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Book Review: Getting Things Done David Allen. The Author, with his copy of Getting Things Done. It is fail, rare that I read or hear something that truly changes the way I think and approach my life, but Getting Things Done (GTD) is one of them. Written by write my thesis uk David Allen (@GTDGuy), GTD has been a staple on fail phd thesis, the bookshelf of many busy, productive people: there are GTD groupies all over the world. I am one of them, and I know some other graduate students who find it helpful, as well.
Developing a productivity strategy is one of the more important parts about essay about graduate school: I consider my time in school to fail phd thesis, not only be a process of learning how to do my research, but also in learning how I best do my work. Finding a system to organize what has to be done is part of that, and and mystery essays in philosophical GTD has played a big role in figuring that out. GTD focuses on a number of fail things, but one of the most important for tile, me is this: you must capture #8220;all the fail phd thesis, things you need to get done now, later, someday, big, little, or in between into a logical and trusted system outside of your head and off your mind#8221;. Emily Dickenson? I#8217;m going to walk through a couple of Allen#8217;s primary tips to give you an idea about what this means#8230;and then encourage you to go buy this book and read it all the way through. He does a better job than I. Capture is really critical, since the primary idea of GTD is to clear your mind of any and all the things you feel like you have to fail, do. Allen rightly notes that most of us waste a lot of brain power thinking about what we have to do now, and what we have to do next, and what we#8217;d really like to do in the future. Capturing these things into an organized system removes them from your brain, and puts them in on communicative spanish a place where you can deal with them when the time is right . Allen suggests creating an fail phd thesis, Inbox: this is where you empty your head of any and every thing you have to sociology about family, do or want to fail, get done. At first, this will become a long list. As you get in the GTD groove, however, you use different tools to capture these items as you go about your day. Essay Competence Grammar? I use a number of tools to add things to my #8220;inbox#8221;.
Evernote is used to capture ideas as they happen (typically at moments when I can#8217;t do anything about them). I also use OmniFocus, an application for mac, iPhone, and iPad, that was developed for GTD, to capture to do items. I also have a physical Inbox for the non-digital items that need to get done, such as bills or things that need to be filed, or paper notes I jot down. By capturing them, I know that I can retrieve them and review (see below) them later. I haven#8217;t lost them, but I don#8217;t have to deal with them now. Once a week, I sit down and go through my Inbox, and fail phd thesis begin the next step of Allen#8217;s process: Do It, Defer It, Delegate It, Drop It. This is independence essay, pretty straightforward: for each thing that you capture, those things you #8220;have to fail phd thesis, do#8221;, you need to independence essay, make a decision about what your actual commitment is to fail, that project. Is it something small and write uk quick you can do right now that will take less than 2 minutes?
Then Do It NOW. Is it something that you can#8217;t do right now, because it might take more time or your in the wrong place to do it? Then create a project folder for fail phd thesis, it, and my thesis establish what the next actionable step is that you need to do for phd thesis, that project, and file it away. Is it something that you can delegate to someone else? Then establish who that person is and what the next action is to make sure they do it (set up a meeting, send an email, etc). Is it something that really isn#8217;t that important in the grand scheme of things? Then drop it. Don#8217;t do it. Forget about it. Sometimes, releasing a project or task can be the most freeing part of the whole process. Write My Thesis Uk? One thing Allen points out that also helps to free your mind is the idea of context: there are some tasks you can#8217;t complete because of the environment you happen to be occupying at that exact moment.
Are you at the grocery store? Then you can#8217;t work on your dissertation. You can, however, stop by phd thesis the dry cleaners on the way home and pick up those items that have been there for two weeks. Day Of Pakistan Essay? Do you only have 15 available minutes between a meeting and your next class? Probably not a good time to try to pound out that theory chapter. But it probably is a good time to send that email to your colleague, or call your doctor to make an fail, appointment. Dickenson Thesis? Context helps us free space in phd thesis our minds because it makes us realize that we can#8217;t always work on something all the essay on communicative competence spanish grammar, time: the environment we#8217;re currently in might not allow it. This helps reduce the fail, stress significantly. Projects and Next Actions.
Identifying what is a project and what is an essay grammar, action is a critical part of the GTD system. For Allen, a project is anything that can be divided into more than one action, while actions exist in the smallest denomination. So, #8220;Write Dissertation#8221; is a project. #8220;read journal article#8221; is an action (unless you don#8217;t currently have that article, in which case it might be a project that includes the steps #8220;go to library#8221; or #8220;look up article on fail, JSTOR#8221;). A project, therefore, is made up of a number of actions. So, when I#8217;m organizing my list of things I have to and mystery theology, do, I organize them into projects (#8220;Make Dinner#8221;) and the actions that go in phd thesis it (#8220;find recipe#8221;, #8220;acquire ingredients#8221;, #8220;make shopping list#8221;, #8220;go to store#8221;, etc). Then, I decide what the next action I need to take is in order to emily, get this project done. Allen says that this last part is one of the most important steps: most things don#8217;t get done because no one has established what the next thing to do is going to phd thesis, be. Think about your dissertation. What#8217;s the next thing you have to do to get done?
If you answered, #8220;write chapter 3#8221;, think again: that#8217;s not a next action. God Knowledge And Mystery In Philosophical Theology? That#8217;s a project. Review is probably the most often overlooked but most helpful part of GTD. You can do this once a week, once a day, twice a day, whatever works best. Once a year, however, is not good enough: things change to quickly. My review day is Sunday. I set a couple of hours aside to phd thesis, make sure I go through every single project and subject it to the #8220;Do It, Defer It, Delegate It, Drop It#8221; test. I check off actions that I have completed. I go through my inbox, set up new projects, and get rid of in philosophical theology completed ones.
I organize my coming week based on what I want to accomplish each day of the following week. Review is critical because the fact is you may have outlined a series of fail phd thesis actions for a project, but that project doesn#8217;t go as planned. Something happened. Scheduling a review lets you reevaluate it, change it, and keep it on track towards completion. Towards being Done. Doing it every week ensures that you are keeping your Inbox clean and aisthesis tile checking on all of fail phd thesis your projects. That way, nothing slips through the emily thesis, cracks. This is just a basic overview of GTD. Fail Phd Thesis? There are a number of other concepts that he discusses that are also helpful, such as the dickenson, Tickler file and fail phd thesis Horizons, that will help you put GTD into action. There are also some great super users online, the day of pakistan essay, most well known being Merlin Mann of 43folders.com.
From my end, I can#8217;t recommend it enough: it has helped me look at my work in a number of different ways, some of which I am sure I#8217;ll share down the line. In the meantime, be sure to phd thesis, invest in this great book, and start Getting Things Done. [Image provided by Ashleigh Heck and used under Creative Commons License]
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mark hurd resume Address: 506/15 Wyagdon St ., New South Wales 2089. Date of fail phd thesis birth: 1 st August 1969. Place of birth: Adelaide, South Australia. Marital status: Single. DSTO Security Clearance passed. Drivers Licence Number: E54644 (car) Systems analyst, preferably in god knowledge and mystery theology, a mathematical or research oriented problem-solving field, with a wide range of day to day tasks, including #145;help desk#146; support.
Some teaching, tutoring, consulting or high-level mathematics would be an advantage. Computing Employment History. University of Adelaide. Bachelor of phd thesis Mathematical Sciences with Honours, majoring in uk, Computer Science. Westminster School, Marion, SA. Matriculation University Entrance Score: 88.4/100. Software Development Engineer. Development of Visual Basic-5 based projects was completed in-house, where I was part of fail a team of three or four programmers reporting to a project manager. I was involved in the design and coding of the objects (classes) and and mystery essays, their interfaces. Fail Phd Thesis! As part of the testing procedure, I also documented the independence day of pakistan essay complete installation procedure. I was also available to solve general computing problems and give advice to other programmers and macro writers.
Developed the multi-tasking kernel of phd thesis MasterConnect, using the uk features of fail phd thesis Visual Basic 5 classes in Microsoft Transaction Server. This involved the use of tile leading-edge technology and a lot of Microsoft documentation research. Completed MasterConnect, which involved creating a simpler interface to the above project that included connecting to fail, UniVerse via UniVerse Objects and a licensing mechanism. As part of the emily dickenson thesis team, I helped develop an fail phd thesis, ASP-based web site for the administration of the panaria complete Masterpack Internet Commerce module. This included pages to administer MasterConnect and phd thesis, modify relevant registry settings. Using InstallShield, I also helped develop the installation program. Coopers Lybrand (Australian Firm) Tax Technology Services.
Senior Consultant II (Programmer) Development of Visual Basic-based projects was completed in-house, where I reported to sociology about family, a Project Manager, who was also the original developer of the products. I was involved in design, coding, testing, the production of fail bound manuals, and essay about family, training for the products. Fail! Although not required, I was also available to solve some general computing problems. Completely revised and upgraded Tax Modeller , an application to produce a company#146;s tax model for tax-effect accounting. This product is sold to clients and non-clients of pakistan Coopers Lybrand throughout Australia. Completely upgraded, from the 1993 version, the fail 1994 Company Tax Kit , an application that prints a company#146;s details and tax figures directly onto standard Australian Tax Office (ATO) tax form stationery. Essay! This product is only given to phd thesis, clients of Coopers Lybrand, as it also contains a 300 plus list of checklist questions that can be answered on-screen.
The 1994 Mining Tax Kit was derived from the 1994 Company Tax Kit with only emily a change of colours and additional questions in the checklist. Fail! The 1994 Superannuation Tax Kit , being for a different ATO form, was effectively a complete rewrite, as it required a new on-screen layout with different information. These products have been maintained and updated each year and, from the thesis 1995 year, actually print facsimile copies of the ATO forms. The latest update included a transfer from VB3 to VB4, and the Superannuation Tax Kit was merged back into the main Tax Kit code using conditional compilation. Using the Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) protocol, all of these products make it easy for the user to link in figures from fail phd thesis detailed working papers. These working papers can be in day of pakistan essay, any Windows spreadsheet package that understands DDE, such as Microsoft Excel or Lotus 1-2-3. Tax Modeller and the Tax Kit s can also exchange information directly using DDE.
Both of the products generate context-sensitive calls to the Windows Help facility to give detailed explanations on how to use the fail products, about tax-effect accounting, and god knowledge in philosophical theology, advice regarding the information required by the ATO. Each product, and their installation systems, conforms to the Microsoft Windows Style Guide and was tested with a variety of fail hardware and software configurations. Both products have a licensing mechanism and process data files produced by earlier or later versions in a #145;user-friendly#146; manner. Logica Pty Limited. A wholly owned subsidiary of Logica plc in the United Kingdom.
Logica has been certified to conform to the Quality Standards ISO9001 and AS3563.1. Programmer/Analyst; Help Desk support. Development for sociology essay family, most of Logica #146;s projects occurs at fail phd thesis clients#146; premises. My duties included refining designs, coding, testing, producing documentation, giving demonstrations, and training in the final system. The client was continually consulted, and kept informed, throughout this process. Logica has a comprehensive quality assurance system, conforming to standards ISO9001 and emily thesis, AS3563.1 , and all my work, including plans, documentation and code, conformed to comprehensive in-house standards.
Between projects, I supported Logica #146;s office Novell LAN and the computers connected to it: Sun SPARCstations running SunOS ; and PC s running Windows , Windows for Workgroups , Windows NT . However, my most satisfying task was providing a #145; help desk #146; support for Windows , DOS and Novell applications and features, including Microsoft Word , Excel and Visual Basic . Installation and configuration of a network of fail phd thesis DEC OSF/1 and SCO Open Desktop systems. Planning and panaria tile, execution of the move of Logica #146;s network and associated equipment from one building to another. In-house software development of administration aids. Phd Thesis! These Microsoft Excel 4 based applications included a filing system, a timesheet and essays theology, an expense report. A system of Excel macros to allow the fail user to easily subscribe to (and publish) Teknekron data feeds. This used Excel #146;s DDE facility in real-time. Maintenance of a large multi-spreadsheet Excel system describing the planned and current financial position of the independence pakistan essay Australian company. For Australia Television , the ABC #146;s South-East Asian satellite service, a news captioning system. Fail Phd Thesis! This included designing a textual user interface and aisthesis tile, an underlying database to hold the stories. This was developed in #145; C #146; using Microsoft Programmers#146; Workbench and the user interface was created using C-Scape . Also for Australia Television , a #145; C #146; and Excel system that translates a spreadsheet describing the programming of the station, including each commercial and program segment, into a binary file required by software driving a Sony Flexicart that handles the video tapes. A system of fail phd thesis sh scripts to write, emulate an X.25 pad under DEC OSF/1 . The scripts were also modified to performance test the pad , a part of a standard communications protocol.
Research and prepare a report recommending the best network, operating system and software packages for a client based on his current requirements and future expansion prospects. Upgraded an Ingres Windows4GL graphical user interface front-end of an expert system, for a County NatWest and Dai-ichi Mutual Life joint venture. The system suggested when to trade stocks and fail phd thesis, futures, in real-time, based upon a Teknekron data feed. For OTC (now Telstra ), the write uk design of the graphical user interface for a traffic management system being developed by Logica . The interface was made up of fail windows in independence day of pakistan, the X windowing system and fail phd thesis, was designed to conform to about, a user interface style guide. An on-site contractor at fail phd thesis DSTO Salisbury . Programmer (while working full time) Research Development (while working part time)
All of independence day of pakistan my projects for Ebor , while working full-time, required liaising with DSTO Research Scientists to define requirements and to fail, deliver the and mystery theology current findings. RD with Inmos Transputers , using 3L Parallel C . Terminal handling interface for a FORTRAN package on a Sun4 under UNIX System V using the #145; C #146; Curses library . An object library call graph display using FORTRAN , designed to phd thesis, be ported to PDP-11, Sun4 and PC systems. Discovering and documenting the operation of and the results available from an expert system coded in tile, Lisp on a MacIvory Lisp Machine . A #145; C #146; and fail phd thesis, Oracle #145; Pro*C #146; program to search through a large Oracle database using an intelligent, weighted search, where the inputs and the database may be poorly defined or missing. Emily Dickenson! This was implemented on an IBM compatible 486 using Microsoft C , but was designed to be ported to a UNIX system. Please refer to the first attachment for fail, a more complete description of these tasks. I have tutored fourteen different secondary and tertiary students in and mystery essays in philosophical, Mathematics and phd thesis, Computer Science during 1987 , #146; 88 and #146; 89 . While enrolled as an Honours student, the Computer Science Department employed me as a part-time tutor of first year students. Philmac Pty Ltd. Position: Office Duties. Date: January 1986 (2 weeks) Duties: Keypad data entry.
Mail sorting and emily thesis, other general office duties. (Engineering Dept., Network Service and Design) Dates 6 #150; 10 May 1985. Duties: Punched tape entry. UNIX (BSD System V) Windows NT 3.1, 4 MS DOS (Versions 4 - 6.22) SunOS (up to 4.1.3) Windows 3.1, 3.11, 95, 98 Vax-VMS-DCL. SCO Open Desktop/Server OSF/1 Networks:
Linux Minix Microsoft. X (Motif) Symbolics Lisp Machine TCP/IP (Unix Windows NT) Macintosh (System 7) Novell NetWare 3.11/3.12. Microsoft SQL Server 6.5 Oracle Ingress. XDesigner Wingz (UNIX) Ingres Windows4GL. Make (UNIX) FrameMaker (UNIX) Oracle SQL*Plus. Lint (UNIX) WordPerfect Oracle Pro*C. Tom#146;s window manager Open look window manager. Excel (version 4, 5 7,95,97) Word (for Windows Macintosh version 6 7,95,97) Programmers#146; Work Bench Visual Basic (version 3-5) Office (version 4,95,97) Codeview Delta Visual SourceSafe Mail.
Technical, application and fail, industry skills. Structured analysis Testing. Small system design Tutoring. User interface design Reverse engineering. Programming State machine and logic table design and analysis. Architectures/Computers: I have had programming experience with following systems: IBM compatibles under Windows 3.1,95 and NT 4 , using Microsoft Visual Basic , and thesis, VBA ; IBM compatibles under MS-DOS , using Microsoft C ; Encore Multimax under UNIX (BSD 4.3), using #145;C#146; , Pascal, sh , csh , tcsh , lex , and fail, yacc ; Inmos Transputer (T414 / T800) with IBM AT host, using 3L Parallel C ; Sun Workstations (Sun 2, 3 and independence day of essay, 4 and SPARCstations) under UNIX , using #145;C#146; , Pascal, sh , csh ; COMPAQ DESKPRO 50M under SCO Open Desktop/Server , using sh , csh ; DEC 3300/3400 under OSF/1 , using #145;C#146; , sh , csh ; DEC VAX/MicroVAX under DCL , using VAX Pascal ; Symbolics MacIvory (a Lisp Machine as a card in fail, a Macintosh IIx), using Lisp ; Macintosh LC / II under System 7.01 , using Pascal; and, Commodore 128 / 64 (6510 / 6502 / Z80) using #145;C#146;, Basic, Assembly Language, CP/M. * Quick comprehension and understanding of complex concepts, concrete or abstract.
* An ability to quickly apply concepts learnt. Also to reapply concepts to panaria aisthesis tile, different situations. * Problem solving and algorithm design. * An aptitude for fail, tutoring. Certificate of Appreciation: (from the University of Adelaide) 1990: In recognition of the assistance and support [Mark] provided to ensure the and mystery success of the series of special events associated with #145;The Frontiers of Chaos#146; [exhibition] Specifically, I presented a lecture to the general public during this computer graphics exhibition explaining how the fail computer generates the pictures of chaos on display. 1986: For service to Forder house of Westminster School. The Westminster School Award: 1986: For fine academic achievement and my thesis, splendid persistence 1985: For fine academic achievement and splendid attitude National Economic Simulation Competition: 1986: 3 rd in South Australian Final. 3 rd in National Final.
1986: Award of Excellence (Top 100 in Australia) 1981-1986: Distinction (Top 15% in South Australia), each year. 1984: Honourable Commendation (Top 20 in South Australia) Australian Schools Science Competition: 1984: Top 11% in South Australia. 1983: Top 2% in South Australia. 1982: Top 1% in phd thesis, South Australia. University of Adelaide. Bachelor of theology Mathematical Sciences with Honours , majoring in Computer Science . Summary of results: Honours, 1990: Computer Science, Chaos Theory.
Project Topic: Translating Control Structure Specifications into Procedures. Class 2 , division B. Third Year, 1989: Computer Science. 2 Distinctions , 5 Credits and 6 Passes . Second Year, 1988: Computer Science, Pure Maths, Applied Maths. 2 Distinctions and 1 Credit . First Year, 1987: Maths, Computer Science, Statistics, Economics, Physics. 3 Distinctions and 2 Passes . For detailed results, please refer to the attached copy of my Official Academic Transcript. 1982-1986: Westminster School. 1986: Achievement Score University Entrance Score.
1981: Westminster Preparatory School. 1976-1980: Coromandel Valley Primary School. 1974-1975: Port Lincoln Infant School. Computing: I completed every Computer Science subject offered by phd thesis, the Computer Science Department of independence day of pakistan Adelaide University to undergraduates during the phd thesis time I was a student. For Mensa, I wrote a column in their monthly magazine, #145;Tableaus#146;, about current issues in computing and high technology during 1996. I studied as much Maths as I could fit into write my thesis my course, after Computer Science. Phd Thesis! I am especially interested in Pure and essay on communicative competence grammar, abstract fields, and all facets of Chaos theory . Economics and Politics: I always have had a general interest in current affairs, and I studied Economics in year 12 and 1 st year.
In February 1994, I attended the Australian Youth Institute #146;s Unemployment Conference, where I helped develop ideas for an economic paper that became a widely reported press release. While at University I quickly found the phd thesis Internet an interesting source of my thesis entertainment and information, although it did not have the user-friendly interface it has now. Phd Thesis! I contribute to the Visual Basic mailing list and related (Microsoft-run) newsgroups regularly. Rolemaster: (An interactive role-playing system) When in Adelaide, a group of essay competence spanish friends and phd thesis, I manage this and other role-playing systems weekly. An annual South Australian Dungeons Dragons competition. In summary , my interests involve problem solving in real, abstract, complex or thought provoking situations. Member: Adelaide University Alumni Association.
Life member: Westminster School Old Scholars Association. Coopers Lybrand (Australian Firm) To help people produce company tax returns, Coopers Lybrand produces a Tax Kit every year. Mark updated the 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997 Tax Kit s, using Microsoft#146;s Visual Basic. Special versions for the Mining industry and for Superannuation Funds are also created yearly. The 1994 Tax Kit s printed onto Australian Tax Office (ATO) stationary and since then the Tax Kit s have printed facsimile forms registered with the ATO. Australian company tax is essay grammar, calculated using a reconciliation to taxable income and this requires tax-effect accounting to track income and phd thesis, expenses that are treated as taxable or refundable in a period different to when accounting standards include them.
Tax Modeller is a Visual Basic program designed to help with tax-effect accounting. Mark reviewed all of the code before the first public release and theology, has maintained it since. IICATS - FTE (1994) As part of the large IICATS contract with the Sydney Water Board, Logica supplied a large WAN, covering a large part of Sydney. Mark helped set up a #145;Factory Test Environment#146; that includes a representative section of the complete WAN. Mark installed and configured DEC OSF/1 and fail phd thesis, SCO Open Desktop/Server workstations, disk drives, and god knowledge and mystery essays, printers required for this section.
This included installing the operating systems and connecting them in a TCP/IP network. Fail Phd Thesis! Mark documented all steps in emily dickenson thesis, the installation and configuration to allow for easy replication of the phd thesis configurations when the god knowledge essays in philosophical full network was commissioned. Office Move (1993-1994) Mark helped plan and execute the move of computing equipment when Logica moved its Sydney office to new premises. Mark tested the networking equipment, the file server, and other shared equipment, as well as each PC, before the users needed them. Office Technology and Reuse (1993) Mark managed the fail internal office Novell network, and assisted in a hand-over of the LAN and PC management. Mark continued to upgrade the Logica Client Database, a Visual Basic system, and other applications.
He also helped organise a procedure to store and document reusable items created during projects for future retrieval. Television Scheduling Facility (1993) Mark was retained by ABC TV Technical Services to develop a data conversion facility for their newly acquired Sony Flexicart On-air Replay System after the successful implementation of the ATVI News Captioning System (see below). Situated in Darwin, the Sony equipment is used to control the panaria aisthesis tile selection and play of videotapes by the ATVI group for television transmissions over South-East Asia. The Replay System requires a schedule of tape identifiers and command and timing sequences in order to operate. Mark developed a facility to retrieve this information from Excel spreadsheets within the phd thesis ATVI scheduling group and my thesis, convert it #150; as required #150; into Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) format for transmission to Darwin from the ABC premises in Gore Hill.
The software was written using Excel macros and fail phd thesis, #145;C#146; within Microsoft#146;s Programmers#146; Work Bench. Television News Captioning System (1993) Mark designed and developed a news captioning facility for ABC TV Technical Services to support the introduction of competence spanish multi-lingual foreign news bulletins over South-East Asia. The bulletins are produced in Melbourne by Radio Australia for the Australian Television International (ATVI) group within the ABC. Satellite links are used to transmit them to Darwin. He developed editing, sequencing and storage capabilities for news items and a live interface to support the news broadcasts. English language captions are displayed over the picture of the newsreader as each foreign language item is read. The system supports static and moving displays, and a variety of transition sequences.
Mark developed the system using a prototyping approach that required close cooperation with both end-users and technical staff. The software, written in phd thesis, #145;C#146;, drives a Chyron Codi TV Character Generator to impose the captions onto the broadcast picture. The user interface was developed using C-Scape. Communications with the Codi are over an RS232 link using the Greenleaf Communications software library. The development environment included Microsoft Programmers#146; Work Bench and Codeview. UNIX Consultancy - Networking Design and Hardware Recommendations (1993) Mark helped a senior consultant produce a design for panaria aisthesis, a network solution for a client from Dubbo. Mark was asked to suggest cabling, hardware, configuration and operating systems requirements, as well as suppliers, installers and maintainers. The client wanted the phd thesis information as he was currently expanding his office and wanted to dickenson, install the new network at the same time. After considering a number of suppliers, Mark proposed a solution that was within the budget required and would provide for fail phd thesis, both the client#146;s current requirements and the possible future expansion described.
Office Technology (1993) Mark upgraded Microsoft Excel spreadsheet systems that produce the company#146;s monthly reports. He has also created an Excel system to help office staff administer a filing system. Mark involved the independence day of pakistan essay eventual users in the design of the systems and Mark provided training for the final versions. Stock Market Expert System (1992 - 1993)
Mark worked on the H3 expert system for phd thesis, the DaiNat Company, a joint venture between Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance Company of Japan and County NatWest Investment Management Company of London. H3 uses the X windowing system on essay on communicative competence spanish grammar Sun SPARCstations connected in a network. Fail! H3 provides stock purchase and sale recommendations for real-time trading. Data from the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) is fed, using a Teknekron feed, into the H3 system where calculations are performed and stocks continuously evaluated. The recommended trades are displayed on the trader#146;s monitor. Mark completed the implementation of the user interface to the expert system. Coded in Ingres#146; Windows4GL, the graphical user interface also handled the accounting of the stock and futures and the money being traded. Day Of! While Mark worked on the system, it was being tested in both London and Japan, with change requests coming back from both.
Changes to the system and the user interface style were extensively tested in the UNIX/X environment before the system was sent back to London and Japan. OTC - Traffic Management System (1992) Given a functional description of this application, Mark produced prototype designs for the windows of the system. After extensive consultation with the client, Mark designed these prototypes to conform to the graphical user interface standard for phd thesis, the project and to the normal rules of style for panaria tile, X applications. The prototypes can be used to fail phd thesis, produce the code defining the windows in the final system.
The design Mark produced formed a demonstration that simulated the actions of the final system. This demonstration allowed the and mystery client, the fail phd thesis author of the sociology family functional description, and Mark himself, to get a better feel for the application's features. Fail Phd Thesis! Improvements to the design, to the format of display, and to the system functionality could then be discussed more effectively. Mark used XDesigner to essay grammar, design the windows and the graphical user interface standard was based on IBM's common user access style guide and the OSF/Motif style guide. Mark organised the fail phd thesis gathering of information required for importing products into Australia (a Schedule A) and set up a spreadsheet to receive this information. For another bid, Mark produced a rough estimate of the dickenson effort required to document the fail phd thesis code of a very large existing system. This involved applying the data describing the on communicative competence spanish grammar size of components of the fail phd thesis system to an estimation model (COCOMO) under various assumptions.
The model was implemented on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and Mark also set up another spreadsheet to retrieve and summarise the panaria aisthesis tile results. Office Technology (1992) Mark installed various products, updates and fail phd thesis, Logica specific applications and utilities on office PCs, as well as general maintenance, training and #145;help desk#146; support. An on-site defence contractor at sociology about DSTO Salisbury, South Australia. Sparse database search given vague targets (1991) Mark produced an Oracle #145;Pro*C#146; program that found a set of best matches in fail, a sparsely filled database given an ill-defined target. To efficiently search for these optimal matches, complex search algorithms were developed. The Microsoft #145;C#146; Compiler and PC-Lint were used in emily dickenson thesis, development on an IBM compatible 486. Phd Thesis! The code was designed to be ported to a UNIX system at a later date. Reverse engineering an Expert System (1990 - 1991)
An expert system was bought by the Navy from a Defence contractor, but security requirements precluded the underlying database to be sent to Australia. Mark analysed the Lisp code of the expert system to essay, determine the structure of this database. Mark progressed the documentation of the system to include detail of operation at all levels. At the highest level, the phd thesis encoding of the knowledge sources was described. Pakistan! The relationships between these knowledge sources, as processed by fail phd thesis, a blackboard model of operation, were also described. At the lowest level, Mark explained the Lisp coding techniques used in this system. Call Graph Generator (1990 Vacation Work) As part of a set of general development tools, Mark designed and progressed coding of aisthesis tile a program that provided a graphic display of fail phd thesis calls to routines. Panaria Aisthesis! The tools could be used to determine the call sequence of routines #150; recursion and multiple entry points were recognised and marked.
Input could be provided from a variety of sources such as object libraries or a textual cross-reference list. Developed using Microsoft FORTRAN on an IBM compatible, the design incorporated features to ease porting to fail phd thesis, both UNIX and Digital RSX. The tools enabled the programmer to panaria, easily determine call sequences to facilitate more efficient development and debugging. FORTRAN interface to UNIX Curses library (1989 Vacation Work) Mark designed and implemented a set of #145;C#146; and FORTRAN routines to port an MS-DOS FORTRAN package to work under UNIX System V (SunOS). Fail! This port made extensive use of #145;C#146; library routines and routines supplied in the package. The software was developed based on protocols used in the package. After extensive testing, Mark installed and configured this software at the client site.
Investigation of Inmos Transputers (1989 Part-time) Mark developed performance tests using 3L Parallel C on a network of four Transputers connected to an IBM compatible host PC. The tests measured gains in efficiency as the number of transputers increased and as the configuration of the network was changed. The results were collated in about family, a report for future reference when tendering for relevant contracts. Other than Computer Science related subjects including Numerical Analysis and Computational Mathematics, Mark studied Pure and Applied Mathematics including Chaos Theory, Economics, and fail phd thesis, Statistics and has a wide knowledge of all these disciplines. Official Academic Transcript. (original or photocopy available on request) Mark Edwin Hurd.
The University of Adelaide. Adelaide, South Australia 5000. Telephone: (08) 8228 5333. Official Academic Transcript. Name: Mark Edwin Hurd Issued on 02-Dec-91. Student number: 871469J. Date of birth: 01-Aug-69 (unverified) Bachelor of Science in the Faculty of sociology essay family Mathematical Sciences.
Physics I 64 Pass division I. Statistics IH 92 Distinction. Computer science IH 87 Distinction. Economics I 55 Pass division I. Mathematics I 80 Distinction. Bachelor of Science in the Faculty of phd thesis Mathematical Sciences. Computer science II 79 Distinction.
Applied mathematics II 72 Credit. Pure mathematics II 77 Distinction. Bachelor of essay about Science in the Faculty of Mathematical Sciences. Computational mathematics 72 Credit. Computer networking and phd thesis, data communications 47 Conceded Pass. Business data processing 56 Pass. Complex analysis 69 Credit.
Operating systems 60 Pass. Computer architecture 71 Credit. Logic 70 Credit. Knowledge-based systems 68 Credit. Compiler construction 76 Distinction. Programming language concepts 58 Pass. Computer graphics 64 Pass. Non procedural programming 89 Distinction. Numerical analysis 54 Pass.
Qualified for dickenson, the following degree: Ordinary degree of phd thesis Bachelor of Science in the Faculty of Mathematical Sciences. Admitted to the following degree on 30-Apr-90: Ordinary degree of Bachelor of Science in the Faculty of Mathematical Sciences. Bachelor of Science in the Faculty of panaria tile Mathematical Sciences (Honours) Honours computer science Second class div B. Qualified for the following degree:
Honours degree of Bachelor of phd thesis Science in the Faculty of Mathematical Sciences. Admitted to the following degree on 01-May-91: Honours degree of aisthesis Bachelor of Science in the Faculty of Mathematical Sciences.
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Failing A Phd Thesis
50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. This type of fail phd thesis essay summarizes and evaluates an argument, political situation, social phenomenon, historical event, written text, literary work, movie, or performance. Your job writing a critical analysis paper is to: Summarize : You will use your own words to explain clearly what happened. If it is an event, you will describe the situation, people, and circumstances. If you are dealing with a text or a performance, you will explain the uk, author's thesis, purpose, and audience. Phd Thesis. Your summary is intended to help your audience understand this subject clearly and thoroughly. Analyze: Next, you will explain the meaning of this event, text or performance. You will evaluate what happened and discuss whether it is sociology essay family, good, bad or both.
If you are discussing a cultural phenomenon or a current event, you can analyze causes and effects or the importance of that event. For a written text or a performance, you will discuss how well the author conveys his or her intentions to the audience. Is the author convincing? What are the weaknesses? Respond (sometimes): Often, a critical analysis assignment requires you to present the summary and analysis objectively. However, another way of writing this type of phd thesis essay is to include your own point of view. Be sure to check with your instructor about whether they want you to add your own opinion. If you write this paper with your own personal opinion included, it is sometimes called a summary, analysis, response essay. Choose a topic from the list below that you find interesting. It helps if you already know something about the situation or the god knowledge and mystery in philosophical, different sides of the issue. Fail. What you don't know, you will need to research.
If there is a subject you feel strongly about, you will have a better motivation for doing your essay. However, you will need to be careful to do the summary objectively and to be sure to back up your analysis with clear reasoning, evidence, and argument. 1. Communication differences between men and women . Linguistics professor Deborah Tannen has studied the way in which men and women communicate differently. Read a summary of the panaria aisthesis tile, arguments from her book, Men and Women in Conversation . Summarize her argument about the differences between the way men and women communicate. Analyze the fail phd thesis, effectiveness of her suggestions about how we can communicate more effectively. 2. Drug use in sociology essay family sports. Pick a sport which has had some problems with steroid use or other illegal enhancements. Summarize the situation. Analyze what has caused drug use to fail phd thesis, become an increasing problem. How has this drug use affected the gameplay, the athletes, and/or the emily thesis, fans?
3. Anti-meth campaign. The advertising campaign, The Meth Project, has taken the Say No to phd thesis, Drugs campaigns of the past to new extremes. Analyze the effectiveness of this campaign and/or some of the advertisements. 4. My Thesis Uk. Homelessness. Summarize the fail phd thesis, situation of the homeless in panaria tile your community. What resources are available to help them? Why is homelessness still a problem?
You might also want to look at some of the fail phd thesis, videos on YouTube where homeless people describe their lives. Essay. 5. College football . Summarize the importance of college football for a University. Fail. Analyze the effect of football on creating alumni involvement and write my thesis uk giving, drawing students to attend the University, and bringing community pride and economic development. You can also discuss the problems that come with having a football program. 6. Obesity. Obesity rates are skyrocketing worldwide. Phd Thesis. See the WHO Statistics on Obesity. Pakistan. Summarize the problem. Analyze the consequences of phd thesis obesity for the individual and aisthesis tile society.
7 . Street art and fail phd thesis graffiti: Examine the street art by the British-born graffiti artist who goes by the name Banksy. You might also want to write uk, look at the trailer for his movie about street art, Exit Through the Gift Shop , or discuss his new exhibit Dismaland: A Bemusement Park. Analyze how his street art scenes are a comment on our society. 8. Sports on television. Fail. High ticket prices combined with technologically enhanced sports broadcasts and widescreen HD televisions which make you feel you are there, many sports fans prefer to watch the game at home.
Analyze the differences between watching sports live and on TV. Day Of Pakistan Essay. Consider how the enhancement of television viewing is changing the fail phd thesis, sport and god knowledge and mystery essays how it is played. 9. Multicultural identity. We all frequently have to check a box identifying our ethnicity. However, for many people, that choice is not easy because they have more than one racial or ethnic group to choose from. Moreover, many people's appearance don't line up with the racial or cultural group they most identify with. Read The Changing Face of America from National Geographic and fail phd thesis look at many of the faces in the article. Analyze how Americans identify themselves and others by appearances. Why is having a single racial identity so important to Americans? 10. Body size and modeling: Watch the write uk, debate between a thin model and an obese model below.
Summarize the points about women, health and body image. Phd Thesis. Analyze the arguments for and against using women for models who are outside of the on communicative competence grammar, normal, healthy body size. 11. Multicultural families. Adoption and intermarriage between people of different cultures and races has created more families of fail mixed races and cultures in the United States and other countries. Describe this situation and analyze how adoption and marriage across racial lines affect individuals in those families and the cohesion of the family as a whole. 12. About. Changing gender roles: The feminist movement fought to secure equal rights for women. How have the fail, roles of uk men and women changed over the last 40 years? How have they stayed the same?
Analyze the change in gender roles and fail whether it has been good or bad for relationships and families. Essay. How are these changes seen in fail cultural images? 13. Ethnic music: Many mainstream musicians are using ethnic influences from Africa, Latin America and elsewhere in their work. Describe the use of ethnic music in one or more artists that you know. Analyze how ethnic or folk music has been used by that artist. Panaria Aisthesis Tile. 14. Latino influences : As the United States Latino population has grown, Latino culture has become more mainstream.
Describe some of the fail phd thesis, cultural examples of that Latino influence and analyze how it is changing American culture. Emily. 15. Single parent families: The rise in divorce has created many more families headed, at least for a while, by phd thesis a single parent. Describe the differences between single parent and dual parent families. Analyze the essay family, effects of single parenting on children, on the experience of the parent or on schools and communities. 1. Explain the changes in a character over the course of a novel . Fail Phd Thesis. Analyze the causes and significance of those changes (example: Pip or Estella in Great Expectations ). 2. Examine a setting in and mystery essays in philosophical a novel . Explain it in detail. Analyze the significance of that setting, for instance how that setting either foreshadows what is to come, explains a character in the novel, or provides contrast (example: the fail phd thesis, setting in Jane Eyre ). 3. Explain the conventions of a particular genre such as the aisthesis tile, Gothic novel, the Realistic novel or the Romance. Analyze how a particular novel meets or subverts those genre expectations.
4. Find out fail phd thesis, about the background of an my thesis uk author. Examine one of the author's works and analyze how that author's life influenced what they wrote (example: Katherine Mansfield, Virginia Woolf, or Ernest Hemingway). 5. Describe the way irony is used in a short story . Fail Phd Thesis. Analyze how that irony creates meaning. How does using irony work to create meaning in a shorter work? (examples: Flannery O'Connor's short stories, or Mark Twain's). 6. Describe the climax of a work of literature.
Analyze how the my thesis uk, author builds up to that climax (example: Death of Julius Caesar in Shakespeare's play, the phd thesis, trial in To Kill a Mockingbird ). 7. Describe the mood of a literary work . Analyze how the author creates that mood through word choices. 8. Describe a critical dialogue in a play or novel. Essay On Communicative Spanish. Analyze how putting the words in phd thesis a character's mouth is essay on communicative competence spanish, more effective than just having the author narrate the scene and action in it. 9. Describe the use of allegory . Analyze the meaning of the allegory, or analyze why the author chose to use allegory in this work (examples: Orwell's Animal Farm or C.S. Fail. Lewis's Narnia books or John Bunyan in Pilgrim's Progress ). 10. Look at dickenson thesis one scene in a Shakespeare play . Analyze how that scene is crucial to understanding the plot or the phd thesis, development of a character (example: Ophelia's death in Hamlet ). 11. Describe a static character in a literary work (a character that does not change during the course of the work).
Analyze why the author chose to use that type of independence essay character and how that affects the fail, rest of the work (example: Tiny Tim in Dicken's The Christmas Carol vs. Scrooge). 12. Describe the panaria, narrative voice in fail phd thesis a work of sociology essay about family literature. Analyze how using that narrative voice impacts the meaning of the fail phd thesis, work, or how it influences the reader to see events in a certain way. This is an especially interesting critical analysis to do when a work of literature uses more than one narrative voice (examples: The Help by Kathryn Stockett, Turn of the Screw by Henry James, or Bleak House by essay spanish grammar Charles Dickens). Phd Thesis. 13. Examine the historical, cultural or literary context of a work of literature. Emily. Analyze how understanding that context can help the reader understand that work (examples: Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart , or Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron ) 14.
Look at the imagery in a poem or poems by fail phd thesis a particular poet. Describe the competence grammar, imagery and then analyze how it creates meaning, tone and mood (examples: Elizabeth Barrett Brown, Walt Whitman or Carlos Williams). 15. Examine and describe a poem which has a first person point of view . Analyze how telling the poem in phd thesis the first person allows the poet to create meaning (examples: Robert Browning's Fra Lippo Lippi or My Last Duchess). 1. Pick a really terrible movie you have seen . Summarize it and analyze what makes this movie so bad. Is it so badly done that it actually becomes funny to watch? (examples: Trolls II , Plan 9 from Outer Space ) 2. Sociology About Family. Examine a movie based on a book you've read. Analyze how well the book has been adapted into a movie. Explain why you think the phd thesis, director made changes to the book in adapting it for the screen. Do the book and the movie have the same impact on the audience? Which is better? (examples: Lord of the and mystery in philosophical theology, Rings , Harry Potter , Hunger Games , The Help ). 3. Evaluate a T.V. series that is based on a novel (or novel series).
Analyze how well the format of phd thesis T.V. is adapted to telling this particular story (examples: Game of Thrones , BBC Sherlock Holmes, Elementary, Once Upon a Time, The Vampire Diaries ). 4. Look at a T.V. series that is based on essay on communicative competence spanish true events or real people. Analyze how realistic this depiction is of the actual lives of the people in the series. Does this series exploit these people? Does being a part of a T.V. Fail. show help or hurt them? (examples: Eight is Enough, Breaking Amish, Friday Night Lights ). 5. And Mystery Essays. Examine a movie that is about high school . Analyze whether the characters, setting, plot and drama are realistic. Do such movies help people who are struggling in high school?
Do they exploit stereotypes or help to undermine them? (examples: Napoleon Dynamite, 21 Jump street, Mean Girls, Easy A, Project X ) 6. Pick a cake Show. Fail. Analyze why these shows are interesting to viewers and how these shows have spawned a new interest in cooking, decorating cakes and other forms of food preparation inside the on communicative, home. Phd Thesis. Are these shows really long advertisements for products and services? (examples: Cake Boss, Cupcake Wars, and tile Amazing Wedding Cakes ). 7. Look at a vintage high school movie. Analyze whether the struggles depicted in fail phd thesis this movie mirror the one's teens experience today. How are schools, teens, parents, teachers and problems the same or different? (examples: The Breakfast Club, Dead Poet's Society, To Sir With Love, Rebel Without a Cause, Fast Times at Ridgemont High ). 8. Examine a remake of a classic movie. Analyze whether the remake is as good as the original. What has changed? Are some aspects better and others worse? Is the vision of the emily dickenson, directors the same? (Example: Piranha 3-D, Evil Dead, Red Dawn, Clash of the Titans ). 9. Examine a Hitchcock horror film or another classic horror movie. Analyze how the movie creates horror and fail phd thesis suspense while following the strict Hollywood guidelines of the time (examples: The Birds, Psycho, Vertigo, Rear Window ) 10.
Examine a movie based on a comic book series. Analyze how well the movie interprets the comic book character (examples: The Avengers, Batman, Superman, Captain America, Green Lantern, Ironman ). 11. And Mystery Essays In Philosophical. Examine a Wedding Dress Show. Analyze why these shows are popular. Have they contributed to the sharp rise in wedding costs? Is the fail phd thesis, popularity related to the fact that so many marriages don't last? (examples: Say Yes to the Dress, My Big Redneck Wedding, My Fair Wedding ). 12.
Examine two (or more) movies based on the same comic book character. Analyze the change in the character over the series, or examine the way two different actors and directors interpreted the character, motivations and plot (examples: Spiderman, X-Man, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Justice League, Superman ). 13. Look at a romantic comedy. Analyze how this genre draws the audience into write, the story. What makes a romantic comedy effective? (examples : When Harry Met Sally, Pretty Woman, Clueless, Picture Perfect, Like Crazy ). 14.
Choose your favorite horror movie to examine. What makes this such a good horror film? Analyze what elements this movie has that creates the experience of horror in the audience (examples: The Exorcist, Sleepy Hollow, The Silence of the Lambs, The Shining, Halloween ). 15. What makes a good summer movie? Examine one of fail phd thesis your favorite summer movies, a classic, or a hit from last summer. Analyze what makes a movie good for a summer release? What are the audience expectations.
How well does this movie match what the audience has come to expect? (examples: Do the Right Thing, Caddyshack, Jaws, (500) Days of sociology essay family Summer ). Fail Phd Thesis. 16. Pick a dumb comedy. While these sorts of emily movies don't generally hold up as classic literature, they can make us laugh and be fun to watch with a group of fail friends. God Knowledge And Mystery Essays In Philosophical Theology. However, there is a fine line between funny dumb and stupid dumb. Analyze how well your movie presents comedy that is funny for the audience. What makes a movie like this work? (examples: Ted, Bad Santa, The Cable Guy, Borat: Cultural Learnings of America, The Hangover ). 17. Choose a movie that one The Best Picture award. Analyze what makes a movie the best of that year and one of the best of all time. Does your movie have features that most best pictures do? What makes it unique?
If it was produced this year, would it win again? (examples: Wings (1927/29-the first Best picture award), Gone With The Wind (1939), Ben Hur (1959), The Sound of Music (1965), Kramer vs. Kramer (1979), The King's Speech (2001). 18. Choose a reality T.V. series : Analyze why people like these shows. Why are they so popular and what makes a reality T.V. show good or bad? Do these shows exploit the fail phd thesis, people who appear on them? Where should we draw the line? (examples: Toddlers and Tiaras, Biggest Loser, Survivor ). 19. Essay On Communicative Grammar. Choose a popular older T.V. sitcom.
Research the current events happening at the time the show was produced. Analyze why the show was popular at fail that time. God Knowledge And Mystery Essays In Philosophical Theology. Did that shows humor last? Can audiences who watch it now still appreciate the humor? (examples: I Love Lucy, Cheers, M.A.S.H ). 20. Examine a popular game show. Explain the history of the show. Analyze how the show works to make the game interesting not only for the contestants but also for the viewing audience. Was the phd thesis, key ingredient the set-up of the game show, the contestants, the write my thesis uk, host, the audience, viewer participation or some other factor? (examples: Let's Make Deal, Minute to fail, Win it, Jeopardy ). How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by panaria Virginia Kearney 16. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. How to Paraphrase, Quote, and Summarize Properly in Academic Papers. by Virginia Kearney 6. Research Topics in English Literature.
by LisaKoski 33. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks teaches--I get a lot of my ideas from my discussions with my college students in class and my high school kids at home! Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is a great list for students when selecting an essay topic and critical analysis. Phd Thesis. Your suggestions are all ones that people find interesting and are popular finds. I will be using this as a reference in classes.
Thanks! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Ms Dora--I so appreciate that from essay spanish someone who is such a gifted communicator and teacher! Dora Isaac Weithers 3 years ago from The Caribbean. Very interesting and informative for those still in the classroom.
Good topic ideas from a good teacher. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on fail affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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What percentage of PhD students fail their thesis…
Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the members. Phd Thesis? Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the sociology essay family motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of fail leadership (pp. On Communicative Competence Grammar? 19-20)'.
Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of fail moral spirit and responsibility in pakistan the leader, which is led to unifying the fail phd thesis efforts of the employees in essays in philosophical theology order to fail achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16). Leadership can be explained as the essay on communicative competence grammar ability of an fail, individual to have power that focuses on how to essay establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to fail phd thesis influence others to work hard in order to realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to influence the behaviour of tile a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of phd thesis Leadership, one being the pakistan essay traits that the leaders elicit and other happens to be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by the group or the organisation.
However, it is important to fail phd thesis understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and essay spanish grammar, one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Hence, it is phd thesis important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to understand the expectations of the subordinates and then try to accommodate the same in emily their style of Leadership. Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the fail phd thesis early work done by Kurt Lewin in panaria aisthesis 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the fail phd thesis researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the sociology essay third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks.
With the context in place of an Indian manufacturing company where the workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). He was extremely focused on fail, his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and god knowledge essays in philosophical, extended downward' (BBC). Phd Thesis? Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes. He did not trust others, particularly the panaria aisthesis generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey).
This kind of leadership falls well within the boundaries of fail Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being. ' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at the psychological perspectives of the on communicative competence spanish above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on fail, Abasement, Aggression and essays theology, Achievement. However they score low on fail phd thesis, Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation.
It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader. My Thesis? For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for fail, a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by my thesis uk more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is around. It is also suitable in situations where the workforce is new and untrained or where economies of fail phd thesis scale is god knowledge and mystery essays theology being tried to fail be achieved which leaves little time for a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to essay lose its shine in phd thesis the present context over the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of leadership will be effective and god knowledge and mystery essays theology, not the absolute style per se. 2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960).
They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Fail Phd Thesis? Lewin and his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the sociology essay family central element of the fail phd thesis term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and panaria aisthesis tile, the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives. In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of fail phd thesis their collective responsibilities.
' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by write setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935). Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders (Baker, 1982, p. 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an phd thesis, important concern for organisations in the today's era. The organisations are looking at tile drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the fail phd thesis subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of their time and energy to ensuring productive and democratic decision making.
Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the style of leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the better of the essay competence grammar two leadership styles i.e. Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of phd thesis leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and sociology about family, efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935).
Third, most people have, to some degree, an fail, unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of uk any kind and no belief in fail phd thesis their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935) However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in sociology about the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of phd thesis shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is god knowledge and mystery in philosophical theology a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the need for fail phd thesis, organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the panaria aisthesis tile tenure and entrance of Gen Y, who thrive in fail responsibilities and accountabilities, into emily dickenson, the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. It depends on fail phd thesis, many factors all of sociology essay about which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the fail phd thesis time frame available for decision making for the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to miss out the country in which the panaria aisthesis organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity.
With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to fail phd thesis both the essay on communicative competence spanish grammar developing and the advanced world. In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to fail phd thesis research and development, exports, and productivity growth. But the about manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to progress. According to a research by Mc Kinsey and Co., the next decade and half will see the entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to $ 64 trillion.
Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the phd thesis share of developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the residents. The GDP share of thesis manufacturing in the Indian economy is fail poised to grow from 16% to 25% by 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in aisthesis developed economies in contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of phd thesis GDP peaks at and mystery in philosophical 20 to 35 percent of GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from mere output to phd thesis the efficiency, utilization of resources and cost aspect of emily production which the phd thesis impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well.
For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to about 9% in 2008. The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in competence spanish developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and fail phd thesis, can be safely assumed that the write uk outlook of manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the fail developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. As a result, the sector's contribution to emily thesis GDP has declined marginally from fail phd thesis, 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Spanish Grammar? Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in fail phd thesis 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in on communicative spanish grammar 2012-13. In FY13, only 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the world in regards to the growth of manufacturing industry.
However, there will be concerns arising out of fail lack of panaria domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in fail phd thesis wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe. God Knowledge Essays? The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and fail, consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to emily focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the fail phd thesis customers have a wider range of options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base.
Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the same. With the foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in the mobile industry, the pressure on bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. Sociology Essay About Family? No player in the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and fail phd thesis, various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to the term called 'Productivity' which the god knowledge in philosophical theology study tries to fail define in the manufacturing setup in in philosophical the Indian context. Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at fail phd thesis disposal of the organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of essay on communicative spanish output and the quantity of phd thesis input used to generate that output.
It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. Dickenson? The input can be measured in fail human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the emily dickenson thesis output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on fail phd thesis, capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc. The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the globe the sociology concept of fail OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures.
In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and emily thesis, allied and their productivity is being measured on an individual basis e.g. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. This gives the organisation required control over the processes and more specifically the operations managers to have a closer look at the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is fail a way to monitor and write, improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation. For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of fail phd thesis 30 days. For e.g.
Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to god knowledge and mystery theology reach the temperature that is required for the processing. However the fail same is not true for independence pakistan, many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. From the fail phd thesis Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the god knowledge and mystery essays in philosophical theology control of the unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to arrive at phd thesis the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation. The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3.
The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to independence pakistan essay increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is fail Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). Competence Spanish Grammar? This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production. OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in phd thesis the form of sociology family OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Fail? Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is 95% and panaria aisthesis tile, Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to close to 85%.
OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process. The OEE tool gives the phd thesis managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and my thesis uk, control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and fail phd thesis, poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to panaria aisthesis tile assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the phd thesis organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity. It is one of the popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Technically, it is panaria calculated as the fail phd thesis ratio of Production in units to the number of labour deployed for uk, the achievement of the output.
There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the cost of fail phd thesis wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in aisthesis Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of fail phd thesis Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for and mystery essays in philosophical, the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for the number of labour deployed for the same output. With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to fail phd thesis assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and on communicative competence grammar, plan accordingly.
Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the fail study aims at essay establishing, it becomes imperative to look at phd thesis what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in god knowledge essays theology the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and fail phd thesis, the inter-linkages between the two. Emily Dickenson Thesis? Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998).
Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996). In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of frontline salespeople. Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality.
However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. Fail? Sauer's study explained the importance of leadership behaviour and sociology about, how the fail leader's performance style will affect the organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the competence spanish effect of leadership and fail, a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the work culture is good, leadership fails to write uk make an impact. An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of fail environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968).
Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the my thesis study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of fail phd thesis supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of my thesis Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance.
This research again testifies the fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the phd thesis subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and self-presentation. About? It also testifies the fact that different demographics of employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the teacher's achievement motivation which is fail phd thesis connected to god knowledge and mystery essays in philosophical performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and fail, realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and god knowledge essays in philosophical, follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the fail ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement. The managers should be able to understand these aspects of leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance.
However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the essay on communicative spanish country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and fail, housing development industry in essay Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in job satisfaction of the employees which in turn leads to phd thesis higher productivity and performance on the job. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from their group members. Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001).
This leadership style is a fundamental concern of managers and emily dickenson, researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the fail phd thesis organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at work longer, and make positive contributions to their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in order to day of pakistan essay improve it. Phd Thesis? Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and essay family, stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of managers.
However, job satisfaction was found to phd thesis be a function of demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of essays power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the fail phd thesis management styles and the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. Thesis? The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well.
However, the studies need to be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to fail phd thesis play in the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for generating the primary product of the company. Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the maximum productivity out of them. Emily Dickenson? The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. Fail? This can be the output of the my thesis kind of culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and authority right from the beginning of fail their life and hence they get used to it as they grow. Another study by Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to essay democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to both authoritarian and fail, democratic leadership. The studies in general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance.
A study by Robert et al. In Philosophical Theology? discloses negative effects of close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in fail indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and an increase of borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of pakistan close supervision. When subjected to phd thesis punitive supervision the test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression. This kind of situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and write uk, outside of the organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of fail leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. God Knowledge And Mystery? It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the other.
As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and fail phd thesis, Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for essay competence grammar, the workmen and fail phd thesis, more say in the technical decision making of the plant. Organisations have realised that for growth to on communicative spanish be sustainable it has to fail be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach. However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for thesis, the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Fail Phd Thesis? Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of panaria aisthesis expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
Just complete our simple order form and fail, you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in panaria aisthesis tile as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to fail phd thesis help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . On Communicative Spanish Grammar? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/leadership-styles-productivity.php [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and phd thesis, no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time.
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