers. Its introduction to war was briefly heralded as a triumph of private industry and perceptive management. It swiftly became a monument to the hazards of hubris and the perils of rushing, a study in military management gone awry.
An account of the M16's ascension from jet-age curio to standard American firearm could start in many places, but the velocity began with the essay inauguration of in information President John F. Kennedy in 1961. Kennedy brought with him McNamara as secretary of defense. McNamara was a graduate of essay german Harvard Business School, a former executive at Ford, and a believer in an approach to decision making called systems analysis, which centered on intensive study of problems and options, with examinations of costs, benefits, and epenthesis risks of potential decisions. McNamara and his followers saw themselves as a rarefied pool of essay german culture talent, and they merged aggressive management style with a Kennedy mandate to look past nuclear war and develop the technology doctrine, organization, and equipment for flexible responses to german conflicts overseas. This meant limited war, which further meant countering the Eastern bloc in proxy fights. Several of McNamara's officials turned their attention to the question of the rifle. The rifle conundrum was significant. America's military machine had entered the nuclear age with an array of essay fearsome killing tools. The Air Force had supersonic jets and culture intercontinental missiles; the Army was fielding new battle tanks to enhance divisions that had settled into Europe; the Navy had launched a nuclear aircraft carrier.
Yet when it came to the most basic tool of empire and of war — the infantry rifle — the Pentagon had sputtered and stalled. Purges Essay? The government had spent more than a decade bringing forward the M14, a big weapon made according to the almost religiously held rifle traditions of the time. The M14 was a heavyweight and essay german culture hewed closely to the legends of American frontier marksmen with eagle eyes and far-shooting, powerful rifles. Its automatic-fire version weighed more than twelve pounds, stretched almost four feet long, and action verbs had both tremendous recoil and heavy ammunition, which meant soldiers could carry a limited amount of rounds. Essay German? The Army spent huge sums on its development, only to discover that soldiers equipped with M14's were outmaneuvered and outshot by opponents with AK-47's, which were almost perfectly suited to the short-range fighting in the vegetation of Vietnam. America's ordnance officials had lost the arms race of their lives. Just when troops needed a smaller automatic rifle, their government had nothing for them.
The alternative rifle that caught McNamara's eye, at first known as the AR-15 , had sprung from ArmaLite, a private southern California concern. ArmaLite was an infant and an upstart, a company that began as a workshop in the Hollywood garage of George Sullivan, the patent counsel for Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. Sullivan was an engineer fascinated with the possibilities of applying new materials to change the way rifles looked and felt. In 1953, he met Paul Cleaveland, secretary of the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation, at an industry luncheon. The pair talked about lightweight firearms and new ways to manufacture them. Cleaveland mentioned the conversation to Richard Boutelle, Fairchild's president, who was a gun buff, too. Boutelle and Sullivan agreed to collaborate, and ArmaLite was founded in act essay view, 1954 as a tiny Fairchild division.
It hired a former Marine, Eugene Stoner, as a designer. One of the early creations was the AR-15, made at the informal request of an Army general who wanted a prototype rifle that would fire a small, high-speed round. The AR-15 looked like nothing else in culture, military service. It had an aluminum receiver, plastic furniture, and an odd-looking carrying handle. It was thirty-nine inches long.
It weighed, when unloaded, roughly 6.5 pounds, about half the weight of an automatic M14. Its appearance — small, dark, lean, and synthetically futuristic — stirred emotions. To its champions, the AR-15 was an embodiment of act essay view fresh thinking. German Culture? Critics saw an ugly toy. Wherever one stood, no one denied the creation poetique ballistics were intriguing. Stoner had designed a narrow but powerful new cartridge, the german culture .223, for act essay view his weapon. The cartridge's propellant and the AR-15's twenty-inch barrel worked together to move a tiny bullet along at essay culture ultrafast speeds — in excess of thirty-two hundred feet per second, almost three times the act essay view speed of sound.
Here was a rifle with conceptual promise, albeit on practical merits it was untested and its sponsors at Fairchild were struggling financially. In January 1959, with few customers in sight and the Pentagon committed to german big rifles made according to old ideas, Fairchild transferred the AR-15's manufacturing rights to Colt's Firearms for $325,000 and act essay view a royalty-sharing guarantee. In summer 1960, Colt's took the AR-15 on the road, including to police departments around the United States, where its sales team fired into a variety of objects (automobiles and water cans were favorites) and essay culture engaged in giddy declarations of the rifle's powers. While automobiles were being pierced, punctured, and shredded, another salesman arranged for in harari General Curtis LeMay, then the Air Force's vice chief of staff, to be invited to Boutelle's birthday party at Boutelle's gentleman's farm in Maryland. LeMay, like Boutelle, was a gun buff.
The invitation was crafted to appeal. A sample AR-15, the new miracle gun, would be on essay hand for purges the general to fire. The party was held over the Fourth of July. The hosts set up three watermelons and invited the general to try his hand. German Culture? What followed was one of the odder moments in arms-procurement history. Watermelons were bright and fleshy in ways water cans were not, and when struck by longer periods the little rifle's ultrafast bullets, the essay first two fruits exploded in vivid red splashes. LeMay was so impressed that he spared the last melon; the party decided to thinking skills in information eat it. No doubt this was great fun. It was also nonsense.
But salesmanship was salesmanship. Colt's salesman understood that the german culture Air Force wanted its own automatic rifle for defending strategic-missile sites. He also knew that LeMay was unimpressed with the M14. Lunch Essay? Colt's, for the price of fresh fruit and cold cocktails, had a convert. In 1961, LeMay became Air Force chief of staff, and in 1962, the Air Force entered a contract with Colt's for eighty-five hundred rifles. This was a small order. Essay German Culture? But just like that, the AR-15 entered the American military arms system via a side door. The rifle's first acceptance occurred as Washington was stepping up its involvement in Vietnam. Dissertation? McNamara, who had been watching Southeast Asia with alarm, was already enthused about the weapon and had authorized its use in german culture, secret combat trials with Vietnamese soldiers. For the secretary, the AR-15 provided a means to the great purges essay both match the Kalashnikov and to show up the Pentagon establishment and the ordnance community, whom he did not trust. Colt's new rifle had momentum.
It is worth a pause to consider the significance of the essay step not taken. After McNamara's team endorsed the assault-rifle concept, the United States military could have decided what it wanted an assault rifle to be and to act essay view do. German Culture? This would have been a matter of proposing specifications for caliber, muzzle velocity, weight, accuracy, and any number of other characteristics. These specifications could then have been provided to government designers and private industry — to Ruger, to Colt's, to Remington, to Winchester, to Browning, to act essay view Cadillac Gage, and others — with a deadline for design submissions. German Culture? In doing so, the intellectual capital of the private sector would have been invited to compete.
And when the deadline came, the act essay view Pentagon would have had multiple designs from essay, which to select. Instead, the United States had a hyped rifle rising through the bureaucracy with little testing or vigorous competition. Its selection process looked less like deliberation than lunging. And as McNamara and General William Westmoreland pushed and pulled the rifle along, the signs from tests and field reports of poetique its emerging weaknesses were suppressed. Colt's assault rifle, the internal reports said, was vulnerable to corrosion and given to malfunctions. No matter. The most senior military officials knew American troops were being outshot. They ordered the M16 — as the military's version of the essay culture AR-15 was named — first in act essay view, a batch of essay german culture 104,000, and then as the standard firearm for the war. The rollout began. By February 1967, Hotel Company had been given its share of M16's during a refit on Okinawa and turned in its M14's.
The troops grasped the advantages of a lightweight automatic rifle with little recoil. They knew they could now carry more rounds into each firefight. They were satisfied with how the act essay view rifles, fresh from crates, handled on ranges. There was concern about a shortage of cleaning gear, but otherwise everything seemed in order. A few weeks later, Hotel Company returned to Vietnam. On a sweep of the countryside on April 26, a few M16's jammed.
But the fighting was not intensive. The problem was attributed to unfamiliarity with the rifle, perhaps combined with inadequate cleaning, though the Marines who were cleaning the weapons thought this was not so. Then came the shock. In late April, the battalion was preparing for combat against culture dug-in NVA units on Hills 861 and 881 near Khe Sanh. On April 30, the in information technology company moved out on foot again, jumping into an attack at first light with 2nd and essay german 3rd Platoons abreast of each other. In 3rd Platoon, as Lieutenant Thomas Givvin, the commander, moved uphill, he found at least five M16's with cleaning rods forced down their barrels resting on the ground. These were the discards of Marines who had fought on the hill several days before. Hotel Company walked through tall elephant grass and was attacked. The ambush turned swiftly into a brutal close-quarters fight. Rifle by rifle, several of the the great purges Marines' new M16's jammed. The malfunctions had consistency; the most common was the failure of the essay culture rifle to action extract a spent shell casing after a bullet was fired.
To resume fighting, the troops needed to thread together a rifle-cleaning rod, plunge the rod down the essay german culture barrel, and knock the spent case free, a movement akin to what soldiers did in dissertation creation, the Revolutionary War. After conferring by radio with the battalion commander, the company commander, Captain Raymond Madonna, ordered the Marines to fall back so he could call in essay german culture, air strikes and artillery fire. The company suffered eight dead Marines and action one dead corpsman that day. Culture? Forty-three others were wounded. On May 3, the in information technology remnants of Hotel Company and part of Foxtrot Company were ordered to help Echo Company, which had been pinned down in essay german culture, front of a bunker network. Foxtrot would approach from the southeast. Hotel would attack from the north; its plan was to strike the enemy's rear.
The Marines began a flanking movement down a ravine and act essay view through triple-canopy jungle; they moved for as long as nine hours. The company had only one platoon — 1st — still at fighting strength. As the sweat-soaked Marines at last moved near the bunkers and were preparing to essay german culture rush, the captain gave an order over the radio to his platoon commander, Lieutenant Ord Elliott: Fix bayonets. He was effectively telling men to prepare to fight to the death, hand to hand. The order was superfluous. Elliott had already told the men to ready their knives. Critical? With bayonets affixed, the german culture officers thought, the Marines whose M16's failed might slash or stab their way through the fight. It was the creation poetique age of the german culture B-52 Stratofortress and the submarine-launched Polaris ballistic missile. A Marine Corps platoon and company commander were preparing their men for an attack in which they would wield their rifles like lances, swords, and spears.
The Hill Fights were among the bloodiest battles yet in the war. More than 150 Marines were killed. Several hundred more were wounded. Days later, as the battle wound down, M16 jamming had been widespread enough that sadly surreal scenes unfolded at one helicopter landing zone, where wounded Marines waited to be evacuated. Healthy men wandered among the casualties, asking their bloodied colleagues if their rifles had worked. When they found a wounded Marine whose rifle had performed well, they exchanged a faulty M16 for the M16 that had reliably fired. Initial acceptance of the purges essay M16's had turned to disgust. One survivor vented to the Asbury Park Evening Press : Believe it or not, you know what killed most of essay us? he wrote. Our own rifle. If the grim news and essay angry accounts from battle arrived as a surprise for the public, there was little about them that was surprising for those who manufactured and fielded the german culture rifle.
The M16's jamming was related to longer lunch periods essay several factors — including changes to the ammunition's powder, poor corrosion resistance, an absence of chromium in the chambers, and german others — that had previously been identified, either in the military's stateside testing or from longer essay, examinations of rifles used in essay, Vietnam. Colt's had sent engineering teams to Vietnam since at skills in information least 1966, whenRobert D. Fremont, a company engineer, reported in writing to his bosses that major problems with corrosion were turning up in culture, the war. He recommended the possible use of stainless steel for barrels or chrome plating the chambers and bores of the the great essay AR-15 weapons in order to combat corrosion and essay neglect. His summary was chilling. Colt's weapons, he wrote, are sadly lacking in corrosion resistance. Three weeks later, David Behrendt, a Colt's engineer assigned to Vietnam, mailed audiotapes back to his supervisors. Many M16's were jamming, he said. Almost all were corroded. Working alongside soldiers, Behrendt restored most rifles to working order.
But it was not a good sign that a corporate engineer with a bag of parts was required to keep a new rifle in service. Combat equipment was supposed to be hardier than that. Behrendt noted, too, that the longer lunch new powder was making the M16 run fast. Engineers had been working on essay culture a replacement part — a buffer inside the return spring — that would slow the act essay view weapons down. But none were yet in Vietnam. Speaking into a tape recorder halfway around the german world, he urged action. You better get that new buffer over action verbs here right pronto to stop some of this malfunction.
Colt's data accumulated. Another rep in Vietnam, J. B. Hall, summed matters up. Hall had met veterans of Operation Attleboro, one of the largest battles to date. The operation had been a startling experience. Marines faced heavy Vietcong automatic-rifle fire, and their M16's jammed. There is no question that soldiers in Vietnam are losing confidence in the M16 rifle, Hall wrote. It is imperative that we take all steps possible to correct the situation. Hall's report was the most urgent.
It included a list: Plate the bore and chamber with chromium, install heavier buffers, correct the corrosion problems on receivers and barrels, and find a way to essay cover the magazines when not being fired. He offered a recommendation: a crash program to provide a better weapon. A little more than two weeks later, the longer lunch essay latest news of the M16's poor performance reached the top of the Army. Colonel Harold Yount visited the Pentagon to brief Colonel Richard Hallock. Hallock's interest in the M16 was zealous and essay culture personal. He had been an early supporter of the rifle, and more than four years before he had been a supervisor of Project AGILE — a secret combat test with Vietnamese soldiers wielding AR-15's that had given the new weapon much of its early internal military hype. Act Essay View? The meeting marked a potentially agonizing moment. The weapon he had advocated was failing, and as near as he could tell, the failures were getting American soldiers killed. What to do? Hallock filed a classified memo detailing the meeting. It left no doubt that the Army had long understood the scope and nature of the M16's problems, had done little to resolve them, and still was moving slowly to help soldiers in Vietnam.
I asked if he had a plan to retrofit the weapons in the field with this buffer and he said he did not. First production of the culture new buffer, he said, would be in January and they would go on dissertation creation poetique new weapons. He said that if the buffers were sent to culture the field for poetique the old weapons they would not be available to go on the new weapons that also are going to the field. Essay German? I asked if he had plans to get a special priority to increase the production rate and speed up availability of the buffer and dissertation poetique he apparently did not. Culture? I also asked about clearing up the fouling caused by ball powder.
He did not say that anything definitive had been done to correct the poetique problem. I asked him if there were any reports yet from Vietnam indicating the occurrence, in fact, of the excessive malfunctions that one would expect. . Essay German? He said there were some, but didn't elaborate. Colonel Yount's inaction was not how military officers were expected to purges carry out their duties. Colonel Hallock wanted the culture problems remedied. But he was equally interested in restricting who knew of in harari them. There was a scandal to contain, even if it meant limiting the number of technicians working to fix the malfunctions. Colonel Hallock impressed upon culture, his peer the need to keep quiet. After returning to his office, Colonel Yount made a change. As of November 29, his weekly significant action report as head of the office managing the M16 carried a new line: The report must not be reproduced, filed or referenced in any official correspondence.
Only he and two other people were allowed to keep file copies of critical skills in information his reports. All other copies, he wrote, will be destroyed within 10 days of receipt. At a time when the M16 program desperately needed candor, attention, and more resources, and when commanders and troops in the field should have been informed of the problems emerging in Vietnam, another cover-up had begun. The betrayal reached beyond those safe in the Pentagon and on bases stateside. A din of complaints about M16 jamming was rising from the ranks.
But the replies of essay german culture generals in Vietnam mixed paternalistic denials that the critical skills in information M16 was failing with strong defenses of the essay german culture weapon's merits. Marine officers followed the Army's pattern: They blamed the troops for the weapon's problems. Purges? At a press conference in essay german, Da Nang just after the battles for Hills 861 and 881, one commander, Lieutenant General Lewis W. Act Essay View? Walt of the 3rd Marine Amphibious Force, delivered a classic performance of an officer who has lost touch with his men. First he declared that the Marines in his command were 100 percent sold on the M16. Most of those who had relied on the weapon in battle, he added, have nothing but praise for it. This can only essay german be read as a lie. Epenthesis In Harari? General Walt pressed on. He put blame for malfunctions squarely upon german culture, individual Marines and dissertation creation their NCOs and officers, saying they had either not adequately maintained their rifles or had tried to force too many rounds into their magazines.
This was a slap at men at war. Essay Culture? In a resonant slip of the thinking skills in information tongue, General Walt added that rumors of unsatisfactory M16 performance were started by a very, very small majority. German? Not long after the press conference, General Walt was reassigned to Washington. Act Essay View? In July, the month of Operation Bear Chain, the commandant of the Marine Corps, General Wallace Greene, repeated General Walt's position, calling the M16 ideally suited for Vietnam. Essay Culture? The brass had set a tone. Essay? With the generals standing behind the M16, complaints had little chance of finding a supporting audience. The Marines in german, Vietnam were on thesis action verbs their own. By early 1967, the sense that something was terribly wrong had reached Washington. Angry troops were sending home letters.
Journalists were hearing complaints. Reports of the AK-47's reliability were also providing an obvious contrast. The Washington Daily News posed the question. In the past two years, with amazing competence and german thoroness [sic], the communists have replaced their earlier inferior weapons with the rapid firing AK-47 automatic assault rifle of Soviet design and Red Chinese manufacture. . The AK-47 . is action verbs as good as the new M-16 rifle U. S. Essay? troops use. It is less liable to jam and therefore, in the opinion of periods essay some experts, may even be better. German Culture? . Thesis Action? Why is it that North Vietnam, with aid from its Chinese ally, could foresee the need and meet it, despite all sorts of obstacles? Why is it that the german culture U. S., with its $25 billion to $30 billion yearly war budget, superlative defense plants, and in harari reputed logistic superiority, could not keep pace? By spring 1967, the problems had become so widely known that Congress took an interest. On May 3, 1967, Representative L. Essay German? Mendel Rivers, chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, appointed Representative Richard H. Ichord as head of a special subcommittee to examine the development, production, distribution and sale of critical thinking skills in information M-16 rifles. Ichord steered wide of the question of which weapon was better — the M14 or the essay culture M16. If the military wanted the M16, so be it.
He wanted to know why the M16 was malfunctioning at thinking skills in information an unacceptably high rate. One rifle-failure incident after another eroded public confidence. Senator Peter H. Essay Culture? Dominick of Colorado visited Vietnam that May. He inquired about the M16. He was told it was a good weapon. Someone produced an M16 and handed it to in harari the senator, who tried to essay culture fire it. Skills In Information? It jammed. In June, members of Ichord's panel held their own test with an essay german M16 provided by Colt's. Act Essay View? If any one M16 might have been expected to perform flawlessly, this should have been it: the german test rifle a manufacturer facing congressional investigation presented as a sample to Congress. The subcommittee's rifle jammed several times. No one needed to be told what this might mean in combat.
But another GI crystallized for the congressmen a particular species of nightmare: The other night we got a radio message from one of our night ambushes. . The last words they said were, out of hand grenades, all weapons jammed. The next morning when they got to them, their hands were all skinned up and cut and their stocks on their rifles were all broken from using them as clubs. Out in the field beside Ap Sieu Quan, Private First Class Nickelson worked on his jammed rifle. He had given away his position by the great purges essay firing. Bullets raked the grass nearby. He reached for a grenade, pulled the pin, and threw it as far as he could toward the trees; he hoped its blast would divert the culture attention of the enemy soldiers. After the explosion, he removed his rifle's magazine and pulled back on the charging handle to look inside the chamber.
The empty cartridge was stuck there. He cursed again and reached for his cleaning rod. Around him was chaos. Lunch? Nickelson pushed the rod down the muzzle and knocked the empty cartridge case clear. He returned the german culture magazine to its place and chambered a second round. Again he looked up and spotted the North Vietnamese soldier in the tree line. The man was on lunch his stomach, prone and firing out. Nickelson aimed his M16 and eased back on the trigger again. Firing on automatic, he hoped to hit the man multiple times. The first bullet hit the soldier in the left leg.
He watched him roll out of sight into essay german culture, the bushes. But Nickelson could not finish him. His rifle had jammed again. Just as it had on Hill 881, Hotel Company fell back. Aircraft and artillery hit the village. The company moved forward later, after the NVA had slipped away. Epenthesis In Harari? Hotel Company had suffered miserably once more.
Five Marines were dead, thirty were wounded. Nickelson had survived. He rose to essay german his feet but left his jammed rifle in the dirt. He had shipped to Vietnam a month before. Until that day, he had never handled this kind of rifle. In the United States, he had trained on an M14. Creation Poetique? In his one previous firefight, his M16 had jammed, too — after firing a single round. Nickelson was new to war, but he was no fool. German Culture? A rifle that failed in critical, battle was worse than useless.
It was detestable. As far as he was concerned, it was a discard. Upon arriving in-country, Nickelson had bought a .38 revolver from a soldier who was rotating home — part of an underground market for troops arming themselves with personal weapons as insurance against essay culture the failures of their issued guns. Now an officer ordered him to pick up his M16. Fuck you, Nickelson said. He would never carry an M16 again. Back on board the USS Tripoli after Hotel Company left Ap Sieu Quan, the company's executive officer, Lieutenant Michael Chervenak, seethed.
Chervenak was a man who followed his own compass. A former high school quarterback, he had graduated from Penn State and been accepted at naval flight school, which was a plum. He wanted to fly jets. When he was selected for helicopter training, he did something pilots in good standing at the school rarely do. Longer Periods? He quit, and asked for orders to essay the infantry in Vietnam. He was new to Hotel Company and had replaced an officer who was shot through the head on Hill 881. When he arrived, he heard of the M16's problems but reserved judgment until he had been in combat with the rifles himself. After Ap Sieu Quan, he was in a state of quiet rage.
He cleaned up and visited the stateroom where Captain Richard Culver, his company commander, was bunking. The officers discussed the lunch periods M16's malfunctions. The lieutenant wanted advice. What would Captain Culver think if he wrote an open letter detailing the company's experiences? The Marine Corps was not helping its Marines. The truth about the M16 needed to be told, somehow, if the problem was to be fixed. Captain Culver, a former enlisted man, was the son of a Marine. His father enlisted in 1918 at essay german age fifteen. Raised on bases, commanding a company at war, he was more than reluctant to speak outside the chain of command. But he knew this young officer was right.
Writing a letter, he told him, was a good idea. Lieutenant Chervenak found a typewriter in the chaplain's stateroom, and he and the captain composed a draft. When they finished, he climbed belowdecks to the enlisted quarters and epenthesis asked Staff Sergeant Elrod to read it. I am a Marine First Lieutenant and have been serving in a rifle company in Vietnam since the 15th of essay culture May. Ever since my arrival, immediately following the battle of hill 881, one controversy has loomed above all others — that of the M16 rifle. I feel that it is my duty and responsibility to report the truth about this rifle as I have seen it. My conscience will not let me rest. We are constantly told that improper cleaning and unfamiliarity with the weapon cause any malfunction which may occur.
Any rifle that requires cleaning to the degree they speak of has no place as a combat weapon. I believe that the cold, hard facts about the M_16 are clouded over by a fabrication of the truth for political and financial considerations. I have seen too many marines hiding behind a paddy dike trying to clear their rifle to epenthesis accept those explanations any longer. Our battalion has test fired these rifles on german culture numerous occasions, aboard the ship and in the field, to try to find a solution to this problem. All rifles were cleaned and inspected prior to these tests. Having supervised several of these tests, I will swear to the fact that at least 25 to 40% of the rifles malfunctioned at least once under these optimum conditions. During a recent fight on dissertation creation poetique the 21st of July, no fewer than 40 men in my company reported to me that their rifles had malfunctioned because of failure to extract. Essay German Culture? Because of these inoperative rifles we were severely hampered in our efforts to extract a platoon which had been pinned down.
Lack of sufficient firepower also caused us great difficulty in getting our casualties out. Having 40 rifles malfunction in any rifle company is a serious matter, and in an understrengthened company such as ours, the gravity of the situation is greatly increased. I do not mean for this letter to critical thinking skills in information slap at my battalion, the Marine Corps, the Colt Manufacturing Company, the essay german Defense Department or anyone else concerned. It is written out of dissertation poetique concern for the safety of the men in my company and of the german culture great morale problem that the critical thinking technology M16 causes. I will stand and stake my reputation on german the fact that we have had men wounded and perhaps killed because of inoperative rifles. The search for the truth is the great purges paramount in all of us and I ask you to look into german, this problem and search for the truth there . this problem has been overlooked too long and purges too many attempts have been made to gloss over a situation that endangers the german lives of men. Staff Sergeant Elrod finished the letter. He had served ten years, had seen lieutenants come and go, and had a strong sense of critical thinking in information technology how the officer ranks worked. Loyalty, by his read, meant working hard and shutting up. He liked the letter very much.
Hey, sir? he said. You're not planning to make the Marine Corps a career, are you? On July 27, Lieutenant Chervenak mailed four copies of the letter. He sent one to The Barnesboro Star , his hometown newspaper in Pennsylvania. He mailed another to The Washington Post . Essay German Culture? The last two went to the great purges Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Representative Ichord. On each he signed his name officially. In all the available records surrounding the bloody introduction of the essay culture M16, this stands as one of the few brave and candidly honest acts. It fell to a twenty-three-year-old lieutenant, his unit repeatedly thinned by casualties, to stake his name on dissertation the truth.
Back in Washington, Representative Ichord's subcommittee ground toward conclusion. The Army had stonewalled the investigation, but the congressmen understood viscerally that the M16's performance in culture, Vietnam was much worse than acknowledged. On October 19 the subcommittee published a scalding report. It declared the M16's malfunctions serious and excessive and labeled the Army and Marine Corps negligent. On October 29, The Washington Post published Lieutenant Chervenak's letter. His words had an critical thinking in information instant effect. The corps opened an investigation — not into the causes of the rifle's failures or the german culture slow reaction by the chain of command to troops' complaints but into the officer who dared to write to the Post . On December 3, a pair of representatives from Colt's and the Marine Corps caught up with the battalion at a base outside Da Nang. They had been ordered to follow up on the lieutenant's allegations. Marines gathered in the theater for a presentation, at which a Marine warrant officer opened with the familiar lines. He told his audience that the M16 was a good rifle, and if it was failing, it was because they were not cleaning it adequately. The Marines shouted and jeered.
The battalion commander demanded quiet. The representative from Colt's, Kanemitsu Ito, was shaken by their fury. The warrant officer and Ito held a technical inspection, and Marines filed by to show them their rifles. Ito was a decorated Koreanwar veteran himself, and a former test officer in the Army. He was small, lean, and muscular, a fastidious forty-seven-year-old man with a record of bravery who had roamed Vietnam trying to understand why Colt's rifles had performed so badly since at least 1966. He was conscientious to an almost excruciating degree. As the Marines filed past to show him rifles that had failed them, he worried that the troops might label him a profiteer. Critical Thinking In Information Technology? After all, he thought, every rifle to be replaced might be seen as another sale for Colt's.
He decided to let the warrant officer do the talking. Quietly, he watched. That night, emotionally and essay physically exhausted, Ito typed a letter and sent it back to Colt's. He had news. What Lieutenant Chervenak had written to the Post was not quite right. Matters were actually much worse — Ito and the great purges the warrant officer had condemned sixty-seven of the company's eightyfive M16's.
I walked into a den of essay german angry, feroucious [sic] lions when I visited the 2nd Battalion of the 3rd Marines. It was really a touchy situation. I would never ask anyone else to be in the situation I was in. Dissertation Poetique? The officers and a great majority of the men hated the M_16A1 rifles. They had a right to german culture hate it. Ito had been telling his bosses at longer lunch essay Colt's in clear terms for more than a year that the M16 had real problems, and now he knew that these problems were worse than what the military or Colt's had ever publicly said. On December 28, Ito and Paul Benke, Colt's president, met at the Pentagon with officers involved in the M16 program. Ito's presentation was direct: The new buffers were reaching many units, but severe problems persisted. About 70 percent of the rifles in german culture, the Marines' possession, he said, should be condemned due to purges essay pitted chambers. Benke, the man who ran Colt's Firearms, would get the german culture last word.
The reports of problems, he said, even when supported by his own engineer fresh from Vietnam, were hearsay. Several months after the verbs fight for Ap Sieu Quan, Staff Sergeant Elrod became the battalion's intelligence chief, and german was meritoriously promoted. One day in spring 1968, after a skirmish in a gully near Khe Sanh, Gunnery Sergeant Elrod found an purges AK-47 beside a dead North Vietnamese soldier. He claimed it as his own. This was not a trophy. Essay? It was a tool. Now he had a rifle he could depend on. Act Essay View? The AK-47 did not solve all his problems. It solved one problem but replaced it with another. There was a special danger related to carrying the enemy's weapon: The M16 and essay german culture the AK-47 have distinctly different sounds.
Whenever Elrod fired his new weapon, he risked drawing fire from other Marines. He considered this less of a risk than carrying a rifle that might not fire at all. A few weeks later, Gunnery Sergeant Elrod was walking across a forward operating base near Khe Sanh with his AK-47 slung across his back. A lieutenant colonel stopped him. Gunny, why the critical skills hell are you carrying that? he asked. Because it works, Elrod replied. Claude Elrod, Alfred Nickelson, Tom Givvin, Raymond Madonna, Ord Elliott, Richard Culver, and Michael Chervenak all survived Vietnam. Culture? Elrod, Madonna, and Culver went on to serve full careers. Purges Essay? Chervenak, who spoke out essay culture publicly against lunch periods essay the M16, was reprimanded in writing and his promotion to essay german the rank of captain was delayed a year, which effectively docked his pay. (Promotion to captain is an achievement usually so simple that the test, many Marines say, is to serve the requisite time and be able to fog a mirror.) He left the Marine Corps, attended law school, and had a successful career in critical thinking in information, private practice. Colt's Firearms no longer exists. Paul Benke, the essay german culture president of Colt's during the bungled rollout of the M16, continues to dissertation poetique defend the rifle and Colt's behavior, saying he and the company only wanted to essay german culture provide the best weapons possible to troops at war.
The M16 and its ammunition were changed and modified repeatedly in the months and years after the creation uproar of 1967. The current firm, Colt Defense LLC, provides rifles to the American military and to many government organizations around the world. Essay German Culture? Its president, a retired Marine general, William Keys, was, as a younger man, among those Marines who suffered from creation poetique, faulty rifles in Vietnam. The line's current versions, the M16 and the M4 carbine, are incomparably more dependable than the M16 of the mid-1960s, though they remain controversial arms, and critics, citing various perceived shortfalls (often reliability and stopping power) continue to call for a replacement. Many of the essay german culture complaints have been over the great the standard ammunition that the essay American military's M16's and M4's fire, which troops have reported passes too easily through lightly clad Afghan and Iraqi men and often fails to deliver incapacitating wounds. The AK-47 and Type 56 rifles, two variants of the Kalashnikov that were common in the early years of the thesis action Vietnam War, have largely been phased out and replaced by an extended family of descendants that were made in the Soviet Union, China, North Korea, the former Warsaw Pact nations, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, and other countries.
Some of the original rifles are still in use and can readily be found in Afghanistan. Together the entire Kalashnikov line — routinely and erroneously called AK-47's — are the most abundant firearm on earth, and essay culture the predominant weapon of war today.
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Informative Essay: German Culture: Facts, Customs And Traditions
2017 eLearning Predictions: Updated Hype Curve. Our 2016 hype curve was a big hit, so we#8217;re doing it again this year. Here is the essay culture, short, graphical version: Our 2017 eLearning predictions set in terms of Gartner#8217;s hype cycle. And below the in harari, fold, the long version, broken into the five stages popularized by Gartner: As I wrote last year, #8220;Online learning lags behind other industries in culture, adopting new technologies. Action? This is not because people in online learning are not interested in new technologies; it’s because we’re not a high-revenue industry compared to giant industries like consumer goods.#8221; This is german culture still as true as ever, and it explains why there#8217;s a four-to-eight-year lag between technology trends as a whole and their application in eLearning. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Our developer David Wipperfurth writes, #8220;AI and ML don#8217;t really fit well on the hype curve, because they will have multiple in/out fluxes with different technologies and uses. AI/ML is essentially too big and vague a category to put on critical thinking skills in information, such a chart.
It would be like asking where economics fits on the chart.#8221; OK, granted. Writing specifically of culture intelligent apps, David adds, #8220;This depends on epenthesis in harari, what we#8217;re talking about. Flashcard applications and adaptive testing have been intelligent for years and years. Lots of people probably make claims about how #8216;intelligent#8217; their apps are. I#8217;d say adaptivity (outside of tests), procedural generation, and data mining are not widely utilized by mainstream pedagogy, so for those cases it might be at technology trigger.#8221; Following David#8217;s lead, we define artificial intelligence and machine learning as computer-generated algorithms, or #8220;procedural generation#8221;: the idea that the computer derives its own rules rather than relying on essay culture, a human to program its rules. This kind of machine learning is used in applications like Google#8217;s speech recognition and periods essay, translation software. The eLearning applications of essay this technology are very much in their infancy; we expect them to be pioneered by firms like Google, IBM (which markets its Watson technology in connection with various LMS platforms it has acquired over the years), Microsoft (which just invested in the lifelong learning space with its purchase of LinkedIn/Lynda), and action, even Amazon. We were surprised to find Amazon recruiting aggressively at essay, the eLearning Guild#8217;s DevLearn conference. In short, eLearning applications of AI and ML are clearly in the Technology Trigger phase, but expected to continue to develop and dissertation poetique, mature in the next year.
IMS Caliper: Caliper is the latest standard from IMS. A newer standard than even xAPI, Caliper is somewhat less ambitious than xAPI in the number of use cases considered and APIs specified. This is a possible reason to essay german culture, expect quicker adoption. Tim Martin of Rustici praised the Caliper design process at longer periods essay, DevLearn. As Martin is german culture one of the xAPI originators, this could foreshadow future synergies between the two standards and help xAPI get out of the Trough (see below).
To understand the difference between the two standards, it#8217;s important to note that IMS and Caliper are driven by higher ed and thus of dissertation particular interest to the Educause crowd. IMS#8217;s best known standard, LTI, allows textbook companies to culture, package online course content and ship it with their textbooks, regardless of the implementing university#8217;s LMS. LTI packages vary from SCORM packages in that the typical content model follows higher education#8217;s synchronous, weekly, semester-long format rather than the asynchronous, one-time, hour-long format of much corporate and military training. Longer Periods? Caliper keeps these use cases and users in mind while improving on previous IMS standards in the granularity of data captured and in german culture, use of an xAPI-like model for interoperability across multiple types of tools and platforms: mobile apps feeding back in to the LMS and the like. But the standard was only recently published, and application is still a work in progress.
Internet-enabled Physical Simulators: There#8217;s not much more to the great purges essay, add from what we said last year, other than that we#8217;ve participated in essay culture, a pilot that used xAPI to connect a Laerdal simulator to thinking skills, a learning management system, and we#8217;ve read of another similar pilot. The use cases are clear, but the technology is essay culture not so easy to deal with right now. Poetique? Standardized connectors need to be built. But because of the pilot activity, we#8217;re moving this trend up-slope a bit. CHEST-Web Courseworks xAPI pilot. EHR-Integrated Performance Improvement: We have seen no real progress on the dream of integrating performance improvement education with electronic health records systems (EHRs). But the hype certainly increased in 2016 thanks to the long-awaited publication of the final rule on essay german culture, quality payment under the Federal Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA). Act Essay View? MACRA replaces the old procedure-based Medicare payment formula with a complex new formula, called MIPS, that seeks to pay for quality.
Part of the MIPS formula awards a bonus to clinicians for participation in essay german, Clinical Practice Improvement Activities (CPIAs). CPIAs include MOC-IV and similar efforts to get clinicians to study their own practice, learn, and improve. Payment bonuses for critical thinking skills in information technology quality and practice improvement represent a renewed regulatory emphasis on culture, performance improvement. At quality conferences like IHI, the MACRA/MIPS hype is strong. Some solutions providers already claim MIPS compliance (we are skeptical). Thesis? When providers claim to tie reporting for reimbursement into performance improvement metrics, we expect EHR-integrated performance improvement to reach the Peak of Inflated Expectations.
Virtual Reality in eLearning: VR might evoke a bit of deja vu in experienced eLearning observers, as we went very far down the simulation/avatar-y path a few years back: around 2006, Second Life was the talk of eLearning (it#8217;s not now). Nonetheless, VR is something qualitatively different from 3D-animated, flat-screen computer games, and has been democratized by Google Cardboard and Samsung#8217;s Gear goggles. Essay Culture? The presence of VR on the upward-sloping part of the curve was demonstrated at this year#8217;s DevLearn conference, where a number of vendors were demonstrating VR-based experiences. The applications barely need to be elucidated: VR would be great for act essay view anything physical, including medical and german culture, technical skills. We#8217;ve blogged about an application at Filament Games.
As is often the case, the popular adoption of VR is led by entertainment technology (gaming), and learning is still years behind. VR devices have low penetration in the great, professional settings (have you got one in your office?). While the hype is, naturally, strong, VR is still perceived as a #8220;future thing#8221; by most in eLearning. Web Courseworks instructional designer Jenny Saucerman using HTC Vive. Subscription Learning: Subscription learning goes by many names, including spaced learning, but where we find it particularly hyped right now is in the #8220;online continuous assessment#8221; model that has been popularized by the American Board of Anesthesiology. The basic idea of online continuous assessment is to do away with large, high-stakes certification exams that happen once every few years and essay culture, replace them with a weekly or monthly exam question.
Learners have time to critical in information, digest the german, case-based questions and their feedback. They might even apply what they learn from them in their practice. This vision goes hand-in-hand with mobile delivery; learners are increasingly working on these bite-sized chunks of assessment during gaps in their work days. In our experience, most medical specialty boards are at least investigating mobile online continuous assessment, and many are actively searching for solutions providers. Dissertation Creation Poetique? In a different, more commercial sense, subscription learning has been boosted by the collapse of the price point for on-demand learning. We#8217;re seeing organizations with large libraries of online learning that are interested in selling their content on a subscription model: the #8220;Netflix of self-paced learning#8221; approach exemplified by OpenSesame. And finally we note that Coursera#8217;s nanodegrees (see MOOCs, below) are now sold on a monthly subscription model.
In short, a lot of people are hanging their hopes on the simple idea of subscribing to learning. Expectations are a bit inflated. Essay? Data Visualization in lunch essay, eLearning: Nate Silver#8217;s The Signal and the Noise was published in 2012, and right about that time the essay german, market for self-service business intelligence software (Tableau, Qlik, Microsoft Power BI) went bonkers. Self-service BI software has democratized data visualization. Lunch? Predictably, the trend has slowly disseminated outward from the higher-revenue parts of the enterprise to education, and we are now seeing constant talk about the need to offer administrative and learner-facing graphical dashboards to offer #8220;insights#8221; to designers and learners. This trend is clearest in corporate eLearning, where the big corporate LMSes have colorful pie charts and histograms gratuitously flung all over their interfaces.
Even Moodle, which is culture less commercial, now has a PowerBI plug-in. As with any technology at longer lunch periods, the Peak of Inflated Expectations; be wary of the hype: remember that the trick with computers is always garbage-in, garbage-out. But do insist on better visualization capabilities from your learning software. German Culture? Gamification: It#8217;s the proliferation of leaderboards that has landed Gamification (temporarily, we hope) in creation, the trough of disillusionment. Many corporate LMSes offer leaderboards.
They#8217;re easy to turn on, and also easy to essay german, misuse. The problem is that learners are being ranked on their completion of uninspiring SCORM modules. If learners feel they#8217;re being ranked arbitrarily, or that a training program is epenthesis in harari trying to spice up low-quality learning with #8220;a little bit of competition,#8221; then they#8217;re going to find the essay culture, leaderboard more annoying than motivating. That being said, there#8217;s plenty of hope that gamification will pull through the longer lunch, trough and reach productivity relatively unscathed. The #8220;serious professional trivia#8221; model that we first encountered years ago with SCTE is achievable for most professional associations using available technology. The American College of Chest Physicians runs its CHEST Challenge competition in two phases: a first phase is administered online as a quiz in their LMS, and the second phase is essay german culture a live #8220;quiz show#8221; format. The key to getting out of the Trough of Disillusionment is higher-quality, lower-cost content enabled by action verbs, new tools, such as BranchTrack. xAPI: We are big believers in xAPI. Essay German? We want to be clear on that.
But every technology goes through a phase of disillusionment; that#8217;s the point of the hype curve. In the case of xAPI, the disillusionment is around the continued difficulty in application. xAPI has not reached the in harari, #8220;plug and play#8221; productivity of SCORM. Speaking here as a member of the eLearning community, this is culture probably our own failure to learn and adapt as quickly as we might like (hey, we#8217;ve got SCORM packages to finish). But it#8217;s also pretty clear that the xAPI standard, in its flexibility and granularity, is ambitious, and it takes some time for ambitious standards like these to be absorbed into everyday practice. For now, it might seem as if xAPI is stuck in act essay view, a #8220;perpetual piloting#8221; phase.
But the pilots are proliferating we#8217;ve seen many more pilots in the last year than in german culture, the rest of the the great essay, short history of xAPI put together. German Culture? And that#8217;s a good sign: as more practitioners participate in pilots, understanding spreads, and xAPI moves upward toward the Slope of Enlightenment. MOOCs: We had MOOCs in the Trough of dissertation Disillusionment last year, and indeed the hype has died down. Business models at german culture, the big MOOC platforms have shifted; both Coursera and Udacity are now pushing #8220;nanodegrees#8221; with a self-paced format. And their MOOCs are not entirely open anymore.
Many now cost money. Meanwhile, corporate MOOCs seem to have, essentially, fizzled. The #8220;enlightenment#8221; we#8217;re experiencing is action best expressed by a recent quote from Udacity founder Sebastian Thrun, who told the New York Times, “If I look back at german, the MOOC hype, what actually happened was that people equated a cheaper delivery method with the dissertation creation poetique, replacement of the entire educational system. A cheaper technology is culture not the critical, same as a business revolution.#8221; We agree: MOOCs should be seen as a valuable part of an educational system that must serve an incredibly diverse range of learners and essay culture, purposes. Educational institutions of epenthesis all stripes shouldn#8217;t see them as a replacement for anything, but a tool that meets certain needs.
Mobile Learning: Celebrate, for we#8217;ve finally reached the point where we can look back at the train-wreck that was the early days of mobile learning and laugh. There was the wrenching transition away from Flash, the over-hyped hybrid apps, and german, the proliferation of unusable JQuery Mobile-based responsive websites (OK, some are still out there). We#8217;re past that now, or a good many of us are, and we#8217;re finally to the point where we can intelligently and productively use the various options available to us. That pleasing, placid feeling of creation understanding and usability#8230;why, we must be on the Plateau of Productivity. Courtesy of The American Board of Anesthesiology, MOCA 2.0. For more information on xAPI and the CHEST-Web Courseworks xAPI pilot, download our white paper.
If you are interested in performance improvement, learn more about our Quality Improvement Education program (QIE). Web Courseworks#8217; received a Brandon Hall technology award for essay our QIE program in January. Adaptive learning system, virtual assistant, expert system, and eLearning management intelligence(one early case is skills in information technology building alerts from culture predictive learning analytics) will be major applications of AI/MachineLearning. Observing the capital poured into it, I guess AI/ML will be advancing faster than xAPI. The issue of xAPI isn#8217;t about technology itself, it#8217;s about people silos that leads to data silos. I would love to see a table that shows all the new learning technology with these columns: What it is and what can it do. Major benefits to in harari, learners. An implementation difficulty rating. Cost of implementation.
Learning curve for end users. Skill sets needed as a developer/administrator. I think I#8217;m going to make one. German? I need to act essay view, clearly see the cost benefit ratio before jumping on any bandwagons. Association Learning Technologies eLearning Consultant, CEO of Web Courseworks. Dr. Jon Aleckson is an essay culture educational leader and consultant in act essay view, association learning technologies and essay german, eLearning.
He works with an extensive list of association clients on LMS implementation and development, platform alignment and integration, and online curriculum development, giving him a holistic view of business models, operational practices, and educational approaches in association eLearning. Dr. Hicken has worked in eLearning since 2006. Longer Lunch Essay? He has been the lead instructional designer and, later, product innovation specialist on essay, a number of projects, including the World Anti-Doping Agency’s PlayTrue Challenge game, which won a silver award in the Games for Good/Non-Profit category at the Serious Games Conference. Dr. Act Essay View? Hicken received his Ph.D. in ethnomusicology in 2009, and stays active in the field.
Jenny Saucerman has worked in essay, eLearning since 2011 with a focus on educational games and learning analytics. She earned her master's degree in educational psychology from the University of in information Wisconsin-Madison in 2015. She is currently an instructional designer for Web Courseworks.
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The Culture That Defines Germany - UK Essays
essay god helios sun Helios, Christos, the Sun: Ferrying the Archetypal Zodiac Disciples. by Ralph Monday. The Christian religion is a parody on the worship of the Sun, in which they put a man whom they call Christ, in the place of the Sun, and german culture pay him the same adoration which was originally paid to action verbs the Sun .Thomas Paine. The Zodiac, therefore, is the Path or Way.
When Christ spoke to His disciples as the Cosmic Christ, He told them I am the Way, and to this it is possible to give an german culture, astrological significance, for all three types of lives tread this cosmic Way, the Cosmic Christ, the Planetary Spirit and the human being (Path of the Soul). C hristianity views Jesus as being the light of the world, and indeed he is, but not in epenthesis, the way the story is told in the New Testament. If one has the courage to german throw off religious fetters and verbs abandon a blind acceptance of essay subjective faith dogma, and instead employ reason, abundant evidence can be examined that is the basis for an argument where the story of Christ is neither new, original, nor unique, but is instead the creation of the church, a powerful astrotheological archetypal symbol to solidify and consolidate power over the mind of culture. Longer Periods? Christianity, and beginning with the Catholic Church in particular, has molded and transformed the figure of Christ into its own peculiar votive offering served up during the course of a year, but the majority of the influence is focused around Easter and Christmas, the vernal equinox and essay german culture the winter solstice, for the one year story of Christ's ministry on earth is an periods, allegory of the essay culture, passing of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac, Christ as the symbol of the sun and the twelve disciples as corresponding allegorical symbols of the thesis action, astrological progression of the zodiac through the seasons, the connection of the earth to the heavens--As above, so below--observation of natural phenomenon that has been of great interest to the race since time immemorial, the cycles of the heavens given a supernatural interpretation and overlay that to this day remains as a powerful crucible molded around the minds of countless millions of people. But before examining the astrotheological basis for Christ, a brief review is presented in regard to the historicity of this monumental symbol of western civilization. An Historical Christ.
The quest for an historical Christ is doomed to failure, much like the quest for the Holy Grail. Essay Culture? More is known about the Big Bang theory than is known about a biography of Christ. The vast majority of all that is known about probably the most famous figure in Western history is act essay view, contained in the New Testament, and to german large extent the four Canonical Gospels of the the great purges, Bible. This evidence is definitely second hand, questionable hearsay, for the Gospels were written long after the death of Jesus. Essay German Culture? The information grew out of oral story telling for at least several decades before the church began to create the mythical demigod that is so familiar today. Walker affirms this point: …[T]hese Gospels did not come into the Bible as original and authoritative from the authors themselves, but rather from the thinking skills, influence of early church fathers, especially the most influential of them all: Irenaeus of Lyon who lived in the middle of the second century. Many heretical gospels existed by that time, but Irenaeus considered only some of them for essay german mystical reasons. He claimed only four in dissertation creation poetique, number; according to Romer, like the culture, four zones of the world, the four winds, the four divisions of man's estate, and the four forms of the first living creatures-- the lion of Mark, the calf of Luke, the man of Matthew, the eagle of John .The four gospels then became Church cannon for essay the orthodox faith.
Most of the other claimed gospel writings were burned, destroyed, or lost. (Romer, qtd. in Walker) That no historian wrote about the crowds of thousands that purportedly followed Jesus, the miracles that he performed, his crucifixion and resurrection, defies and challenges reason. Nor is german culture, there a single contemporary Roman record verifying that a Pontius Pilate executed a man named Jesus, and the Romans, creators of the first great bureaucratic state, kept extensive records. The non-Christian sources that are invariably used by Christian apologists in an attempt to critical thinking establish the historicity of Christ were all written after the time when Christ was supposed to have lived and are hardly eye witness accounts. The most commonly referenced sources are Josephus Flavius, Pliny the Younger, Tacitus, and Suetonius. Josephus lived from 37-100 C.E. In his Antiquities of the german, Jews written in epenthesis, 93 C.E. a famous reference is made to, About this time there lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man. For he was one who performed surprising deeds and essay culture was a teacher of such people as accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews and many of the Greeks.
He was the Messiah… (qtd. in essay, Goldberg). The debate over the authenticity of this passage is well known, and will not be recounted here. Suffice to say that the vast majority of culture biblical scholars since the nineteenth century hold that it is a later Christian interpolation, an assertion that can easily be verified if the reader cares to examine the matter further. Of the remaining three references, Pliny the act essay view, Younger (B 62 C.E.), Tacitus (B 64 C.E.), and Suetonius (B 69 C.E.), were all born well after the time of Jesus, and again, none are held to be reliable by most biblical scholars; there is no need to go into german the matter further in this essay; the arguments questioning the authenticity of these passages are well known, and action verbs the historicity of Christ is not the major thesis. Robert Keable, in his work, The Great Galilean makes note of this strange history of silence: No man knows sufficient of the early life of Jesus to write a biography of him. For that matter, no one knows enough for german the normal Times obituary notice of a great man. If regard were had to what we should call, in correct speech, definitely historical facts, scarcely three lines could be filled. Moreover, if newspapers had been in existence, and if that obituary notice had had to be written in the year of his death, no editor could have found in the literature of his day so much as his name. Yet few periods of the longer periods, ancient world were so well documented as the period of Augustus and Tiberius.
But no contemporary knew of his existence. Even a generation later, a spurious passage in Josephus, a questionable reference in Suetonius, and the mention of a name that may be his by Tacitus-that is culture, all. His first mention in any surviving document, secular or religious, is twenty years after. (qtd. in dissertation poetique, Jackson) Earl Doherty in his provocative work The Jesus Puzzle also makes note of the essay german culture, strange silence of history, and in the great essay, perhaps one of the greatest feats of twentieth century biblical scholarship, constructs a compelling argument that questions the very existence of a historical Jesus. In regard to essay german the four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, no one knows who wrote them.
All four Gospels are anonymous, and in harari the names of the purported authors were applied to essay german these works in the second century C.E. In regard to act essay view the composition of the Gospels, Remsberg notes that, Justin Martyr, the most eminent of the culture, early Fathers, wrote around the middle of the second century and makes more than three hundred quotations from the books of the Old Testament, and nearly one hundred from the Apocryphal books; but none from the Four Gospels. -- In the latter half of the second century, between the time of Justin and Papias, and the time of Theophilus and Irenaeus, the Four Gospels were undoubtedly written or compiled. (The Gospels: Second Century Writings) As for the dates of the composition of the four Gospels some conservative scholars believe that Matthew was written between 60-65 C.E., while other biblical authorities date it to the seventies, some even as late as 85 C.E. The Great Purges Essay? In regard to Mark, most scholars assign a date no later than 70-73 C.E., but a large majority of moderate and conservative scribes assign to Mark a composition date between 65 and 70 C.E., while Luke's composition date is assigned between 60-64 C.E. For John, conservative scholars believe the gospel to have been written at about 85 C.E., while others place the composition to a later date or early second century (New Testament).
This evidence is presented in establishing that so little is known about the authorship of the Gospels, and the historicity of Christ, that an alternative hypothesis can be advanced, namely that the story of essay culture Jesus can be interpreted as being a mythologized allegory of the in harari, progression of the sun through the yearly zodiac, an astronomical phenomenon that was well known and extremely important to the ancient world. The early church fathers were privy to the resemblance between Christ and earlier dying and german culture resurrected gods, and of the problem of history. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Irenaeus, for example, explained away the longer lunch periods essay, resemblance of the Christ mythos to earlier pagan gods by asserting that Satan had previously created these imitators in order to confuse and deceive when Christ incarnated, and Pope Leo X said, What profit has not that fable of essay german Christ brought us! (qtd. in Acharya S). And Justin Martyr writing to a pagan in the second century C.E. also had these words to relate: When we say that the act essay view, Word, who is the essay, first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into poetique heaven, we propound nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of culture Jupiter (Savior Myth). Purges? As reported in essay, The Christ Myth, also interesting is the fact that there are no images of the crucified Christ dated to the first three centuries, and Constantine envisioned Christ as a beautiful young man rather like Apollo. The Dead Sea scrolls, unearthed in longer, 1947, hold no record of this savior who is held to essay culture have so tremendously impacted the entire world, and in point of fact, Paul is the only person known to have first used the term Christ or the name Jesus (Rogge). The preceding assertions set the stage for an examination of the grand drama of the heavens, one that has been eternally played out upon the earth in a cosmic pantomime beginning with the foundation of thesis action verbs astrology as an indicator of as above, so below. Astrology, Mythology-Heavens and Earth-Origin of the Zodiac. Sometime between 3000-2000 B.C.E. in Mesopotamia the earliest evidence is found for the emergent disciplines of astronomy, mathematics and mythology, a triplicate that together would become the essay, basis of astrology and the linkage between the act essay view, heavens and essay the earth. Campion has noted that the history of astrology is symbiotically intertwined with religious history. Notwithstanding the critical thinking technology, practical importance of correlations between such occurrences as the sun's annual rhythm through the heavens and culture the corresponding seasons, symbolic linkages also began to purges essay develop: the human life cycle progressing through birth to essay death was interlinked with the sun's birth in the east each morning and death in the west each evening, bringing with it the transition from darkness to light, and the annual cycle of vegetation throughout the seasons.
Thus the observance of the calendar became, as it still is, an object of religious ritual, and there was a measure of interchange between heavenly sky deities and earth-bound vegetation deities (Origins of Astrology). Thesis Action? An examination of comparative mythology inevitably leads to the conclusion that in the myths and sacred narratives of the german culture, majority of act essay view all civilized nations the german culture, Zodiac signs are prominent. According to Kennedy, If you go back in time to Rome, or beyond that to Greece, or before that to Egypt, Persia, Assyria, or Babylonia-regardless of how far back you go, there is a remarkable phenomenon: Nearly all nations had the same twelve signs, representing the same twelve things, placed in the same order (qtd. in Horn). The origin of the Zodiac has long been of interest to not only astronomers, but scholars as well. Gilman notes that, […] the narrow strip in the sky in which we observe and measure the movements of the Sun, Moon and the planets, was undoubtedly recognized in Babylon 4,000 or so years ago. Longer Lunch Periods Essay? It was not apparently until about 520 B.C. Essay German? that the twelve Signs were actually defined. This seems to have been done by Cleostratos of act essay view Tenedos, […] who divided the ecliptic into twelve equal parts and is said to have recognized the Signs of the Zodiac. He reputedly described them in a now-lost poem, Astrologia . (Twelve Gods) Also, early in the 19th century Pieree-Simnon de Laplace stated that, The names of the german culture, zodiacal constellations were not haphazard fancies. They reflected relationships that were the subject of epenthesis many inquiries or attempts at a systematic organization. Research has gradually revealed that the signs of the zodiac and their corresponding relationship to observation earth phenomena, is an ancient inheritance, a cultural chain linked from the Romans, to the Greeks, and from there stretching back to the Babylonians.
The Babylonians, in turn, are heir to the even more ancient cultures of Sumer and Akkad, and some scholars believe the origin of the signs is even more primeval, placing their emergence around or even before 4000 B.C.E. Even more surprising than this antiquity is the stability of the constellations over the centuries, even with the attempt by german, Christian authors to reshape the in information, stars to fit their particular interest in biblical stories, the original names and shapes have survived (Johnson and van Berkel 6-7). From the earliest written records, the Sumerian/Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh , (whose history may have been transmitted to the Greeks by the Phoenicians) where this ancient demigod of Uruk passes through twelve stages on his underground journey to Dilmun, to the civilizations of the Greek and Roman, an german, ancient astronomical religion is clearly in evidence, one that developed geographically over the entire Mediterranean region. In recognition of this religion of astronomy Richer argues that: …astronomers before the eighth century [B.C.E.] used stars of first magnitude as the principal celestial markers. In the ancient Egyptian calendar, for example, the beginning of the year was related to the heliacal rising of critical thinking technology Spica. This harked back to a more ancient age, the essay, Age of Gemini…, when the equinoxes occurred in Gemini and action Sagittarius, a period corresponding to around 6500 [B.C.E.]. The star-based system was eventually integrated with the zodiacal system, which has been traced back in its current form to at least 2000 [B.C.E.] in the ancient Near East. Considering precessional correspondences,…[this indicates] a system of coordinates based on german culture, the four seasons and four cardinal points…introduced into Greece between 2000 and 1900 [B.C.E.]….The zodiacal signs most likely were introduced into Greece from Sumer and Babylonia, with the creation, Hittites and Phoenicians as intermediaries. The adoption of essay german a full-blown zodiacal projection onto Greek territory seems to lunch have coincided with the Greek adoption of the Phoenician alphabet between 1000-850 [B.C.E]. (qtd. in Dougherty)
Dougherty also notes that ancient myths of essay german culture gods, demigods, and heroes are connected to this primal astronomical religion, and that the adoration and worship of Greek heroes like Hercules, Theseus, Perseus, and Bellerophon predated the worship of the Olympian gods and their narratives at a later date were merged with the stories of the twelve zodiacal deities. Heracles is a solar archetype identified with Leo; his twelve labors symbolize an amalgam of traditions that personify successive cultural or historical stages in relationship to the drama being performed in the zodiacal stage of the heavens (A Key to Ancient Greece). In addition: Many deities have been associated with the sun. Dissertation Poetique? The Greeks believed that Apollo, Bacchus, Dionysos, Sabazius, Hercules, Jason, Ulysses, Zeus, Uranus, and Vulcan partook of either the visible or invisible attributes of the sun. Culture? The Norwegians regarded Balder the the great purges, Beautiful as a solar deity, and Odin is often connected with the celestial orb, especially because of his one eye. Among the Egyptians, Osiris, Ra, Anubis, Hermes, and even the mysterious Ammon himself had points of resemblance with the solar disc. Isis was the mother of the sun, and even Typhon, the Destroyer, was supposed to be a form of solar energy. The Egyptian sun myth finally centered around the person of a mysterious deity called Serapis. The two Central American deities, Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl, while often associated with the winds, were also undoubtedly solar gods. (The Sun, A Universal Deity)
The connection of deity to the sun is obvious for anyone who has even a minute amount of analytical skill. The observation is nothing new, but it is essay german, one that has only begun to filter into the masses in western culture, for Fiske noted over a century ago that, Countless other examples, when similarly analyzed, show that the earliest […] conception of a Divine Power, nourishing man and sustaining the universe, was suggested by the light of the mighty Sun; who, as modern science has shown, is the in harari, originator of all life and motion upon the globe, and whom the ancients delighted to believe the german, source, not only of the golden light, but of everything that is bright, joy-giving, and pure. (Myths and Myth-makers 109) This all, of course, means that: The ancients believed that the thesis action verbs, sun, the moon, wandering stars (planets), comets, and other celestial bodies were heavenly gods who were in motion about a stationary earth. Since the sun (Sol invictus) seemed to be the most influential of the celestial gods, it was especially worshipped and regarded as annually reborn at its lowest point in the sky during the winter solstice of December 25th. Since the culture, plane of the ecliptic--the path that the sun travels in the sky--traces out the band of the twelve star-patterns that make up the zodiac, the sun was considered a god that gave birth to, or was a father of, the twelve zodiacal gods. [However], [t]he Greek astronomer Hipparchus made the astounding discovery in 128 BCE that the zodiac of constellations slowly drifted backward over time so that they appeared, with respect to critical thinking technology the sun's position at winter solstice, in a new location in the heavens.
Every 25 thousand years these constellations slowly moved; a phenomenon we know today to be the precession of the equinoxes which is caused by the wobble of the essay culture, earth on its axis. To the ancients, it was a frightening and astounding event[.] (Still) Hipparchus lived from the great purges essay, 190-120 B.C.E. and Still also notes that his discovery of the precession of the equinoxes shattered the geocentric theory of the immovable earth, and that the precession could only mean that the culture, whole cosmic sphere was in motion, and for the ancients this was a revelation that they interpreted as being the epenthesis, result of a powerful new god, so incredible in its force that it was fully possible for moving the entire universe. At that time the spring equinox took place in Aries the Ram, and preceding that Taurus the Bull heralded in the rebirth of the earth in spring, and it was believed that Mithras was the cosmic power whose force was so formidable that the Bull was killed (The Virgin Birth). In the great cosmic war between dark and light, Christ replaced Mithras as this force strong enough to bend the very cosmos to his will, and as the essay german, parallels between Mithrass and Christ are well known, there is no point in discussing them here, for I have dealt with this topic at critical thinking technology, length in another essay, and the present work will focus in specific content on only one of these solar deities: Christ in order to provide support for the illuminating archetypal pattern that this example provides in the context of the solar deity and the twelve signs of the zodiac. Christ and the Twelve Zodiac Disciples. Modernity, and now extending into the Postmodern world, has long questioned the essay german, Christ story as authentic history. Act Essay View? The philosophes of the german culture, eighteenth century European Enlightenment and their new world counterparts in the Age of Reason began exploring nature from the thesis action, standpoint of Natural Philosophy or Natural Law.
This was the genesis of modern science, and from that point forward supernatural explanations of culture natural phenomena have been stripped away one by one, laid bare by the scrutiny of the scientific method, so that a reign of supernaturalism lasting more than six thousand years has been virtually eliminated as a satisfactory cause of human experience in just over two hundred years. First, a brief summary of the archetype of the dying and resurrected god is presented, a common motif that existed in the Mediterranean world centuries before the church adopted this primal story and grafted the narrative into its own peculiar hierarchy for the purpose of control and power. The ancient Greek and Roman cultures from which much of longer lunch periods essay Postmodern Western culture is descended, adopted gods from Asia Minor: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Babylon, Phrygia, Persia, etc. These gods were often symbolic of vegetation myths tied to the seasons and shared the following characteristics, an archetypal pattern similar to essay culture Joseph Campbell's hero's journey, for the day god, the the great essay, Sun god, was the ancient world's great deity, one that has been worshipped all over the planet, personified in every sacred allegory, and essay german mythopoetically associated with mortal suffering, for, everywhere we read of the purges essay, birth, death, and german culture resurrection of the Sun; he had his cradle and his tomb, whether called Adonis, Osiris, Hercules, Bacchus, Attis, Krishna, Mithra, or Christ (Existence of Christ Disproved). According to Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth these dying and resurrected gods were born of a Virgin Mother on or near the act essay view, date of modern Christmas in a Cave or Underground Chamber; they held such titles as Light-bringer, Mediator, Healer, Deliverer, Savior and led a life of toil and service for humanity; eventually all were defeated by the Powers of essay Darkness and descended into Hell or the Underworld, then rose from the thesis action verbs, dead, and became the archetypal connector of humanity to the Heavenly world; they triumphantly went on to have disciples, found Communions of Saints Churches where acolytes were received into the mysteries by Baptism, and their memory was commemorated by Eucharistic meals (Pagan Christs). Edward Carpenter in 1919 likewise stated the same assertion in his Pagan and Christian Creeds: Their Origin and Meaning . The idea of essay Christ being interpreted as a solar god is not new. In Harari? Scholars in the nineteenth century first began this new field of research. Essay Culture? What is new is that only dissertation creation poetique recently has this vast body of information been made available to the general public.
Christ as Zodiac Sun Myth. The ruling deity of day, Helios or the sun as God, was the supreme god of the ancient world universally worshipped in both continents, the old and the new world, and essay this god was allegorically personified in the mythos of every culture. The daily and the great purges essay annual passage of the sun, in myth, became the poetic interpretation of the destiny of all. Essay? The birth, death, and resurrection of the sun is a continually reoccurring archetypal image, cradle to tomb, whether the name of the sun god was Hercules, Osiris, Adonis, Bacchus, Mithra, Chrishna, or Christ. Mangasarian points out that,
The fact that Jesus' death was accompanied with the darkening of the Sun, and that the date of his resurrection is epenthesis, also associated with the essay culture, position of the Sun at critical technology, the time of the essay culture, vernal equinox, is a further intimation that we have in purges essay, the story of the birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus, an ancient and nearly universal Sun-myth, instead of verifiable historical events. German? (Truth About Jesus) Of course, why all these stories are so similar is verbs, easily surmised. The above mentioned gods, Hercules, Osiris, Adonis, Mithra, etc., were all born on or about December 25th, they had twelve disciples or were otherwise associated in some way with the number twelve, such as the labors of Hercules, they performed miracles, were persecuted, died, and resurrected. This archetypal pattern is common because it is based on the sun's movements through the constellations which according to Acharya S is […] an culture, astrotheological development that can be found throughout the planet because the sun and the twelve zodiac signs can be observed around the globe.[…] Christ and all the others upon whom this character is predicated are personifications of the sun, […]the Gospel fable […]a rehash of a mythological formula […] (Origins of Christianity). Thesis Action? And these mythological characters share the following characteristics in relationship to the sun: on December twenty-second the sun apparently dies for three days because it appears to stop in its movement south, and then is resurrected or born again on December twenty-fifth when it begins moving north once again, the light coming forth into the world; at some locations in the ancient world the new year began in the constellation of Virgo where the essay, sun was born of a virgin; when the sun rises in the morning it is the act essay view, Savior of mankind, and wears a crown of thorns which is the corona or halo, and the sun can also walk on water, its reflection passing across the surface; the disciples are the twelve months and twelve signs of the zodiac that the sun must journey through; at twelve noon the sun is in the house or temple of the Most High and Jesus began his work at essay culture, twelve years of age; the sun enters at thirty degrees into each sign of the zodiac, and Jesus began his ministry at age thirty; the sun is crucified when it is hung on the cross of the equator and the polar axis at skills, the vernal equinox, or Easter, and at that time the sun is resurrected (Origins of Christianity). Another interesting facet in regard to essay the virgin birth is that, The Virgin Mary is the Constellation of Virgo and the story of virgin births is the timeless allegory of Virgo giving birth to the Sun on the darkest night of the year, the creation poetique, 24th of December. If we follow the path of the sun we discover that towards the end of August the radiant Sun enters the celestial Virgo and german culture places the seed of the new Sun in her to germinate the embryo of the new Sun, Horus, Apollo or Christ.
This phenomenon, which takes place every year in August, gave rise to Christmas, a festival which still exists, and in which it is supposed that the Mother of Christ, disregarding her earthly life, is associated with the glory of her son, and is placed by his side in the heavens. In Harari? We know that the sign of the celestial virgin rose over the horizon at the moment assigned to the birth of our Lord Jesus the Christ. Christians may be reluctant to recognize Virgo as the Blessed Virgin. Essay German? Yet Virgo's stars descend after harvest below the horizon, and the sun of the in harari, winter rises from the same point-the infant Sun in his Mother's arms. Essay? It is the birthday of the periods, Christos who represents the Sun that is born in each and every one of essay german us. (The Immaculate Conception) The church was well aware of the astrological significance of the constellation of act essay view Virgo for as Carpenter has stated: But it is well known as a matter of history that the german, worship of Isis and Horus descended in the early Christian centuries to Alexandria, where it took the form of the worship of the Virgin Mary and the infant saviour, and so passed into the European ceremonial. In Harari? We have therefore the Virgin Mary connected by linear succession and essay descent with that remote Zodiacal cluster in the sky! A curious confirmation of the same astrological connection is afforded by the Roman Catholic Calendar. For if this be consulted, it will be found that the festival of the Assumption of the Virgin is placed on the 15 August, while the festival of the birth of the epenthesis, Virgin is dated the 8 September… At the present day, the Zodiacal signs- owing to the precession of the Equinoxes-have shifted some distance from the constellations of the same name.
But at the time when the Zodiac was constituted and these names were given, the first date obviously would signalise the actual disappearance of the cluster Virgo in the sun's rays, i.e. the Assumption of the Virgin into the glory of the god, while the second date would signalise the reappearance of the constellation-or the birth of the Virgin. (Sun Worship) The constellation of Virgo is not the only interesting connection between religious worship and the stars. Other constellations are also of considerable import, but it is from Virgo to Leo that the archetypal symbolism is best read in this ancient, cosmic progression. In order to understand this assertion it is necessary to know that the sun in its yearly progression moves through the constellations (the plane of the ecliptic, an german culture, imaginary line drawn from the earth's equator to the sun's equator) to the left, and these constellations have always been thought to have a great influence on the character of the sun. Thesis Action Verbs? The other important point to remember is that the earth's axis is tilted twenty-three and one quarter degrees from the plane of the ecliptic, called the precession of the axis, the earth slowly wobbles at the north polar axis like a spinning top, and the sun moves below the equator at the autumnal equinox and rises above the essay german culture, equator at the vernal equinox, thus forming the image of a cross.
Thus, the sun appears to move backwards through the constellations in what is called a Great Year that lasts approximately 25920 years, and this cosmic year is separated into twelve Ages connected to the Zodiac and its constellations. Each of in harari these ages endures for about 2160 years. The relationship to the worship of sun gods is apparent, for approximately three thousand years ago when the sun crossed the equator at the vernal equinox the constellation was Aries the lamb. Hence, the sun was known as the essay german culture, Lamb of God, the archetypal symbol of the resurrected savior, of the journey from the dark underworld to the apex of heaven. Christ is still identified in critical thinking skills in information, this way, but what of the fish? The sun entered the essay culture, constellation of Pisces at approximately 6 B.C.E., which coincides with the approximate birth date given to Jesus by most scholars. Pisces is the sign of the fish, and Jesus was the fisher of men.
And according to Dowling in her introduction, The Piscean Age is identical with the Christian Dispensation. The word Pisces means fish. The sign is known as a water sign, and the Piscean Age has been distinctly the age of the fish and its element, water. In the establishment of their great institutions John the Harbinger and Jesus both introduced the rite of water baptism, which has been used in some form in all the so-called Christian Churches and cults, even to the present time. Water is the true symbol of purification. Jesus himself said to the Harbinger before he was baptised: All the men must be washed, symbolic of the cleansing of the soul.(Aquarian Gospel 64: 7.) Fish was a Christian Symbol. In the earlier centuries of the Christian Dispensation the fish was everywhere used as a symbol. In his remarkable book, Christian Iconography , Didron says: The fish, in the opinion of thesis verbs antiquarians generally, is the symbol of Jesus Christ. The fish is sculptured upon a number of culture Christian monuments, and more particularly upon the ancient sarcophagi. (The Aquarian Age) However, the old sign of the Lamb was also kept as an identifying symbol of the messiah.
In regard to these sun gods Alvin Boyd Kuhn has noted that they continually and regularly appeared because they are archetypal symbols of the sun's life through the heavens, and thinking technology as such mirror the earthly life of mortal being. Because, [t]o follow the yearly round of the zodiac was to epitomize graphically the whole history of human experience Moreover, in Psalms the book says that, Our God is a living fire, a consuming fire, the Lord God is a sun, and essay Jesus said I am come to send fire on epenthesis in harari, earth, (Great Myth of Sun-Gods) a clear connection to deity and the light and fire of the sun. I am indebted to David W. Deley for the following chart that simply and evidentially compares the Jesus story with the sun and essay zodiac. The Story of Jesus is the story of the Sun passing through the Zodiac during the year. Note the following: The parallels demonstrated in the above chart graphically illustrate the connection and most probable overlay of the significance of the twelve signs of the zodiac by the church in order to enable the masses an easier conversion to Christianity. For example, in act essay view, the above chart the reference is made to Jesus being born and buried in a cave.
This corresponds to the ancient geocentric world cosmology where the essay, sun was thought to literally rise from the skills in information, underworld (a cave) and set/return to the underworld each evening, a story that was allegorized as the sun being in a literal battle with the darkness (evil), and the rising sun portrayed the triumph over death (evil) and a resurrection that was greeted each day by humanity. Essay? However, the evidence doesn't just conclude here. Thesis Action? An examination of Christ's ministry as portrayed in the New Testament provides even more compelling evidence of Jesus as a sun allegory. Following are several passages from the New Testament (all quotations are taken from the New International Version) that clearly demonstrate the culture, linkage between Christ and creation the sun for he is essay german, continually portrayed as sun imagery: Ephesians 5:14: for it is light that makes everything visible. This is why it is said: Wake up, O sleeper, rise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
John 8:12: When Jesus spoke again to the people, he said, I am the light of the epenthesis, world. Whoever follows me will never walk in essay, darkness, but will have the light of life. John 9:5: While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. Both of the preceding two passages demonstrate that Jesus is really the sun for the light of the world is the sun. Matthew 17:12: There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothes became as white as the light.
John 12:35-36: Then Jesus told them, You are going to critical have the light just a little while longer. Walk while you have the light, before darkness overtakes you. The man who walks in the dark does not know where he is going. Put your trust in german, the light while you have it, so that you may become sons of light. When he had finished speaking, Jesus left and hid himself from them. Epenthesis In Harari? Clearly, in this passage Jesus is personified as the sun and the light is an archetypal symbol of light overcoming darkness. Essay German? Of course, when Jesus finished speaking the reason that he hid himself from the disciples is because the the great, sun had set. John 3:19-20: This is the verdict: Light has come into the world, but men loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil.
Everyone who does evil hates the light, and german culture will not come into act essay view the light for fear that his deeds will be exposed. Can any clearer meaning be expressed concerning the literal idea that criminals most commonly do their unlawful deeds in darkness (night) and not in the light (day)? John 1:3-8: Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and essay that life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, but the epenthesis in harari, darkness has not understood it. Of course, and essay german culture this passage is scientifically accurate in that the sun formed first in longer lunch periods essay, stellar evolution and then the earth and other planets came together through the attraction of gravitational mass. Further, the sun is the german, source of thesis verbs all life for everything, plants and animals are dependent upon the energy of the sun for life.
When we eat food or drink, we are literally consuming the energy of the sun; this symbolism is also obvious in essay german, the Catholic Eucharist where the critical skills, bread and the wine are thought to literally change into the body and blood of Jesus, which they do, but not in the Catholic sense for what is really occurring is that people are consuming the transformed energy of the sun. There are numerous other examples in the New Testament that connect Jesus with sun imagery, but the point is made, and the Old Testament has imagery describing god as the sun. Next, we will explore the story of Christ specifically as an allegory of the passage of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac. Christ as an allegory of the sun. Let us now examine how the german, story of the life of Jesus corresponds with the progression of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac. However, remember that the concept of representing archetypal truths in allegory form is quite ancient, and is not just confined to the Bible. First, the sun travels through Capricorn, the goat during the time frame of December 22- January 19. December 22 is the lunch periods essay, winter solstice; this is the shortest day of the year and after December 22 the sun begins to move back toward the northern hemisphere, the savior sun is born and the light of the world is at hand, which is apparent by December 25 the official church sanctioned birth date of Jesus, though no one knows when he was supposed to have been born. However, it is extremely interesting to note that late on the twenty-fourth of December, Virgo the Virgin is either directly on the horizon on is the culture, ascendant. Exactly at epenthesis, midnight the sun enters into Capricorn which is the goat and the manger. Jesus is german culture, born by immaculate conception of Virgo the Virgin in thesis action, the manger of Capricorn the goat, the essay culture, latter representative of the common conception of Jesus being born with animals.
He is born in the darkness and now he is the the great, light of the world. This symbolism of light and darkness is ancient, archetypal and cross-cultural. It has many rich resonances of meaning. Darkness is associated with blindness, night, sleep, cold, gloom, despair, lostness, chaos, death, danger and yearning for the dawn. It is essay german, a striking image of the longer periods essay, human condition. Light is seen as the antidote to culture the above, and is thus an image of salvation.
In the light, one is awake, able to see and find one's way; it is associated with relief and rejoicing that the night is over; in the light one is thesis action verbs, safe and warm. In the light there is life….FOR MATTHEW and Luke, and for Christians ever since, Jesus is the light shining in the darkness. The author of John's Gospel makes the same affirmation with compact perfection: The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world. Essay German? Jesus is the light who brings enlightenment; indeed, he is the light of the world. This is the truth of this theme of the birth stories. And it is true independently of their historical factuality (Borg 1218).
Now, continuing with Christ personified archetypally as the sun moving yearly through the twelve signs of the zodiac, note that Christ was baptized thirty years after birth, and longer essay thirty days after the rebirth of the sun at the winter solstice the sun enters Aquarius the water bearer (January 20-February 18), the essay german culture, pouring out of water a symbolic baptism, and Christ is baptized by John, the Baptist, a pouring out of in harari water: I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. German Culture? He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matthew 3:11). The fire is the flame of the sun, and what of John? The New Testament merely says that he was put in prison with no explanation offered.
In the purges, allegory, this is the german, constellation Aquarius moving lower and lower into the sky at sunset until it can no longer be seen, because it has been put in prison as the act essay view, sun moves into the next sign of the zodiac, where each sign of the zodiac is divided into thirty degrees and there are twelve signs, as Christ had twelve disciples, and twelve times thirty equals three hundred sixty, the total number of degrees in essay, the zodiac. Epenthesis In Harari? Of course, the essay, New Testament has Jesus beginning his ministry at age twelve; can a clearer point be made? If not, then this: each of the twelve signs of the zodiac when entering into the beginning of the thirty degrees of the allotted sign, represents some event in the ministry of Christ allegorized as the the great essay, sun. After the Baptism of Christ he continues on his journey into Galilee which literally means circuit, and this is the closed elliptical path of the sun on its circuit through the essay german culture, constellations. Here Christ selected his first disciples from fishermen, Simon and Andrew: As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon called Peter and his brother Andrew. Act Essay View? They were casting a net into the lake, for they were fishermen (Matthew 4:18).
The sign following Aquarius is Pisces, the Fish (February 19-March 20). The Catholic Lent is observed to this day in the sign of Pisces, and fish is eaten one day of the week in obvious symbolism of this event. In his ministry Christ next transforms into the Good Shepard of the flock, watching over the lambs of the field so that they would be encouraged to not stray from the path. This corresponds to the sun entering the sign of Aries the Ram (March 21-April 19), and a ram of course, is a lamb before growing into a Ram, just as Christ must grow in power before becoming truly recognized as the Lamb of God, and the Jews still celebrate the german, Paschal Lamb during the same time frame, a sacrifice to God as Jesus was the sacrificial lamb. Epenthesis In Harari? Christ as lamb means that the sun is young in the sign of Aries, and will grow into the full power of the Ram, just as the sun grows in power as it passes through this sign, which is also the sign of spring, rebirth, resurrection. Christianity celebrates Easter at essay german culture, this time, which is really a pagan festival, and the name Easter means that the sun is rising due east. Sunrise services are also celebrated at dissertation, this time when the idea of, He is essay, risen, is thrown about. Act Essay View? Of course, the sun has risen. Following this Christ begins his salvation of humanity. How is this accomplished? By the Eucharist, of course.
The Son must provide spiritual nourishment in order for his people to german be saved. The sun, entering the thesis, sign of german Taurus the Bull (April 20-May 20), is the time of plowing the fields to grow crops that are nourished by the energy of the sun, and thus though food energy the salvation is at hand. After Taurus the next sign of the zodiac is Gemini the in information, Twins (May 21-June 20); we are getting close now to the height of summer, when the sun's energy is at its most abundant and the crops grow and increase, doubling, like the twins, the culture, process of salvation. The son's power, in his ministry, grew stronger and stronger, doubling as the multitudes reported by the New Testament followed him about the land. Following Gemini the sun enters Cancer the Crab (June 21-July 22). A crab is often depicted as traveling backwards, and the sun has reached its furthest point north at the summer solstice; after that the sun begins traveling backwards in lunch periods, its journey toward the german culture, equator once again. Skills Technology? Christ spoke often of the german culture, backsliders, and it is at this time of year that the sun is indeed sliding back, falling, from our apparent perspective, toward the equator and thinking in information the power of the sun begins to essay wane, as does vegetation and crops.
Also interesting to note is that John the Baptist was born six months before Christ, and poetique John 3:30 says, He must increase, but I must decrease. One power is waning, the other waxing, the story of the sun in its annual pilgrimage through the heavens, the cycle of the seasons. According to Deley: Around this point in the Jesus story an interesting thing happens - John the Baptist reappears and is beheaded. According to the Bible, John the german, Baptist has been raised from the dead, (Mark 6:14), or This is John the Baptist; he has risen from the thesis action, dead! (Matthew 14:2). Recall at the beginning of the allegory how Aquarius moved below the german culture, western horizon at sunset as the year went from January to February and the Sun traveled from Aquarius to in harari Pisces.
Each Zodiac constellation in turn goes below the horizon at sunset as each month passes. After six months the constellation of Aquarius begins to rise on the eastern horizon at sunset, and it appears that the head of Aquarius is cut off by the horizon. This is John the Baptist rising from the dead, the dead being those who are below the earth. This is the beheading of essay culture John the Baptist by King Herod, a personification of darkness, which reigns supreme at night (See Matthew Chapter 2-The Birth of Jesus for more on King Herod). Thinking In Information? (Solar Mythology and the Jesus Story) After Cancer comes Leo the Lion. Christ had to first be the Lamb (Aries) before he could become the Lion of Judah (Leo).
The lion is essay, a symbol of majestic royalty, power, awe inspiring majesty, and it is at this time of year (July 22-August 23) that the sun is at its most royal incarnation as it travels through the thesis verbs, zodiac. Essay German Culture? It is in Revelation 5:5 that Christ is epenthesis, called Lion of the Tribe of essay german culture Judah. This majesty is seen in Jesus' rebuking of the wind and the waves, and it is the power of the sun at the hottest months of the year. The power of the sun as the allegorical Christ is manifested at the grave of Lazarus when he proclaimed, Lazarus, come forth! (John 11:43). This is resurrection power, the calling forth of the dead just as the critical skills in information, sun calls forth and provides energy to the land. The symbolism is quite obvious, as this is the masculine archetype of power. We come now to Virgo the Virgin (August 23-September 23). This is the time of year when the german, sun, traveling south, crosses the equator once again at the autumnal equinox. The sun passes over the equator where this celestial body is annually crucified, and he the sun as the cross on its back like Christ climbing toward Golgotha, only this Golgotha will be the crucifixion of the vernal equinox.
In addition, according to Deley, Harvest time comes about three quarters of the way through the year, and it's the happiest time of the year. And about three quarters of the way through the Jesus story is his triumphant entry into thinking skills Jerusalem, which is the happiest part of the story (Mark 11:1-11; Matthew 21:1-11; Luke 19:28-44; John 12:12-16). Everyone knows him and is happy to see him. Jesus' triumphant entry into Jerusalem is an allegory for the Sun's triumphant entry into Virgo, because that means it is essay culture, harvest time, the best time of year. Harvest time is The Kingdom of Heaven time which Jesus refers to in earnest as coming soon throughout the story up to critical skills technology here. Culture? (Solar Mythology) Directly after Virgo the sun enters Libra the Scales of Justice (September 23-October 22). This is the time of harvest, when all the bounties and purges fruits that the energy of the sun has provided in the growing season are reaped.
At this point Deley notes that it is time to culture sell the harvest. So the harvest is weighed out in the buying and selling process, and it is at this time that Jesus, On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple area and began driving out epenthesis in harari those who were buying and selling there. Culture? He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves… (Mark 11:15). Jesus, as the sun, is leaving the sign of Libra for the harvest is over, just as the money changers packed up and left. Directly preceding this event from the New Testament, Jesus curses the fig tree: The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. Epenthesis? Seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit. When he reached it, he found nothing but leaves, because it was not the season for figs.
Then he said to the tree, May no one ever eat fruit from you again (Mark 11: 12-14). The tree withered up and died because this is the autumn season, the year is declining, just as the son is also declining. Following this event Jesus and the Twelve disciples have the last supper, for the year is closing and the twelve are the signs of the zodiac that the sun has nearly passed through. The time is now Scorpio the german, Scorpion (October 23-November 22), and these two months October and November symbolize the two thieves that Christ is act essay view, crucified between, because these months are the two thieves of the year when there is no harvest, the sun further descends toward its weakest point of winter that will occur at essay culture, the Winter solstice. Jesus is betrayed now by Judas, the essay, sign of essay Scorpio, and he betrays Christ for thirty pieces of silver, this event symbolizing the thirty days of a month.
The sun is betrayed at this point, for it will soon be at its weakest, and Sagittarius the Archer (November 22-December 21) is the culmination of the death story of the sun, that will soon be reborn on act essay view, December 21 at the Winter solstice, and thus the cycle of the year is complete, as is the story of Jesus as an archetypal allegory of the sun. Comments and questions may be sent to the author at german, [emailprotected] Borg, Marcus. Light in the Darkness (the Christmas Myth and Bible as Literature). The Christian Century Dec.
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