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odyssey hubris essay In William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the my family Human Place in Nature , New York: W. W. Nervosa Essay! Norton Co., 1995, 69-90. The time has come to my family for class kg rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to many environmentalists, since the idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenetindeed, a passionof the environmental movement, especially in the United States. For many Americans wilderness stands as the last remaining place where civilization, that all too human disease, has not fully infected the thesis management earth. It is an for class kg, island in the polluted sea of urban-industrial modernity, the one place we can turn for escape from essays on history literature our own too-muchness. Seen in this way, wilderness presents itself as the best antidote to our human selves, a refuge we must somehow recover if we hope to my family for class kg save the planet. As Henry David Thoreau once famously declared, “In Wildness is the preservation of the World.” (1) But is it? The more one knows of its peculiar history, the more one realizes that wilderness is essays of english literature not quite what it seems.
Far from being the my family essay for class one place on earth that stands apart from humanity, it is quite profoundly a human creationindeed, the creation of essays and politics, very particular human cultures at very particular moments in my family, human history. A Methods Research Paper! It is not a pristine sanctuary where the last remnant of an untouched, endangered, but still transcendent nature can for at least a little while longer be encountered without the contaminating taint of civilization. Instead, it’s a product of that civilization, and could hardly be contaminated by the very stuff of which it is made. Wilderness hides its unnaturalness behind a mask that is all the more beguiling because it seems so natural. As we gaze into the mirror it holds up for us, we too easily imagine that what we behold is Nature when in fact we see the reflection of our own unexamined longings and desires. For this reason, we mistake ourselves when we suppose that wilderness can be the solution to our culture’s problematic relationships with the nonhuman world, for for class kg, wilderness is itself no small part of the problem. To assert the unnaturalness of so natural a place will no doubt seem absurd or even perverse to poetique many readers, so let me hasten to my family essay for class kg add that the nonhuman world we encounter in wilderness is on history of english literature far from being merely our own invention.
I celebrate with others who love wilderness the beauty and power of the things it contains. Each of us who has spent time there can conjure images and sensations that seem all the more hauntingly real for having engraved themselves so indelibly on our memories. Such memories may be uniquely our own, but they are also familiar enough be to be instantly recognizable to essay kg others. Remember this? The torrents of mist shoot out from the base of a great waterfall in the depths of a Sierra canyon, the tiny droplets cooling your face as you listen to the roar of the essays of english water and gaze up toward the sky through a rainbow that hovers just out of reach. Remember this too: looking out across a desert canyon in the evening air, the only sound a lone raven calling in the distance, the rock walls dropping away into my family essay for class kg, a chasm so deep that its bottom all but vanishes as you squint into the amber light of the setting sun. Nervosa Essay! And this: the moment beside the trail as you sit on for class kg a sandstone ledge, your boots damp with the management morning dew while you take in the rich smell of the pines, and the small red foxor maybe for you it was a raccoon or a coyote or a deerthat suddenly ambles across your path, stopping for a long moment to gaze in your direction with cautious indifference before continuing on its way.
Remember the feelings of for class, such moments, and you will know as well as I do that you were in the presence of something irreducibly nonhuman, something profoundly Other than yourself Wilderness is made of that too. And yet: what brought each of us to the places where such memories became possible is entirely a cultural invention. Go back 250 years in of tourism, American and European history, and you do not find nearly so many people wandering around remote corners of the planet looking for what today we would call “the wilderness experience.” As late as the eighteenth century, the most common usage of the word “wilderness” in my family essay for class, the English language referred to depression landscapes that generally carried adjectives far different from the ones they attract today. To be a wilderness then was to be “deserted,” “savage,” “desolate,” “barren”in short, a “waste,” the kg word’s nearest synonym. Nervosa Essay Introduction! Its connotations were anything but positive, and the emotion one was most likely to feel in its presence was “bewilderment” or terror. My Family Kg! (2) Many of the word’s strongest associations then were biblical, for it is used over and over again in research paper, the King James Version to refer to places on the margins of civilization where it is all too easy to lose oneself in moral confusion and despair. Essay For Class Kg! The wilderness was where Moses had wandered with his people for forty years, and where they had nearly abandoned their God to worship a golden idol. (3) “For Pharaoh will say of the Children of Israel,” we read in Exodus, “They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.” (4) The wilderness was where Christ had struggled with the thesis of tourism devil and endured his temptations: “And immediately the Spirit driveth him into kg, the wilderness. And he was there in the wilderness for thesis, forty days tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.” (5) The “delicious Paradise” of John Milton’s Eden was surrounded by “a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides /Access denied” to all who sought entry.” When Adam and my family Eve were driven from that garden, the world they entered was a wilderness that only their labor and pain could redeem.
Wilderness, in short, was a place to which one came only against one’s will, and always in fear and trembling. Whatever value it might have arose solely from the possibility that it might be “reclaimed” and turned toward human endsplanted as a garden, say, or a city upon a hill. (7) In its raw state, it had little or nothing to offer civilized men and women. But by the end of the nineteenth century, all this had changed. Essays On History! The wastelands that had once seemed worthless had for some people come to seem almost beyond price. That Thoreau in 1862 could declare wildness to be the my family kg preservation of the world suggests the sea change that was going on. Anorexia Nervosa! Wilderness had once been the antithesis of essay, all that was orderly and goodit had been the darkness, one might say, on the far side of the garden walland yet now it was frequently likened to Eden itself. When John Muir arrived in the Sierra Nevada in 1869, he would declare, “No description of Heaven that I have ever heard or read of seems half so fine.” (8) He was hardly alone in depression research paper, expressing such emotions.
One by my family essay kg one, various corners of the American map came to be designated as sites whose wild beauty was so spectacular that a growing number of citizens had to visit and see them for themselves. Niagara Falls was the first to undergo this transformation, but it was soon followed by on history the Catskills, the Adirondacks, Yosemite, Yellowstone, and others. Yosemite was deeded by the U. S. government to the state of California in 1864 as the nation’s first wildland park, and Yellowstone became the first true national park in my family, 1872. (9) By the first decade of the twentieth century, in the single most famous episode in American conservation history, a national debate had exploded over whether the city of San Francisco should be permitted to augment its water supply by of tourism damming the my family essay Tuolumne River in Hetch Hetchy valley, well within the boundaries of Yosemite National Park. The dam was eventually built, but what today seems no less significant is how to section of a that so many people fought to prevent its completion. Even as the fight was being lost, Hetch Hetchy became the baffle cry of an emerging movement to preserve wilderness. My Family Essay For Class! Fifty years earlier, such opposition would have been unthinkable. Of English Literature! Few would have questioned the merits of my family for class, “reclaiming” a wasteland like this in order to put it to human use. Now the defenders of Hetch Hetchy attracted widespread national attention by portraying such an act not as improvement or progress but as desecration and vandalism.
Lest one doubt that the old biblical metaphors had been turned completely on their heads, listen to John Muir attack the dam’s defenders. “Their arguments,” he wrote, “are curiously like those of the poetique devil, devised for the destruction of the essay for class kg first gardenso much of the thesis of tourism very best Eden fruit going to waste; so much of the best Tuolumne water and Tuolumne scenery going to waste.” (10) For Muir and the growing number of Americans who shared his views, Satan’s home had become God’s Own Temple. The sources of this rather astonishing transformation were many, but for the purposes of this essay they can be gathered under two broad headings: the sublime and the frontier. Of the two, the sublime is the kg older and more pervasive cultural construct, being one of the most important expressions of that broad transatlantic movement we today label as romanticism; the frontier is more peculiarly American, though it too had its European antecedents and parallels. The two converged to remake wilderness in their own image, freighting it with moral values and cultural symbols that it carries to this day. Of Tourism Management! Indeed, it is essay not too much to say that the modern environmental movement is itself a grandchild of romanticism and post-frontier ideology, which is why it is no accident that so much environmentalist discourse takes its bearings from the wilderness these intellectual movements helped create. Although wilderness may today seem to be just one environmental concern among many, it in fact serves as the foundation for a long list of other such concerns that on their face seem quite remote from it. That is why its influence is so pervasive and, potentially, so insidious.
To gain such remarkable influence, the concept of wilderness had to become loaded with some of the deepest core values of the culture that created and idealized it: it had to become sacred. This possibility had been present in wilderness even in the days when it had been a place of spiritual danger and essays and politics moral temptation. If Satan was there, then so was Christ, who had found angels as well as wild beasts during His sojourn in the desert. In the wilderness the boundaries between human and nonhuman, between natural and supernatural, had always seemed less certain than elsewhere. This was why the essay early Christian saints and mystics had often emulated Christ’s desert retreat as they sought to and politics experience for essay for class, themselves the visions and management spiritual testing He had endured.
One might meet devils and run the my family for class kg risk of losing one’s soul in on history of english, such a place, but one might also meet God. For some that possibility was worth almost any price. By the eighteenth century this sense of the my family for class wilderness as a landscape where the supernatural lay just beneath the surface was expressed in the doctrine of the sublime, a word whose modern usage has been so watered down by essays on history commercial hype and tourist advertising that it retains only a dim echo of essay for class, its former power. (11) In the theories of Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant, William Gilpin, and dissertation others, sublime landscapes were those rare places on earth where one had more chance than elsewhere to glimpse the my family essay for class face of God. (12) Romantics had a clear notion of where one could be most sure of having this experience. Essays On Religion! Although God might, of course, choose to show Himself anywhere, He would most often be found in those vast, powerful landscapes where one could not help feeling insignificant and being reminded of one’s own mortality. Where were these sublime places?
The eighteenth century catalog of their locations feels very familiar, for we still see and value landscapes as it taught us to do. Essay! God was on the mountaintop, in the chasm, in essays on religion and politics, the waterfall, in the thundercloud, in my family kg, the rainbow, in the sunset. Dissertation Creation Poetique! One has only to think of the sites that Americans chose for their first national parksYellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Rainier, Zionto realize that virtually all of essay for class kg, them fit one or more of these categories. Less sublime landscapes simply did not appear worthy of such protection; not until the 1940s, for instance, would the first swamp be honored, in Everglades National Park, and to this day there is no national park in the grasslands. (13) Among the best proofs that one had entered a sublime landscape was the emotion it evoked. For the early romantic writers and artists who first began to celebrate it, the sublime was far from being a pleasurable experience. The classic description is that of essays on history literature, William Wordsworth as he recounted climbing the Alps and crossing the Simplon Pass in his autobiographical poem “The Prelude.” There, surrounded by crags and waterfalls, the poet felt himself literally to essay kg be in the presence of the divineand experienced an research, emotion remarkably close to terror: The immeasurable height.
Of woods decaying, never to be decayed, The stationary blasts of waterfalls, And in the narrow rent at every turn. Winds thwarting winds, bewildered and forlorn, The torrents shooting from the clear blue sky,
The rocks that muttered close upon our ears, Black drizzling crags that spake by the way-side. As if a voice were in them, the sick sight. And giddy prospect of the raving stream, The unfettered clouds and my family kg region of the Heavens, Tumult and essays and politics peace, the essay darkness and the light. Were all like workings of one mind, the features. Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree; Characters of the great Apocalypse, The types and symbols of Eternity, Of first, and last, and midst, and without end. Essays And Politics! (14)
This was no casual stroll in the mountains, no simple sojourn in the gentle lap of my family essay, nonhuman nature. What Wordsworth described was nothing less than a religious experience, akin to that of the essays on history of english Old Testament prophets as they conversed with their wrathful God. My Family Essay! The symbols he detected in this wilderness landscape were more supernatural than natural, and they inspired more awe and dismay than joy or pleasure. No mere mortal was meant to linger long in such a place, so it was with considerable relief that Wordsworth and his companion made their way back down from the peaks to the sheltering valleys. Lest you suspect that this view of the sublime was limited to timid Europeans who lacked the American know-how for feeling at home in a methods paper, the wilderness, remember Henry David Thoreau’s 1846 climb of my family essay for class kg, Mount Katahdin, in Maine. Although Thoreau is how to write section of a research regarded by many today as one of the great American celebrators of wilderness, his emotions about Katahdin were no less ambivalent than Wordsworth’s about the Alps. It was vast, Titanic, and for class such as man never inhabits. Some part of the beholder, even some vital part, seems to escape through the loose grating of his ribs as he ascends.
He is more lone than you can imagine . Vast, Titanic, inhuman Nature has got him at disadvantage, caught him alone, and pilfers him of some of his divine faculty. She does not smile on him as in the plains. She seems to say sternly, why came ye here before your time? This ground is not prepared for you. Is it not enough that I smile in the valleys? I have never made this soil for thy feet, this air for thy breathing, these rocks for thy neighbors.
I cannot pity nor fondle thee here, but forever relentlessly drive thee hence to depression where I am kind. Why seek me where I have not called thee, and then complain because you find me but a stepmother? (15) This is my family essay kg surely not the way a modern backpacker or nature lover would describe Maine’s most famous mountain, but that is because Thoreau’s description owes as much to of tourism Wordsworth and other romantic contemporaries as to the rocks and clouds of my family essay for class, Katahdin itself. His words took the physical mountain on which he stood and thesis of tourism transmuted it into an icon of the sublime: a symbol of God’s presence on earth. The power and the glory of that icon were such that only a prophet might gaze on it for long.
In effect, romantics like Thoreau joined Moses and kg the children of Israel in Exodus when “they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the depression research glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.” (16) But even as it came to my family essay for class embody the awesome power of the sublime, wilderness was also being tamednot just by those who were building settlements in its midst but also by those who most celebrated its inhuman beauty. By the second half of the nineteenth century, the terrible awe that Wordsworth and Thoreau regarded as the appropriately pious stance to adopt in the presence of their mountaintop God was giving way to a much more comfortable, almost sentimental demeanor. As more and essays more tourists sought out the wilderness as a spectacle to be looked at and enjoyed for its great beauty, the sublime in effect became domesticated. The wilderness was still sacred, but the religious sentiments it evoked were more those of my family essay, a pleasant parish church than those of a grand cathedral or a harsh desert retreat. The writer who best captures this late romantic sense of a domesticated sublime is undoubtedly John Muir, whose descriptions of Yosemite and the Sierra Nevada reflect none of the anxiety or terror one finds in paper, earlier writers.
Here he is, for my family, instance, sketching on North Dome in Yosemite Valley: No pain here, no dull empty hours, no fear of the past, no fear of the future. These blessed mountains are so compactly filled with God’s beauty, no petty personal hope or experience has room to be. Drinking this champagne water is pure pleasure, so is breathing the nervosa essay introduction living air, and my family essay every movement of limbs is pleasure, while the body seems to feel beauty when exposed to it as it feels the campfire or sunshine, entering not by the eyes alone, but equally through all one’s flesh like radiant heat, making a passionate ecstatic pleasure glow not explainable. The emotions Muir describes in Yosemite could hardly be more different from Thoreau’s on Katahdin or Wordsworth’s on the Simplon Pass. Creation! Yet all three men are participating in for class, the same cultural tradition and contributing to the same myththe mountain as cathedral. How To Write Of A Research Paper! The three may differ in the way they choose to my family for class express their pietyWordsworth favoring an awe-filled bewilderment, Thoreau a stern loneliness, Muir a welcome ecstasybut they agree completely about the church in which they prefer to worship. Muir’s closing words on North Dome diverge from essay introduction his older contemporaries only in mood, not in their ultimate content: Perched like a fly on this Yosemite dome, I gaze and sketch and bask, oftentimes settling down into essay, dumb admiration without definite hope of ever learning much, yet with the longing, unresting effort that lies at the door of hope, humbly prostrate before the vast display of anorexia, God’s power, and eager to offer self-denial and my family essay for class kg renunciation with eternal toil to learn any lesson in dissertation, the divine manuscript. (17)
Muir’s “divine manuscript” and essay for class Wordsworth’s “Characters of the great Apocalypse” are in fact pages from the same holy book. The sublime wilderness had ceased to be place of satanic temptation and become instead a sacred temple, much as it continues to be for those who love it today. But the romantic sublime was not the only cultural movement that helped transform wilderness into a sacred American icon during the nineteenth century. No less important was the powerful romantic attraction of primitivism, dating back at least to anorexia essay introduction of that the best antidote to the ills of an overly refined and civilized modern world was a return to simpler, more primitive living. My Family Essay Kg! In the United States, this was embodied most strikingly in the national myth of the frontier. The historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote in 1893 the classic academic statement of this myth, but it had been part of American cultural traditions for well over a century. As Turner described the process, easterners and European immigrants, in moving to the wild unsettled lands of the frontier, shed the trappings of a methods of a research, civilization, rediscovered their primitive racial energies, reinvented direct democratic institutions, and by reinfused themselves with a vigor, an independence, and a creativity that the source of American democracy and national character.
Seen in this way, wild country became a place not just of my family essay kg, religious redemption but of national renewal, the quintessential location for experiencing what it meant to be an write section of a paper, American. One of Turner’s most provocative claims was that by the 1890s the frontier was passing away. Never again would “such gifts of free land offer themselves” to the American people. “The frontier has gone,” he declared, “and with its going has closed the first period of American history.” (18) Built into the frontier myth from its very beginning was the my family kg notion that this crucible of American identity was temporary and on history of english literature would pass away. Those who have celebrated the frontier have almost always looked backward as they did so, mourning an older, simpler, truer world that is about to disappear, forever. That world and all of its attractions, Turner said, depended on free landon wilderness. Thus, in the myth of the vanishing frontier lay the for class kg seeds of wilderness preservation in the United States, for if wild land had been so crucial in section, the making of the nation, then surely one must save its last remnants as monuments to the American pastand as an insurance policy to protect its future. It is no accident that the movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas began to gain real momentum at essay kg, precisely the how to write section research paper time that laments about the passing frontier reached their peak. To protect wilderness was in a very real sense to protect the nation’s most sacred myth of origin. Among the core elements of the frontier myth was the powerful sense among certain groups of for class, Americans that wilderness was the on history last bastion of rugged individualism. Turner tended to stress communitarian themes when writing frontier history, asserting that Americans in for class kg, primitive conditions had been forced to band together with their neighbors to form communities and democratic institutions.
For other writers, however, frontier democracy for communities was less compelling than frontier freedom for individuals. (19) By fleeing to the outer margins of settled land and societyso the story ranan individual could escape the confining strictures of thesis management, civilized life. The mood among writers who celebrated frontier individualism was almost always nostalgic; they lamented not just a lost way of life but the passing of the essay heroic men who had embodied that life. Thus Owen Wister in the introduction to his classic 1902 novel The Virginian could write of “a vanished world” in which “the horseman, the how to write a methods section of a research paper cow-puncher, the last romantic figure upon my family essay, our soil” rode only “in his historic yesterday” and would “never come again.” For Wister, the cowboy was a man who gave his word and kept it (“Wall Street would have found him behind the times”), who did not talk lewdly to on history literature women (“Newport would have thought him old-fashioned”), who worked and played hard, and essay for class whose “ungoverned hours did not unman him.” (20) Theodore Roosevelt wrote with much the same nostalgic fervor about the “fine, manly qualities” of the essays literature “wild rough-rider of the plains.” No one could be more heroically masculine, thought Roosevelt, or more at home in the western wilderness: There he passes his days, there he does his life-work, there, when he meets death, he faces it as he has faced many other evils, with quiet, uncomplaining fortitude. Brave, hospitable, hardy, and adventurous, he is the grim pioneer of my family essay for class, our race; he prepares the way for how to write of a research paper, the civilization from before whose face he must himself disappear. Hard and dangerous though his existence is, it has yet a wild attraction that strongly draws to kg it his bold, free spirit. (21) This nostalgia for a passing frontier way of life inevitably implied ambivalence, if not downright hostility, toward modernity and all that it represented. If one saw the wild lands of the frontier as freer, truer, and more natural than other, more modern places, then one was also inclined to anorexia see the cities and essay factories of urban-industrial civilization as confining, false, and artificial. Owen Wister looked at the post-frontier “transition” that had followed “the horseman of the plains,” and did not like what he saw: “a shapeless state, a condition of essays on religion and politics, men and manners as unlovely as is that moment in the year when winter is essay for class gone and spring not come, and the face of Nature is ugly.” (22) In the thesis management eyes of writers who shared Wister’s distaste for for class kg, modernity, civilization contaminated its inhabitants and absorbed them into the faceless, collective, contemptible life of the crowd. For all of its troubles and dangers, and of tourism management despite the fact that it must pass away, the frontier had been a better place. If civilization was to be redeemed, it would be by men like the Virginian who could retain their frontier virtues even as they made the transition to post-frontier life.
The mythic frontier individualist was almost always masculine in gender: here, in the wilderness, a man could be a real man, the rugged individual he was meant to be before civilization sapped his energy and threatened his masculinity. Wister’s contemptuous remarks about Wall Street and Newport suggest what he and my family kg many others of his generation believedthat the comforts and seductions of civilized life were especially insidious for men, who all too easily became emasculated by the feminizing tendencies of civilization. More often than not, men who felt this way came, like Wister and Roosevelt, from elite class backgrounds. Essay Introduction! The curious result was that frontier nostalgia became an important vehicle for expressing a peculiarly bourgeois form of antimodernism. The very men who most benefited from urban-industrial capitalism were among those who believed they must escape its debilitating effects. If the frontier was passing, then men who had the means to my family for class do so should preserve for themselves some remnant of essays, its wild landscape so that they might enjoy the regeneration and renewal that came from my family essay for class kg sleeping under the stars, participating in blood sports, and living off the land. The frontier might be gone, but the frontier experience could still be had if only wilderness were preserved. Thus the decades following the Civil War saw more and more of the nation’s wealthiest citizens seeking out wilderness for themselves. Depression Paper! The elite passion for wild land took many forms: enormous estates in the Adirondacks and essay elsewhere (disingenuously called “camps” despite their many servants and amenities), cattle ranches for would-be rough riders on the Great Plains, guided big-game hunting trips in the Rockies, and depression research luxurious resort hotels wherever railroads pushed their way into sublime landscapes. Essay Kg! Wilderness suddenly emerged as the landscape of choice for elite tourists, who brought with them strikingly urban ideas of the countryside through which they traveled.
For them, wild land was not a site for productive labor and not a permanent home; rather, it was a place of recreation. One went to the wilderness not as a producer but as a consumer, hiring guides and nervosa essay introduction other backcountry residents who could serve as romantic surrogates for the rough riders and hunters of the frontier if one was willing to overlook their new status as employees and essay servants of the essays on history of english rich. In just this way, wilderness came to embody the national frontier myth, standing for the wild freedom of essay for class kg, America’s past and seeming to represent a highly attractive natural alternative to the ugly artificiality of essays on religion, modern civilization. The irony, of course, was that in the process wilderness came to my family essay kg reflect the very civilization its devotees sought to escape. Ever since the nineteenth century, celebrating wilderness has been an activity mainly for well-to-do city folks. Country people generally know far too much about essays and politics working the essay for class kg land to regard unworked land as their ideal. Dissertation Creation! In contrast, elite urban tourists and wealthy sportsmen projected their leisure-time frontier fantasies onto the American landscape and so created wilderness in their own image. There were other ironies as well, The movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas followed hard on the heels of the final Indian wars, in my family for class, which the essays on religion and politics prior human inhabitants of these areas were rounded up and moved onto reservations. The myth of the wilderness as “virgin ” uninhabited land had always been especially cruel when seen from the perspective of the Indians who had once called that land home.
Now they were forced to move elsewhere, with the result that tourists could safely enjoy the illusion that they were seeing their nation in its pristine, original state, in the new morning of God’s own creation. My Family For Class! (23) Among the things that most marked the new national parks as reflecting a post-frontier consciousness was the write a methods section relative absence of my family kg, human violence within their boundaries. The actual frontier had often been a place of conflict, in which invaders and invaded fought for control of land and resources. Once set aside within the fixed and research carefully policed boundaries of the modern bureaucratic state, the wilderness lost its savage image and became safe: a place more of reverie than of my family essay kg, revulsion or fear. Depression Paper! Meanwhile, its original inhabitants were kept out by dint of force, their earlier uses of the land redefined as inappropriate or even illegal. My Family Essay Kg! To this day, for essay introduction, instance, the Blackfeet continue to be accused of essay for class kg, “poaching” on research paper the lands of Glacier National Park that originally belonged to them and that were ceded by treaty only essay, with the proviso that they be permitted to hunt there. (24)
The removal of Indians to create an “uninhabited wilderness”uninhabited as never before in the human history of the research placereminds us just how invented, just how constructed, the for class American wilderness really is. To return to my opening argument: there is nothing natural about the concept of essays on religion, wilderness. It is entirely a creation of the culture that holds it dear, a product of the essay kg very history it seeks to deny. Indeed, one of the most striking proofs of the cultural invention of wilderness is on history its thoroughgoing erasure of the my family essay for class kg history from which it sprang. In virtually all of anorexia, its manifestations, wilderness represents a flight from history. Seen as the original garden, it is a place outside of time, from which human beings had to be ejected before the fallen world of history could properly begin.
Seen as the frontier, it is a savage world at my family kg, the dawn of anorexia essay, civilization, whose transformation represents the very beginning of the national historical epic. Essay! Seen as the bold landscape of frontier heroism, it is the place of youth and childhood, into essays on history of english literature, which men escape by abandoning their pasts and entering a world of freedom where the constraints of civilization fade into memory. My Family! Seen as the sacred sublime, it is the home of a God who transcends history by standing as the One who remains untouched and unchanged by time’s arrow. No matter what the angle from which we regard it, wilderness offers us the illusion that we can escape the cares and troubles of the world in which our past has ensnared us. (25) This escape from paper history is one reason why the language we use to talk about wilderness is often permeated with spiritual and religious values that reflect human ideals far more than the my family for class kg material world of physical nature. Wilderness fulfills the old romantic project of secularizing Judeo-Christian values so as to make a new cathedral not in some petty human building but in God’s own creation, Nature itself.
Many environmentalists who reject traditional notions of the Godhead and who regard themselves as agnostics or even atheists nonetheless express feelings tantamount to religious awe when in the presence of wildernessa fact that testifies to thesis of tourism management the success of the romantic project. Those who have no difficulty seeing God as the expression of our human dreams and desires nonetheless have trouble recognizing that in a secular age Nature can offer precisely the same sort of mirror. Thus it is that wilderness serves as the unexamined foundation on which so many of the quasi-religious values of modern environmentalism rest. The critique of modernity that is one of environmentalism’s most important contributions to the moral and political discourse of our time more often than not appeals, explicitly or implicitly, to wilderness as the standard against which to measure the failings of our human world. Wilderness is the natural, unfallen antithesis of an unnatural civilization that has lost its soul. It is a place of freedom in which we can recover the true selves we have lost to the corrupting influences of for class kg, our artificial lives. Most of all, it is the ultimate landscape of authenticity. Combining the sacred grandeur of the of english literature sublime with the my family essay kg primitive simplicity of the frontier, it is the place where we can see the thesis of tourism management world as it really is, and so know ourselves as we really areor ought to be.
But the trouble with wilderness is that it quietly expresses and reproduces the my family essay kg very values its devotees seek to reject. The flight from history that is very nearly the depression research paper core of wilderness represents the false hope of an escape from responsibility, the illusion that we can somehow wipe clean the slate of our past and return to the tabula rasa that supposedly existed before we began to leave our marks on for class the world. The dream of an unworked natural landscape is very much the fantasy of thesis of tourism management, people who have never themselves had to work the essay land to make a livingurban folk for whom food comes from a supermarket or a restaurant instead of a field, and for anorexia nervosa essay, whom the wooden houses in my family kg, which they live and work apparently have no meaningful connection to thesis of tourism management the forests in my family essay kg, which trees grow and die. Only people whose relation to the land was already alienated could hold up wilderness as a model for human life in nature, for the romantic ideology of wilderness leaves precisely nowhere for human beings actually to make their living from the dissertation land. This, then, is the central paradox: wilderness embodies a dualistic vision in my family essay, which the human is entirely outside the natural. Depression Paper! If we allow ourselves to believe that nature, to be true, must also be wild, then our very presence in nature represents its fall. The place where we are is the place where nature is not. If this is soif by definition wilderness leaves no place for human beings, save perhaps as contemplative sojourners enjoying their leisurely reverie in God’s natural cathedralthen also by definition it can offer no solution to the environmental and other problems that confront us.
To the extent that we celebrate wilderness as the measure with which we judge civilization, we reproduce the my family essay dualism that sets humanity and nature at opposite poles. Anorexia Essay! We thereby leave ourselves little hope of discovering what an ethical, sustainable, honorable human place in for class kg, nature might actually look like. Worse: to the extent that we live in an urban-industrial civilization but at the same time pretend to ourselves that our real home is in the wilderness, to just that extent we give ourselves permission to evade responsibility for the lives we actually lead. We inhabit civilization while holding some part of ourselveswhat we imagine to be the how to a methods of a most precious partaloof from its entanglements. We work our nine-to-five jobs in its institutions, we eat its food, we drive its cars (not least to reach the my family essay kg wilderness), we benefit from the intricate and all too invisible networks with which it shelters us, all the while pretending that these things are not an essential part of who we are. By imagining that our true home is in essays of english literature, the wilderness, we forgive ourselves the homes we actually inhabit. My Family! In its flight from history, in its siren song of escape, in its reproduction of the dangerous dualism that sets human beings outside of naturein all of these ways, wilderness poses a serious threat to responsible environmentalism at anorexia nervosa essay, the end of the twentieth century. By now I hope it is clear that my criticism in this essay is my family not directed at wild nature per se, or even at efforts to set aside large tracts of wild land, but rather at the specific habits of thinking that flow from this complex cultural construction called wilderness. It is not the things we label as wilderness that are the problemfor nonhuman nature and large tracts of the natural world do deserve protectionbut rather what we ourselves mean when we use the on religion and politics label.
Lest one doubt how pervasive these habits of thought actually are in contemporary environmentalism, let me list some of the places where wilderness serves as the ideological underpinning for environmental concerns that might otherwise seem quite remote from it. Defenders of biological diversity, for instance, although sometimes appealing to for class kg more utilitarian concerns, often point to “untouched” ecosystems as the best and richest repositories of the undiscovered species we must certainly try to protect. Although at first blush an apparently more “scientific” concept than wilderness, biological diversity in fact invokes many of the same sacred values, which is why organizations like the dissertation poetique Nature Conservancy have been so quick to employ it as an alternative to the seemingly fuzzier and my family more problematic concept of wilderness. There is a paradox here, of course. To the extent that biological diversity (indeed, even wilderness itself) is nervosa likely to survive in the future only by the most vigilant and essay self-conscious management of the ecosystems that sustain it, the ideology of wilderness is potentially in direct conflict with the very thing it encourages us to protect. (26) The most striking instances of this have revolved around “endangered species,” which serve as vulnerable symbols of biological diversity while at the same time standing as surrogates for a methods section paper, wilderness itself. My Family Essay Kg! The terms of the Endangered Species Act in the United States have often meant that those hoping to defend pristine wilderness have had to rely on a single endangered species like the spotted owl to gain legal standing for their casethereby making the full power of the dissertation creation sacred land inhere in a single numinous organism whose habitat then becomes the object of intense debate about my family kg appropriate management and use. (27) The ease with which anti-environmental forces like the on religion and politics wise-use movement have attacked such single-species preservation efforts suggests the vulnerability of strategies like these. Perhaps partly because our own conflicts over such places and organisms have become so messy, the convergence of wilderness values with concerns about biological diversity and my family for class endangered species has helped produce a deep fascination for remote ecosystems, where it is easier to imagine that nature might somehow be “left alone” to flourish by its own pristine devices.
The classic example is the tropical rain forest, which since the 1970s has become the essays on religion most powerful modern icon of essay for class, unfallen, sacred landa veritable Garden of Edenfor many Americans and Europeans. And yet protecting the rain forest in the eyes of management, First World environmentalists all too often means protecting it from the people who live there. My Family Essay For Class! Those who seek to preserve such “wilderness” from the activities of management, native peoples run the risk of reproducing the same tragedybeing forceably removed from an ancient homethat befell American Indians. My Family Essay! Third World countries face massive environmental problems and deep social conflicts, but these are not likely to management be solved by my family essay kg a cultural myth that encourages us to “preserve” peopleless landscapes that have not existed in such places for thesis of tourism management, millennia. My Family For Class Kg! At its worst, as environmentalists are beginning to realize, exporting American notions of wilderness in this way can become an unthinking and literature self-defeating form of cultural imperialism. (28)
Perhaps the most suggestive example of the my family essay way that wilderness thinking can underpin other environmental concerns has emerged in write a methods section research paper, the recent debate about my family essay for class kg “global change.” In 1989 the journalist Bill McKibben published a book entitled The End of research, Nature, in which he argued that the prospect of global climate change as a result of unintentional human manipulation of the atmosphere means that nature as we once knew it no longer exists. (29) Whereas earlier generations inhabited a natural world that remained more or less unaffected by their actions, our own generation is uniquely different. We and our children will henceforth live in a biosphere completely altered by our own activity, a planet in which the human and the natural can no longer be distinguished, because the one has overwhelmed the my family other. In McKibben’s view, nature has died, and creation poetique we are responsible for killing it. “The planet,” he declares, “is utterly different now.” (30) But such a perspective is possible only if we accept the wilderness premise that nature, to be natural, must also be pristineremote from humanity and for class kg untouched by our common past. In fact, everything we know about environmental history suggests that people have been manipulating the natural world on various scales for as long as we have a record of their passing. Moreover, we have unassailable evidence that many of the nervosa essay environmental changes we now face also occurred quite apart from human intervention at one time or another in the earth’s past. (31) The point is not that our current problems are trivial, or that our devastating effects on the earth’s ecosystems should be accepted as inevitable or “natural.” It is rather that we seem unlikely to make much progress in solving these problems if we hold up to ourselves as the mirror of nature a wilderness we ourselves cannot inhabit. To do so is merely to for class take to anorexia essay a logical extreme the paradox that was built into wilderness from the beginning: if nature dies because we enter it, then the only way to save nature is to kill ourselves.
The absurdity of this proposition flows from the underlying dualism it expresses. Not only does it ascribe greater power to essay for class kg humanity that we in fact possessphysical and biological nature will surely survive in some form or another long after we ourselves have gone the dissertation creation way of all fleshbut in the end it offers us little more than a self-defeating counsel of despair. My Family Essay Kg! The tautology gives us no way out: if wild nature is the only thing worth saving, and if our mere presence destroys it, then the sole solution to dissertation creation poetique our own unnaturalness, the only way to protect sacred wilderness from profane humanity, would seem to be suicide. It is not a proposition that seems likely to produce very positive or practical results. And yet radical environmentalists and deep ecologists all too frequently come close to accepting this premise as a first principle. When they express, for instance, the popular notion that our environmental problems began with the invention of agriculture, they push the human fall from natural grace so far back into the past that all of civilized history becomes a tale of essay kg, ecological declension. Earth First! founder Dave Foreman captures the paper familiar parable succinctly when he writes, Before agriculture was midwifed in the Middle East, humans were in the wilderness. We had no concept of “wilderness” because everything was wilderness and we were a part of it. But with irrigation ditches, crop surpluses, and permanent villages, we became apart from the natural world. Essay For Class Kg! Between the wilderness that created us and the civilization created by us grew an research paper, ever-widening rift. (32)
In this view the my family kg farm becomes the first and most important battlefield in the long war against wild nature, and all else follows in its wake. From such a starting place, it is hard not to reach the conclusion that the only way human beings can hope to live naturally on earth is to follow the hunter-gatherers back into a wilderness Eden and abandon virtually everything that civilization has given us. It may indeed turn out that civilization will end in ecological collapse or nuclear disaster, whereupon one might expect to find any human survivors returning to a way of life closer to that celebrated by Foreman and his followers. Of English! For most of us, though, such a debacle would be cause for regret, a sign that humanity had failed to fulfill its own promise and failed to honor its own highest valuesincluding those of the deep ecologists. In offering wilderness as the ultimate hunter-gatherer alternative to civilization, Foreman reproduces an extreme but still easily recognizable version of the myth of my family essay for class kg, frontier primitivism. Research Paper! When he writes of his fellow Earth Firsters that “we believe we must return to being animal, to my family kg glorying in our sweat, hormones, tears, and blood” and that “we struggle against depression paper the modern compulsion to become dull, passionless androids,” he is following in the footsteps of my family kg, Owen Wister. (33) Although his arguments give primacy to defending biodiversity and and politics the autonomy of my family essay, wild nature, his prose becomes most passionate when he speaks of preserving “the wilderness experience.” His own ideal “Big Outside” bears an uncanny resemblance to that of the essays and politics frontier myth: wide open spaces and virgin land with no trails, no signs, no facilities, no maps, no guides, no rescues, no modern equipment. Tellingly, it is a land where hardy travelers can support themselves by my family essay hunting with “primitive weapons (bow and of english arrow, atlatl, knife, sharp rock).” (34) Foreman claims that “the primary value of my family for class kg, wilderness is dissertation creation not as a proving ground for my family essay for class kg, young Huck Finns and Annie Oakleys,” but his heart is with Huck and Annie all the write a methods paper same. He admits that “preserving a quality wilderness experience for my family, the human visitor, letting her or him flex Paleolithic muscles or seek visions, remains a tremendously important secondary purpose.” (35) Just so does Teddy Roosevelt’s rough rider live on in the greener garb of a new age.
However much one may be attracted to such a vision, it entails problematic consequences. For one, it makes wilderness the creation locus for an epic struggle between malign civilization and benign nature, compared with which all other social, political, and moral concerns seem trivial. Foreman writes, “The preservation of for class, wildness and native diversity is the most important issue. Issues directly affecting only humans pale in comparison.” (36) Presumably so do any environmental problems whose victims are mainly people, for depression paper, such problems usually surface in landscapes that have already “fallen” and are no longer wild. This would seem to my family exclude from the radical environmentalist agenda problems of occupational health and how to section of a research safety in essay, industrial settings, problems of toxic waste exposure on “unnatural” urban and agricultural sites, problems of poor children poisoned by lead exposure in the inner city, problems of famine and dissertation poverty and human suffering in the “overpopulated” places of the earthproblems, in short, of environmental justice.
If we set too high a stock on wilderness, too many other corners of the earth become less than natural and my family for class kg too many other people become less than human, thereby giving us permission not to care much about essays on history their suffering or their fate. It is no accident that these supposedly inconsequential environmental problems affect mainly poor people, for the long affiliation between wilderness and my family essay for class wealth means that the only poor people who count when wilderness is the on history of english issue are hunter-gatherers, who presumably do not consider themselves to be poor in the first place. The dualism at the heart of wilderness encourages its advocates to conceive of its protection as a crude conflict between the “human” and the “nonhuman”or, more often, between those who value the nonhuman and those who do not. This in turn tempts one to my family essay kg ignore crucial differences among humans and the complex cultural and historical reasons why different peoples may feel very differently about the meaning of how to of a, wilderness. Why, for instance, is the ” wilderness experience” so often conceived as a form of recreation best enjoyed by those whose class privileges give them the time and resources to leave their jobs behind and “get away from it all?” Why does the protection of my family essay kg, wilderness so often seem to pit urban recreationists against rural people who actually earn their living from the land (excepting those who sell goods and services to anorexia essay introduction the tourists themselves)?
Why in the debates about my family for class kg pristine natural areas are “primitive” peoples idealized, even sentimentalized, until the moment they do something unprimitive, modern, and unnatural, and thereby fall from environmental grace? What are the consequences of a wilderness ideology that devalues productive labor and the very concrete knowledge that comes from working the land with one’s own hands? (37) All of these questions imply conflicts among different groups of people, conflicts that are obscured behind the deceptive clarity of “human” vs. Essays On History Literature! “nonhuman.” If in answering these knotty questions we resort to so simplistic an opposition, we are almost certain to ignore the very subtleties and complexities we need to understand. But the most troubling cultural baggage that accompanies the celebration of wilderness has less to do with remote rain forests and peoples than with the ways we think about ourselveswe American environmentalists who quite rightly worry about the future of the earth and the threats we pose to the natural world. Idealizing a distant wilderness too often means not idealizing the environment in which we actually live, the landscape that for better or worse we call home. Most of our most serious environmental problems start right here, at home, and if we are to solve those problems, we need an environmental ethic that will tell us as much about using nature as about for class kg not using it. The wilderness dualism tends to depression research paper cast any use as abuse, and thereby denies us a middle ground in essay, which responsible use and non-use might attain some kind of balanced, sustainable relationship. My own belief is that only by exploring this middle ground will we learn ways of and politics, imagining a better world for all of us: humans and nonhumans, rich people and poor, women and men, First Worlders and Third Worlders, white folks and people of kg, color, consumers and producersa world better for humanity in all of poetique, its diversity and for all the rest of kg, nature too. On Religion! The middle ground is where we actually live. It is where weall of essay for class, us, in our different places and waysmake our homes. That is why, when I think of the times I myself have come closest to experiencing what I might call the nervosa essay introduction sacred in nature, I often find myself remembering wild places much closer to home.
I think, for instance, of a small pond near my house where water bubbles up from limestone springs to feed a series of pools that rarely freeze in winter and so play home to waterfowl that stay here for my family essay, the protective warmth even on the coldest of essays and politics, winter days, gliding silently through streaming mists as the snow falls from gray February skies. I think of a November evening long ago when I found myself on a Wisconsin hilltop in rain and dense fog, only to have the my family essay kg setting sun break through the clouds to cast an otherworldly golden light on the misty farms and woodlands below, a scene so unexpected and creation joyous that I lingered past dusk so as not to miss any part of the gift that had come my way. For Class! And I think perhaps most especially of the blown-out, bankrupt farm in the sand country of central Wisconsin where Aldo Leopold and his family tried one of the first American experiments in ecological restoration, turning ravaged and infertile soil into carefully tended ground where the human and the nonhuman could exist side by side in anorexia nervosa introduction, relative harmony. What I celebrate about my family for class such places is not just their wildness, though that certainly is among their most important qualities; what I celebrate even more is that they remind us of the wildness in our own backyards, of the nature that is thesis of tourism all around us if only we have eyes to see it. Indeed, my principal objection to wilderness is that it may teach us to be dismissive or even contemptuous of my family essay, such humble places and experiences. Without our quite realizing it, wilderness tends to privilege some parts of nature at the expense of others. Most of us, I suspect, still follow the conventions of the romantic sublime in finding the mountaintop more glorious than the dissertation plains, the ancient forest nobler than the my family essay grasslands, the mighty canyon more inspiring than the nervosa essay introduction humble marsh. Even John Muir, in arguing against those who sought to dam his beloved Hetch Hetchy valley in the Sierra Nevada, argued for alternative dam sites in the gentler valleys of the foothillsa preference that had nothing to do with nature and everything with the cultural traditions of the sublime. (38) Just as problematically, our frontier traditions have encouraged Americans to define “true” wilderness as requiring very large tracts of my family kg, roadless landwhat Dave Foreman calls “The Big Outside.” Leaving aside the legitimate empirical question in conservation biology of how large a tract of land must be before a given species can reproduce on it, the emphasis on big wilderness reflects a romantic frontier belief that one hasn’t really gotten away from civilization unless one can go for days at a time without encountering another human being. Thesis Of Tourism Management! By teaching us to fetishize sublime places and wide open country, these peculiarly American ways of essay for class, thinking about wilderness encourage us to adopt too high a standard for essays and politics, what counts as “natural.” If it isn’t hundreds of square miles big, if it doesn’t give us God’s eye views or grand vistas, if it doesn’t permit us the illusion that we are alone on the planet, then it really isn’t natural.
It’s too small, too plain, or too crowded to be authentically wild. In critiquing wilderness as I have done in this essay, I’m forced to confront my own deep ambivalence about my family for class its meaning for modern environmentalism. On the one hand, one of my own most important environmental ethics is that people should always be conscious that they are part of the natural world, inextricably tied to the ecological systems that sustain their lives. Any way of looking at nature that encourages us to believe we are separate from natureas wilderness tends to dois likely to reinforce environmentally irresponsible behavior. Essay Introduction! On the essay for class other hand, I also think it no less crucial for us to recognize and honor nonhuman nature as a world we did not create, a world with its own independent, nonhuman reasons for being as it is.
The autonomy of nonhuman nature seems to how to research paper me an indispensable corrective to human arrogance. Any way of looking at nature that helps us rememberas wilderness also tends to dothat the interests of people are not necessarily identical to those of every other creature or of the earth itself is my family kg likely to foster responsible behavior. To the extent that wilderness has served as an important vehicle for articulating deep moral values regarding our obligations and responsibilities to introduction the nonhuman world, I would not want to jettison the contributions it has made to our culture’s ways of my family essay for class, thinking about nature. If the core problem of wilderness is that it distances us too much from the very things it teaches us to value, then the question we must ask is what it can tell us about home, the place where we actually live. How can we take the positive values we associate with wilderness and bring them closer to essays on history literature home? I think the answer to this question will come by broadening our sense of the otherness that wilderness seeks to define and protect. In reminding us of the world we did not make, wilderness can teach profound feelings of kg, humility and creation poetique respect as we confront our fellow beings and the earth itself.
Feelings like these argue for the importance of self-awareness and self criticism as we exercise our own ability to transform the world around us, helping us set responsible limits to human masterywhich without such limits too easily becomes human hubris. Wilderness is the place where, symbolically at least, we try to withhold our power to dominate. Wallace Stegner once wrote of. the special human mark, the my family kg special record of human passage, that distinguishes man from all other species. It is rare enough among men, impossible to any other form of on history literature, life. It is simply the deliberate and chosen refusal to make any marks at all. We are the most dangerous species of essay for class, life on the planet, and essay every other species, even the earth itself, has cause to fear our power to exterminate. My Family Essay For Class Kg! But we are also the depression paper only species which, when it chooses to do so, will go to great effort to save what it might destroy. (39) The myth of wilderness, which Stegner knowingly reproduces in these remarks, is that we can somehow leave nature untouched by my family for class our passage. By now it should be clear that this for paper, the most part is an my family for class kg, illusion.
But Stegner’s deeper message then becomes all the more compelling. If living in history means that we cannot help leaving marks on a fallen world, then the dilemma we face is to decide what kinds of marks we wish to leave. It is just here that our cultural traditions of how to of a, wilderness remain so important. My Family Essay! In the broadest sense, wilderness teaches us to ask whether the Other must always bend to our will, and, if not, under what circumstances it should be allowed to flourish without our intervention. This is surely a question worth asking about essays on history everything we do, and not just about the natural world. When we visit a wilderness area, we find ourselves surrounded by my family for class kg plants and animals and essays physical landscapes whose otherness compels our attention. In forcing us to acknowledge that they are not of for class kg, our making, that they have little or no need of our continued existence, they recall for us a creation far greater than our own. Anorexia Introduction! In the wilderness, we need no reminder that a tree has its own reasons for essay for class, being, quite apart from us. The same is anorexia nervosa essay introduction less true in the gardens we plant and tend ourselves: there it is my family essay kg far easier to forget the otherness of the tree. (40) Indeed, one could almost measure wilderness by the extent to depression which our recognition of its otherness requires a conscious, willed act on our part.
The romantic legacy means that wilderness is more a state of mind than a fact of nature, and kg the state of mind that today most defines wilderness is wonder. The striking power of the wild is that wonder in the face of it requires no act of will, but forces itself upon usas an expression of the nonhuman world experienced through the depression lens of our cultural historyas proof that ours is not the only presence in the universe. Wilderness gets us into trouble only if we imagine that this experience of wonder and my family kg otherness is limited to the remote corners of the planet, or that it somehow depends on pristine landscapes we ourselves do not inhabit. Creation! Nothing could be more misleading. The tree in the garden is in reality no less other, no less worthy of our wonder and respect, than the tree in an ancient forest that has never known an my family for class kg, ax or a saweven though the tree in the forest reflects a more intricate web of ecological relationships. The tree in a methods section paper, the garden could easily have sprung from the same seed as the tree in the forest, and we can claim only its location and perhaps its form as our own. Both trees stand apart from my family kg us; both share our common world. The special power of the tree in the wilderness is to essays of english literature remind us of this fact. Essay! It can teach us to recognize the wildness we did not see in the tree we planted in our own backyard. By seeing the otherness in that which is most unfamiliar, we can learn to see it too in that which at first seemed merely ordinary. If wilderness can do thisif it can help us perceive and essay respect a nature we had forgotten to recognize as naturalthen it will become part of the my family essay kg solution to our environmental dilemmas rather than part of the problem.
This will only essays on religion and politics, happen, however, if we abandon the dualism that sees the tree in the garden as artificialcompletely fallen and unnaturaland the tree in the wilderness as naturalcompletely pristine and essay for class kg wild. Both trees in some ultimate sense are wild; both in a practical sense now depend on our management and care. We are responsible for both, even though we can claim credit for neither. Our challenge is to stop thinking of on history literature, such things according to set of bipolar moral scales in which the human and the nonhuman, the unnatural and the natural, the fallen and the unfallen, serve as our conceptual map for understanding and valuing the world. My Family Essay Kg! Instead, we need to embrace the full continuum of a natural landscape that is also cultural, in which the city, the suburb, the pastoral, and the wild each has its proper place, which we permit ourselves to celebrate without needlessly denigrating the others. We need to honor the Other within and the Other next door as much as we do the exotic Other that lives far awaya lesson that applies as much to poetique people as it does to (other) natural things. In particular, we need to discover a common middle ground in which all of these things, from the city to the wilderness, can somehow be encompassed in the word “home.” Home, after all, is the place where finally we make our living. It is the place for which we take responsibility, the my family kg place we try to section research sustain so we can pass on what is best in it (and in my family, ourselves) to our children. Depression Research Paper! (41) The task of making a home in nature is what Wendell Berry has called “the forever unfinished lifework of our species.” “The only thing we have to preserve nature with” he writes, “is culture; the only thing we have to preserve wildness with is domesticity.” (42) Calling a place home inevitably means that we will use the nature we find in essay kg, it, for there can be no escape from manipulating and working and thesis management even killing some parts of nature to make our home.
But if we acknowledge the autonomy and otherness of the things and creatures around usan autonomy our culture has taught us to label with the word “wild”then we will at least think carefully about the uses to essay for class kg which we put them, and even ask if we should use them at all. just so can we still join Thoreau in declaring that “in Wildness is the management preservation of the World,” for wildness (as opposed to wilderness) can be found anywhere: in the seemingly tame fields and woodlots of Massachusetts, in the cracks of a Manhattan sidewalk, even in the cells of our own bodies. As Gary Snyder has wisely said, “A person with a clear heart and open mind can experience the wilderness anywhere on earth. It is my family kg a quality of anorexia nervosa, one’s own consciousness. The planet is my family essay kg a wild place and always will be.” (43) To think ourselves capable of causing “the end of nature” is an act of depression research, great hubris, for it means forgetting the wildness that dwells everywhere within and around us. Learning to honor the wildlearning to remember and my family for class kg acknowledge the dissertation autonomy of the essay kg othermeans striving for critical self-consciousness in all of depression research, our actions. It means the deep reflection and respect must accompany each act of use, and means too that we must always consider the possibility of non-use.
It means looking at the part of nature we intend to my family essay for class kg turn toward our own ends and of a research asking whether we can use it again and again and againsustainablywithout its being diminished in the process. It means never imagining that we can flee into a mythical wilderness to essay kg escape history and the obligation to take responsibility for depression, our own actions that history inescapably entails. Most of my family essay for class, all, it means practicing remembrance and gratitude, for thanksgiving is the simplest and most basic of ways for us to recollect the thesis of tourism management nature, the culture, and the history that have come together to make the world as we know it. If wildness can stop being (just) out there and start being (also) in here, if it can start being as humane as it is my family essay kg natural, then perhaps we can get on with the unending task of struggling to live rightly in essays on history literature, the worldnot just in the garden, not just in my family kg, the wilderness, but in the home that encompasses them both. 1. How To Write Research! Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” The Works of Thoreau, ed. Henry S. Canby (Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1937), p. 672. 2. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “wilderness”; see also Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, 3rd ed. My Family For Class Kg! (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. Press, 1982), pp. Creation! 1-22; and Max Oelsehlaeger, The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ.
Press, 1991). 3. Exodus 32:1-35, KJV. 4. Exodus 14:3, KJV. 5. Mark 1:12-13, KJV; see also Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13. 6. John Milton, “Paradise Lost,” John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. For Class Kg! Merritt Y. Hughes (New York: Odyssey Press, 1957), pp. 280-81, lines 131-42. 7. Poetique! I have discussed this theme at length in “Landscapes of Abundance and Scarcity,” in for class kg, Clyde Milner et al., eds., Oxford History of the American West (New York: Oxford Univ.
Press, 1994), pp. 603-37. The classic work on the Puritan “city on a hill” in colonial New England is how to write section research Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press, 1956). 8. John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra (1911), reprinted in John Muir: The Eight Wilderness Discovery Books (London, England: Diadem; Seattle, Washington: Mountaineers, 1992), P. 211. 9. Essay For Class Kg! Alfred Route, National Parks: The American Experience, 2nd ed. (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1987) 10. John Muir, The Yosemite (1912), reprinted in John Muir: Eight Wilderness Discovery Books, P. 715.
11. Scholarly work on the sublime is extensive. Among the most important studies are Samuel Monk, The Sublime: A Study of Critical Theories in XVIII-Century England (New York: Modern Language Association, 1935); Basil Willey, The Eighteenth-Century Background: Studies on of tourism the Idea of kg, Nature in the Thought of the Period (London, England: Chattus and Windus, 1949); Marjorie Hope Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the essay introduction Infinite (Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univ. Press, 1959); Thomas Weiskel, The Romantic Sublime: Studies in the Structure and Psychology of Transcendence (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkin.s Univ. My Family For Class Kg! Press, 1976); Barbara Novak, Nature and creation Culture: American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875 (New York: Oxford Univ. For Class! Press, ig8o). 12. The classic works are Immanuel Kant, Observations on depression research the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764), trans.
John T. Goldthwait (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 196o); Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, ed. My Family Kg! James T. Boulton (1958; Notre Dame, Indiana: Univ. of of tourism management, Notre Dame Press, 1968); William Gilpin, Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty; on my family for class Picturesque Travel; and on Sketching Landscape (London, England, 1803) 13. See Ann Vileisis, “From Wastelands to Wetlands” (unpublished senior essay, Yale Univ., 1989); Route, National Parks. 14. William Wordsworth, “The Prelude,” bk. 6, in how to write section research, Thomas Hutchinson, ed., The Poetical Works of Wordsworth (London, England: Oxford Umv. Press, 1936), p. 536. 15. Henry David Thoreau, The Maine Woods (1864), in essay, Henry David Thoreau (New York: Library of America, 1985), pp.
640-41. 16. Exodus 16:10, KJV. 17. John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra, p. How To Write A Methods Of A Paper! 238. Part of the difference between these descriptions may reflect the landscapes the three authors were describing.
In his essay, “Reinventing Common Nature: Yosemite and Mount RushmoreA Meandering Tale of a Double Nature,” Kenneth Olwig notes that early American travelers experienced Yosemite as much through the aesthetic tropes of the pastoral as through those of the sublime. The ease with which Muir celebrated the gentle divinity of the my family essay for class Sierra Nevada had much to do with the pastoral qualities of the dissertation poetique landscape he described. See Olwig, “Reinventing Common Nature: Yosemite and Mount RushmoreA Meandering Tale of a Double Nature,” Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature, ed. William Cronon (New York: W. W. Norton CO, 1995), PP 379-408. 18. Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in kg, American History (New York: Henry Holt, 1920), pp. Thesis Of Tourism Management! 37-38.
19. Richard Slotkin has made this observation the linchpin of his comparison between Turner and Theodore Roosevelt. See Slotkin, Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the my family essay for class kg Frontier in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Atheneum, 1992), pp. 29-62. 20. Owen Wister, The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains (New York: Macmillan, 1902), pp. viii-ix. 21. Theodore Roosevelt, Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail (1888; NewYork: Century, 1899), p. 100. 22.
Wister, Virginian, p. Of English Literature! x. 23. On the many problems with this view, see William M. My Family Essay For Class! Denevan, “The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (1992): 369-85. 24. Louis Warren, “The Hunter’s Came: Poachers, Conservationists, and Twentieth-Century America” (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1994). 25. Wilderness also lies at dissertation creation poetique, the foundation of the Clementsian ecological concept of the climax.
See Michael Barbour, “Ecological Fragmentation in the Fifties” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 233-55, and William Cronon, “Introduction: In Search of for class, Nature,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. Essays Of English! 23-56. 26. Essay Kg! On the many paradoxes of having to manage wilderness in order to maintain the essays and politics appearance of an unmanaged landscape, see John C. Hendee et al., Wilderness Management, USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication No. 1365 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978). 27. See James Proctor, “Whose Nature?: The Contested Moral Terrain of my family, Ancient Forests,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 269-97.
28. Of Tourism! See Candace Slater, “Amazonia as Edenic Narrative,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 114-31. This argument has been powerfully made by Ramachandra Cuba, “Radical American Environmentalism: A Third World Critique,” Environmental Ethics 11 (1989): 71-83. 29. My Family! Bill McKibben, The End of Nature (New York: Random House, 1989). 30. McKibben, The End of Nature, p. 49. 31.
Even comparable extinction rates have occurred before, though we surely would not want to emulate the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary extinctions as a model for responsible manipulation of the biosphere! 32. Dave Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior (New York: Harmony Books, 1991, p. 69 (italics in original). For a sampling of other writings by followers of deep ecology and/or Earth First!, see Michael Tobias, ed., Deep Ecology (San Diego, California: Avant Books, 1984); Bill Devall and write section of a research paper George Sessions, Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1985); Michael Tobias, After Eden: History, Ecology, and Conscience (San Diego, California: Avant Books, 1985); Dave Foreman and my family for class Bill Haywood, eds., Ecodefense: A Field Guide to Monkey Wrenching, 2nd ed. (Tucson, Arizona: Ned Ludd Books, 1987); Bill Devall, Simple in Means, Rich in Ends: Practicing Deep Ecology (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1988); Steve Chase, ed., Defending the Earth: A Dialogue between Murray Bookchin Dave Foreman (Boston, Massachusetts: South End Press, 1991); John Davis, ed., The Earth First, Reader. Ten Years of a methods research, Radical Environmentalism (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1991); Bill Devall, Living Richly in an Age of Limits: Using Deep Ecology for an Abundant Life (Salt Lake, City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1993); Michael E. Zimmerman ct al., eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1993). My Family Essay! A useful survey of the different factions of essays and politics, radical environmentalism can be found in my family for class, Carolyn Merchant, Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World (New York: Routledge, 1992). For a very interesting critique of this literature (first published in the anarchist newspaper Fifth Estate), see George Bradford, How Deep is Deep Ecology? (Ojai, California: Times Change Press, 1989). 33.
Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, P. Creation! 34. 34. Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, p. 65. See also Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke, The Big Outside: A Descriptive Inventory of the Big Wilderness Areas of the U.S. (Tucson, Arizona: Ned Ludd Books, 1989). 35. Foreman, Confessions of an essay for class kg, Eco-Warrior, p. 63. 36. Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, P. 27. 37.
See Richard White, ”’Are You an Environmentalist or Do You Work for a Living?’: Work and thesis of tourism management Nature,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 171-85. Compare its analysis of environmental knowledge through work with Jennifer Price’s analysis of my family essay for class kg, environmental knowledge through consumption. Research! It is not much of an essay for class kg, exaggeration to essays literature say that the wilderness experience is my family essay for class kg essentially consumerist in its impulses. 38. Compare with Muir, Yosemite, in John Muir: Eight Wilderness Discovery Books, p. 714. 39. Wallace Stegner, ed., This Is Dinosaur: Echo Park Country and Its Magic Rivers (New York: Knopf, 1955), P. 17 (italics in original). 40. Katherine Hayles helped me see the importance of this argument. 41.
Analogous arguments can be found in John Brinckerhoff Jackson, “Beyond Wilderness,” A Sense of essays, Place, a Sense of Time (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. Press, 1994), pp. 71-91, and in the wonderful collection of essays by Michael Pollan, Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991). 42. Wendell Berry, Home Economics (San Francisco, California: North Point, 1987), pp. 138, 143. 43. Gary Snyder, quoted in New York Times, “Week in Review,” 18 September 1994, p. 6. Excerpted from Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature, edited by William Cronon. Copyright 1995 by William Cronon.
Reprinted with permission of the publisher, W. W. My Family! Norton Company, Inc. Copyright William Cronon. (Please do not reprint without permission; links to this website are fine.)
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A for and against essay about the internet. My Family Kg? Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and creation do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such.
Internet, an invention which still amazes people in my family essay for class is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the dissertation poetique, young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. Essay For Class Kg? And also we must be strict about the of tourism management, rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and for class dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. Write Section Of A? For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is my family for class kg very useful in schools and in work.
It#039;s also handy when you need to creation communicate. On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on my family essay for class the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is research paper very usefull . For Class? So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and dissertation creation I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site?
Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of for class internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. Thesis? In my opinion, though internet is very good and my family essay useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Depression Research Paper? Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is essay for class kg bad with bad children.
I totaly agree. It all depends from essays on history literature parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is essay kg useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. Write Section Research Paper? !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. Essay? You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to anorexia nervosa essay introduction speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the my family kg, Internet.
Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to essay publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the for class kg, safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and thesis of tourism scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included.
Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. Kg? It is said that the Internet is essays on religion and politics a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the my family essay for class, problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and write section research who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. My Family Essay Kg? So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the essays on religion and politics, Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for for class kg our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!!
Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and of tourism bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to essay for class kg be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on research paper each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and my family kg hours looking for few informations?
Internet is useful for everyone, for dissertation creation young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and essay for class a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of of english literature dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay.
No, i don`t thing internet bad for for class young people, because there is many information in the internet. Literature? In my opinion, I dont think Internet is essay kg bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and essays of english I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. My Family Essay For Class Kg? On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. Research? To me, the my family for class, internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in research the communicating barrier.
As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. My Family? We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to a methods section research paper stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. Kg? So, why not? The internet is the creation poetique, best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for my family for class kg us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and essays doing research for my tasks.
However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about essay kg time and nervosa everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for essay for class kg teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Write A Methods Of A Paper? Look carefully. What's this everyday object?
Play Wordshake and essay for class see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).
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dissertation jokes Dear Fellow Scientist: This letter has been around the world at least seven times. My Family For Class. It has been to many major conferences. Now it has come to essays of english literature, you. It will bring you good fortune. This is true even if you don't believe it. But you must follow these instructions: - include in your next journal article the citations below. - remove the first citation from the list and essay for class, add a citation to introduction, your journal article at the bottom. - make ten copies and send them to colleagues. Within one year, you will be cited up to 10,000 times! This will amaze your fellow faculty, assure your promotion and improve your sex life. In addition, you will bring joy to many colleagues.
Do not break the reference loop, but send this letter on today. Dr. H. My Family For Class Kg. received this letter and within a year after passing it on depression research, she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Prof. M. threw this letter away and was denied tenure. In Japan, Dr.
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Two wrongs don't make a right, but three lefts do. A witty saying proves nothing. -- Voltaire. Well, Art is Art, isn't it? Still, on the other hand, water is water! And East is East and West is West and if you take cranberries and stew them like applesauce they taste much more like prunes than rhubarb does. Now, uh.
Now you tell me what you know. -- Grouch Marx, Animal Crackers Open your heart today. Don't wait for a surgeon to do it for you. -- Eric Braun. What's the difference between a graduate student finishing her/his dissertation and a piece of dog shit? - Major professors wouldn't cross the essays on history of english street to step on a piece of dog shit. A job not worth doing isn't worth doing well. -- Mark Thorson. Something a friends mother said after my friend had already spent several years on her dissertation without any end in sight. There are two kinds of dissertations, perfect and essay, done. Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to on religion, go from my family for class, here? That depends a good deal on where you want to get to, said the Cat. --so long as I get SOMEWHERE, Alices added as an explination. Oh, you're sure to do that, said the Cat, if you only walk long enough. --Alices's Adventure in on history of english Wonderland Louis Carroll.
Having given the essay for class number of on history of english instances respectively in which things are thus and so, in which they are thus and not so, in which they are so but not thus, and in which they are neither thus nor so, it is required to eliminate the general quantitative relativity inhering in the mere thingness of the essay kg things, and to determine the special quantitative relativity subsisting between the depression thusness and the soness of the things. You are under no obligation to finish, but you are not at for class liberty to essays on religion and politics, quit (referring of course to the study of Torah, not your doctoral work, but it struck a sympathetic chord with me). My Family Essay For Class Kg. -- Talmud. I don't have a sentence, but School is Hell by Matt Groening, part of his Life in Hell series, has some hysterical cartoons. Primarily Lesson 19: Grad School - Some People Never Learn. Any figure that looks interesting usually is wrong.
Enough Research will tend to support your theory. The solution to the problem changes the problem. Inside every small problem is a large problem struggling to dissertation creation, get out. When a system is my family for class kg completely defined, some damn fool discovers something which either abolishes the system or expands it beyond recognition. The important thing is to of tourism, never stop questioning. A man with a watch knows what time it is. A man with two watches is never sure.
People will believe everything if you whisper it. Progress does not consist of replacing a theory that is wrong with one that is right. It consits of replacing a theory that is essay wrong with one that is more subtly wrong. There are no answers, only dissertation, cross references. If it can't be expressed in figures, it's not science, it's opinion. An MIT student spent an entire summer going to the Harvard football field every day wearing a black and white striped shirt, walking up and my family for class kg, down the research paper field for ten or fifteen minutes throwing birdseed all over the field, blowing a whistle and then walking off the field. At the end of the summer, it came time for the first Harvard home football game, the referee walked onto the field and blew the whistle, and the game had to be delayed for a half hour to wait for the birds to get off of the field. The guy wrote his thesis on this, and graduated. Hello, Welcome to the Psychiatric Hotline. If you are obsessive-compulsive, please press 1 repeatedly. If you are co-dependent, please ask someone to press 2.
If you have multiple personalities, please press 3, 4, 5 and 6. If you are paranoid-delusional, we know who you are and what you want. Just stay on the line so we can trace the call. If you are schizophrenic, listen carefully and my family essay for class kg, a little voice will tell you which number to thesis management, press. If you are depressed, it doesn't matter which number you press. Essay Kg. No one will answer. How not to get Something Published.
To: Editor, Archives of General Psychiatry. Dear Sir, Madame, or Other: Enclosed is our latest version of MS #85-02-22-RRRRR, that is, the re-re-re-revised version of our paper. Choke on it. We have again rewritten the entire manuscript from start to finish. We even changed the goddamned running head! Hopefully we have suffered enough by now to satisfy even your bloodthirsty reviewers. I shall skip the usual point-by-point description of every single change we made in response to the critiques.
After all, it is fairly clear that your reviewers are less interested in details of anorexia essay introduction scientific procedure than in kg working out their personality problems and sexual frustrations by seeking some sort of demented glee in the sadistic and arbitrary exercise of tyrannical power over hapless authors like ourselves who happen to fall into depression, their clutches. My Family For Class. We do understand that, in view of the misanthropic psychopaths you have on dissertation creation, your editorial board, you need to keep sending them papers, for kg if they weren't reviewing manuscripts they'd probably be out mugging old ladies or clubbing baby seals to paper, death. Still, from this batch of reviewers, C was clearly the most hostile, and we request that you not ask her or him to essay for class, review this revision. Indeed, we have mailed letter bombs to four or five people we suspected of being reviewer C, so if you send the manuscript back to on religion and politics, them the review process could be unduly delayed. Some of the reviewers comments we couldn't do anything about. Essay Kg. For example, if (as reviewer C suggested), several of my ancestry were indeed drawn from other species, it is too late to poetique, change that. Other suggestions were implemented, however, and the paper has improved and benefited. Thus, you suggested that we shorten the essay for class manuscript by 5 pages, and we were able to do this very effectively by altering the margins and printing the paper in a different font with a smaller typeface. We agree with you that the paper is much better this way. One perplexing problem was dealing with suggestions #13-28 by write of a, reviewer B. As you may recall (that is, if you even bother reading the reviews before doing your decision letter), that reviewer listed 16 works the he/she felt we should cite in this paper.
These were on a variety of for class different topics, none of which had any relevance to paper, our work that we could see. Indeed, one was an essay for class kg, essay on the Spanish-American War from a high school literary magazine. the only common thread was that all 16 were by anorexia nervosa introduction, the same author, presumably someone reviewer B greatly admires and feels should be more widely cited. My Family Essay Kg. To handle this, we have modified the introduction and added, after the review of relevant literature, a subsection entitled Review of Irrelevant Literature that discusses these articles and also duly addresses some of the more asinine suggestions by other reviewers. We hope that you will be pleased with this revision and finally recognize how urgently deserving of publication this work is. If not, then you are an unscrupulous, depraved monster with no shred of human decency. You ought to be in a cage. May whatever heritage you come from be the butt of the next round of ethnic jokes. If you do accept it, however, we wish to thank you for your patience and essay introduction, wisdom throughout this process and to express our appreciation of you scholarly insights. To repay you, we would be happy to review some manuscripts for you; please send us the next manuscript that any of these reviewers sends to your journal.
Assuming you accept this paper, we would also like to essay for class, add a footnote acknowledging your help with this manuscript and to literature, point out essay for class kg that we liked this paper much better the nervosa way we originally wrote it but you held the editorial shotgun to my family kg, our heads and forced us to chop, reshuffle, restate, hedge, expand, shorten, and in general convert a meaty paper into stir-fried vegetables. We couldn't or wouldn't, have done it without your input. Sincerely, Thank you for your thoughtful response to my decision letter concerning the above-referenced piece of excrement. I have asked several experts who specialize in the area of essays research you dabble in to have a look at your pathetic little submission, and their reviews are enclosed. I shall not waste my LaserJet ink reiterating the details of their reviews, but please allow me to highlight some of the more urgent points of essay for class contention they raise: 1. Reviewer A suggests that you cite his work EXCLUSIVELY in dissertation creation poetique the introduction.
He has asked me to remind you that he spells his name with a final e (i.e., Scumbage), not as you have referenced him in the last version. 2. Reviewer C indicates that the discussion can be shortened by at least 5 pages. Given the fact that the kg present Discussion is how to write section of a only three pages long, I am not certain how to advise you. Perhaps you might consider eliminating all speculation and original ideas. 3. Reviewer D has asked that you consider adding her as a co-author. Although she has not directly contributed to the manuscript, she has made numerous comments that have, in her view, significantly improved the paper.
Specifically, she believes that her suggestions concerning the reorganization of the acknowledgments paragraph were especially important. Please note that she spells her name with an for class, em-dash, and not with the customary hyphen. 4. Reviewer B has asked that I inform you that, even though his suggestions were not mentioned in my decision letter, this doesn't mean that he is an imbecile. 5. My own reading of the manuscript indicates that the following problems remain: a. By running head, we do not mean a picture of your son's face with legs attached. Please provide a four- or five-word title for creation the paper that summarizes the report's most important point. May I suggest, Much Ado About Nothing?
b. My Family Essay For Class. Please make certain that you have adhered to dissertation creation, APA stylebook guidelines for publication format. Please direct your attention to the section entitled, Proper Format for essay for class an Insignificant Paper (1995, p.46). c. Please submit any revision of the paper on plain, blank stationery. Depression Research. Submitting the article on Yale University letterhead will not increase your chances of essay having the how to of a article accepted for publication. d. Please doublecheck the manuscript for my family spelling and grammatical errors. Our experience at the Archives is that cycle-logical slips through most spell-check programs undetected. e. Although I am not a quantitative scientist, it is my understanding that the F in poetique F-test does not stand for my family essay f___ing. Please correct the manuscript accordingly. If your original submission had been as articulate as your most recent letter, we might have avoided this interchange. Nervosa Essay. It is too bad that tenure and promotion committees at your university do not have access to authors' correspondence with editors, for essay kg it is clear that you would be promoted on the basis of your wit alone. Essays Of English Literature. Unfortunately, it's the publication that counts, and I'm sorry to say that the Archives is not prepared to accept this revision.
We would be perfectly ambivalent about receiving a ninth revision from you. 1. He had only one major publication. 2. It was in Hebrew. 3. It had no references. 4. It wasn't published in a refereed journal. 5. Some even doubt he wrote it by himself. 6. It may be true that he created the essay world, but what has he done since then? 7. Research Paper. His cooperative efforts have been quite limited. 8. The scientific community has had a hard time replicating his results.
9. He never applied to the ethics board for permission to use human subjects. 10. When one experiment went awry he tried to cover it by my family essay for class kg, drowning his subjects. 11. When subjects didn't behave as predicted, he deleted them from the research sample. 12. He rarely came to class, just told students to read the book. 13. Some say he had his son teach the class.
14. For Class Kg. He expelled his first two students for learning. 15. Depression Research Paper. Although there were only 10 requirements, most of his students failed his tests. 16. His office hours were infrequent and usually held on a mountain top. 17. Kg. No record of working well with colleagues.
What's the difference between a neurotic and a psychotic? (Note: This has become a history of psychology item. DSM 3.0.2 [beta] has abolished these terms.) A psychotic says, Two plus two is of tourism five. A neurotic says, Two plus two is four, and my family kg, I can't stand it. A grad student, a post-doc, and a professor are walking through a city park and anorexia nervosa essay, they find an antique oil lamp. My Family For Class Kg. They rub it and a Genie comes out in a puff of smoke. The Genie says, I usually only grant three wishes, so I'll give each of essays on religion and politics you just one. Me first! Me first! says the grad student.
I want to be in the Bahamas, driving a speedboat with a gorgeous woman who sunbathes topless. Poof! He's gone. Me next! Me next! says the post-doc. I want to my family kg, be in Hawaii, relaxing on the beach with a professional hula dancer on one side and a Mai Tai on the other. Thesis Of Tourism Management. Poof! He's gone.
You're next, the Genie says to the professor. The professor says, I want those guys back in the lab after lunch. Created, maintained and by John Hubbard (write to me). Disclaimers. Hosted by Dreamhost.
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Essay: The law on suicide and assisted suicide. Suicide ceased to be a criminal offence in England and Wales with the passing of the Suicide Act 1961 s(1) but the same Act made it an offence to assist in a suicide s(2), the punishment being 14 years imprisonment. The amended law relating to assisted suicide is now in s.59 of the Coroners and my family, Justice Act, so that a person can be prosecuted for committing ‘acts capable of encouraging or assisting the suicide or attempted suicide of another person’. [ ] The law is such that people who are suffering from of tourism management incurable diseases and who wish to die cannot be assisted by others in their suicidal actions but this has recently been challenged around the world, seeking to achieve a change in my family essay kg the law so that assisting a person to die will not lead to dissertation poetique criminal prosecution. The judges feel that this is an issue on which the essay for class kg, courts should not be legislating because the law relating to assisting suicide can only be changed by parliamentary intervention since they cannot go against depression research paper, an act of parliament. However, do you think that assisted suicide should be legalized? Imagine yourself in my family the position of those people. There is endless suffering and pain but there are no medications or procedures to cure you. You cannot commit suicide yourself and you fear to poetique ask your relatives or friends because that might put them in my family essay serious troubles because the write section research, law bans the help. My Family? There have been reported cases explaining the pain people go through, like a case where a woman starved herself to death because there was no other way for her to die. In another case, a brother was forced to shoot his brother who was suffering from skin cancer for the past six months and his body was deteriorating further every day. The young man paid an enormous charge for releasing his brother from that distress that he was charged for murder.
These are just some cases reported by anorexia nervosa essay introduction the public, there are thousands of people who die suffering and the law rather than helping them, chooses to stay quiet. Very sick people are the my family essay for class kg, ones that are the most vulnerable. They are exhausted from fighting the disease and pain and often become depressed from what is how to write a methods section of a, happening to them. In such a state they are often more ambivalent to committing suicide. America has a strong culture of my family essay for class, independence and self reliance but their dependence becomes a source of shame when they get such an illness.
Under s.2(4) of the act ‘no proceedings shall be instituted except by or with the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions'[ ], the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) has discretion to decide whether and when prosecution of such cases is in on religion and politics the public interest but there is no fixed criteria to decide that and the DPP along with the CPS decide the cases as they think fit. It was after this that Mrs Debby Purdy brought a case against essay for class kg, the DPP seeking clarification about whether her husband would be prosecuted if he assisted her in on history of english dying. Although it is illegal to help someone kill themselves, nobody has so far been prosecuted for helping a person travel abroad to do so. Many Britons have gone abroad (often to organisations such as Dignitas in Switzerland) for assistance in ending their own lives where assisted suicide is legal but because of the inconsistencies between domestic law and prosecution, people might still be prosecuted for this. Debby Purdy in 2009 launched a case to clarify whether or not her husband would risk being prosecuted if he helped her travel to a Dignitas clinic in Switzerland to die. Debby Purdy suffered from incurable and progressive multiple sclerosis. She appealed a decision that the absence of a crime specific policy identifying the facts and circumstances that the DPP would take into account when deciding whether to prosecute an individual for assisting another person to commit suicide did not make the operation and the effect of essay for class, s2(1) SA 1961 unlawful and did not mean that it was not in paper accordance with law for my family essay kg, the purpose of poetique, art 8 ECHR. The House of essay for class kg, Lords agreed that lack of clarity about how the DPP exercised his discretion infringed Article 8 and write section of a research paper, they said that the DPP should issue guidance that would help people to essay know the research paper, circumstances that would lead to someone being prosecuted for helping someone to my family for class kg end their life. Purdy’s case ended on 30 August 2009 and it was after this case that the DPP published their policy in respect of charging individuals with assisting or encouraging suicide ‘ DPP, ‘Policy for Prosecutors in paper respect of my family kg, cases of Encouraging and Assisting Suicide’ (2010) . This policy sets out the public interest factors tending in favour of or against prosecution. This policy applies where an of tourism management act that amounts to assisting and encouraging suicide is committed in England and essay for class, Wales even if the suicide takes place outside the jurisdiction. This was also underlined in the case of a paralysed former rugby player, Daniel James 2010 whose parents, Julie and Mark James said the former England under-16 rugby player had never come to terms with his extreme physical incapacity, and repeatedly said he wanted to thesis die and was determined to my family for class do so.
The DPP said it was not in the public interest to prosecute Mr James’s parents even though there was sufficient evidence that they had helped their son to end his own life, in breach of the 1961 Suicide Act. Anorexia Nervosa Introduction? But the DPP has still no power to give an undertaking in advance that if a person assists another to commit suicide, he will not consent to a prosecution under s2(1) The issue is without doubt both sensitive and controversial. Many people view legally assisted suicide as an appalling concept which undermines the fundamental human right to life itself. On the other hand there are those, like Ms Purdy, who firmly believe that the right to my family kg life includes the of tourism, right to end one’s own life when one can still do so with. Another such case was Pretty v UK (2002) Mrs Pretty died aged 43 of motor neurone disease in a Luton hospice in 2002. She had failed in her legal battle, which went all the my family kg, way to the European Court of Human Rights, to obtain immunity from thesis management prosecution for my family essay for class, her husband if he assisted her in dying.
The House of Lords dismissed Mrs Pretty’s claim that her human rights had been violated. Mrs Pretty complained that her rights under ECHR art 2,3 and 8 were infringed when DPP granted and indemnity against the prosecution of her husband. The court held that none of the articles were infringed. The reasons were as follows as argued by research the court that Art 2(right to life) could not be interpreted as right to die. Had the article included issues such as quality of for class, life then this could be argued. Not allowing her husband to assist her in suicide was not a breach of Art 3(inhumane and essays of english, degrading behaviour). Lastly Art 8 was not infringed because she was not prevented from exercising her choice to her life. If assisted suicide was compatible with law then the courts would not have interfered at all. The blanket ban on assited suicide was not disproportionate and the interference was justified.
The DPP guidelines included that Prosecution is more likely firstly if the person who died was under 18, had a mental illness or was not acting on their own initiative, the guidelines say. Secondly if the person was maliciously encouraged to commit suicide, did not have an my family for class incurable illness or physical disability, or had previously demonstrated indecision about wanting to essays commit suicide, their helper would be more likely to face prosecution. Thirdly Prosecutors would have to be satisfied the person aiding the suicide was wholly motivated by compassion and that they, or anyone close to them, had nothing to gain from the essay for class kg, death. Fourthly cases less likely to be prosecuted include those where the write a methods section research paper, person had a clear and expressed wish to my family commit suicide, was suffering from an incurable disease, and where the helper was motivated by compassion and was a partner, family member or close friend. There are countries where assisted suicide has been legalized but it still carries with it some sort of discretion by the courts. In Gross v Switzerland 2013 it was provided that an individual was in a position freely to form his own judgement and to act accordingly, he himself has the right to decide when, where, how his life should end and it fell under art 8 of ECHR. In this case the how to write section of a, complainant wished to my family for class be provided with a dose of sodium pentobarbital allowing her to end her life and how to write a methods, the absence of such guidelines violated her art 8 right. The object of my family essay, art 8 was to protect the individual against how to write a methods section research, arbitrary interference by public authorities. However in Haas v Switzerland 2011 , the complainant suffered from a mental illness and was refused access to my family essay kg a chemical substance for committing suicide.
He argued that this was against article 8 of depression, ECHR. The federal court stated that a psychiatric report would be required to determine whether his wish to end life was a mental illness that could be treated or an autonomous, considered and enduring decision of a person with capacity. The Swiss government argued that the right to self determination guaranteed by my family kg article 8 did not include the right of a person to be assisted in committing suicide and that the restriction on access to sodium pentobarbital was necessary to protect health and a methods of a paper, safety and to prevent crime. So there are even restrictions for the allowance of assisted suicide in countries where this has been legalized. Another case is Kosh v Germany 2013 where the husband’s complaint about the refusal of authority to authorise his wife to acquire a lethal dose of medication was upheld. It was held that the husband’s relationship with his wife was expected away close and he could claim to have been directly affected the refusal of medicine. The institute’s refusal to reject the drug was an interference with the right under art 8 of the wife’s right and not that of the husband. Art 8 was of my family essay for class, a non transferable nature and could thus not be pursued by paper a close relative or other successor of the immediate victim. In (R (on the application of Nicklinson) v Ministry of Justice  Mr Nicklinson had ‘locked-in’ syndrome which is kg, a complete paralysis but the mind is working perfectly.
In 2007 he decided to end his own life but he would only have been able to do so by refusing all food and liquids. He wanted a doctor to end his life, but that wasn’t allowed. Having failed to management persuade the courts in various legal actions, Mr Nicklinson died of pneumonia in August 2012 after refusing nutrition, fluids and medical treatment. His wife continued the case and was joined by Lamb, a man paralysed in an accident. Another case heard at the same time was that of my family essay kg, Martin who is unable to speak and anorexia nervosa essay introduction, virtually unable to move.
He found his life intolerable and my family, wanted to die. Because of research paper, his disability, he is unable to do so without assistance and my family essay, is wholly reliant on depression paper, his professional careers. Martin argued that: 1. the DPP’s Policy is an unjustified interference with his Article 8 right of ECHR because the my family for class kg, consequences of the policy are uncertain, and 2. the policy disproportionately interferes with his Article 8 right because it discourages the assistance Martin seeks. The DPP argued that the CPS policy is sufficiently clear and that it is not possible to guarantee that certain persons would not be prosecuted for assisting or encouraging someone to commit suicide. To do so would, allegedly, cross ‘the line of constitutional propriety’. The Supreme Court held that they did not have jurisdiction to change the law on assisted suicide. They also unanimously held that the research paper, DPP’s guidance on my family essay kg, assisted suicide was lawful. In January 2010 Kay Gilderdale was prosecuted for the attempted murder of her daughter Lynn, who had been suffering from a long-term illness, but the jury found Kay not guilty of attempted murder.
Following her acquittal there was considerable criticism of the nervosa, CPS for proceeding with the my family essay for class kg, prosecution for on religion and politics, attempted murder particularly since Gilderdale had already pleaded guilty to the lesser offence of aiding and abetting her daughter’s suicide. In February 2010, the CPS published a new policy on essay, prosecution for assisted suicide. The policy sets out 16 public interest factors that would tend to be in favour of prosecution and five public interest factors that would tend to favour against essays and politics, prosecution. The policy was broadly welcomed as a response to the Purdy case. The DPP, Sir Keir Starmer, explained how the guide had worked: ‘The thrust of the final guidelines is reasonably clear … broadly speaking if the victim has a clear and settled intent to my family commit suicide and if the introduction, suspect is wholly motivated by my family essay compassion and has not persuaded the victim to commit suicide, the likelihood of a prosecution is low’. However does that right to life import a right to die? No matter what others argue, assisting suicide is indeed murder. It’s killing the soul, and anorexia nervosa essay introduction, we all consider that murder, don’t we?
Yes, life can get hard, life can bring us down, and sometimes we may think we are drowning in misery; but that doesn’t mean we can simply give up on life. There are ways to help and there are people who will listen; so let us stop murdering ourselves, shall we? Today if we legalize assisted suicide, what will be our next step? Law will be an my family essay for class open ended sword then. Mr Bainbridge, who set up his own estate agent business in 2011 said that, ‘If we allow people to give up hope, the dissertation creation, investment in for class kg drugs, in technology, and in thesis management the hospice movement as well, will be curtailed.’ But then again if suicide itself is legal then why not assisted suicide? In my opinion if a person does not want to my family essay for class kg live and suffer the essay introduction, pain he is going through and had he been in my family essay for class kg a position to kill himself he would have definitely done so then why not allowing his family or friends to on history of english do the act when he himself is in a position in which he can’t even move? Should not helping people to my family for class kg live with dignity and purpose must surely be our priority. There have been attempts where bills have passed for thesis, legalizing assisted suicide but have been rejected by the parliament. At least what our legislation can do is to legalize physician assisted suicide so that only those people who the physician thinks are not going to coupe up with their illness can be assisted.
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