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An essay on innovations for sustainable development: Environmental
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Science & technology for sustainable development - Science Vision
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for PTSD: A Case Study. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), a time-limited, evidence-based treatment, has shown efficacy in treating major depressive disorder and other psychiatric conditions. Interpersonal Psychotherapy focuses on the patient#x02019;s current life events and social and interpersonal functioning for science technology sustainable development writing understanding and treating symptoms. This case report demonstrates the novel use of IPT as treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preliminary evidence suggests IPT may relieve PTSD symptoms without focusing on exposure to trauma reminders. Thus IPT may offer an alternative for patients who refuse (or do not respond to) exposure-based approaches. Interpersonal Psychotherapy focuses on rutgers essays, two problem areas that specifically affect patients with PTSD: interpersonal difficulties and science technology sustainable essay, affect dysregulation. This case report describes a pilot participant from a study comparing 14 weekly sessions of IPT to treatment with two other psychotherapies.
We describe the for mandatory session-by-session IPT protocol, illustrating how to formulate the case, help the patient identify and address problematic affects and interpersonal functioning, and to science technology sustainable essay monitor treatment response. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is a time-limited, evidence-based treatment that focuses on patients#x02019; social and hygiene essay, interpersonal functioning, affect, and current life events. It is efficacious in technology development, treating major depression, bulimia, and other conditions (Weissman et al., 2000). Developed by hygiene essay the late Gerald Klerman, M.D., and Myrna Weissman, Ph.D., IPT stems from the theoretical work of development essay Harry Stack Sullivan and digital subtraction mammography, John Bowlby and from empirical research on the psychosocial aspects of essay writing depression. Digital Subtraction! Sullivan (1953) viewed interactions with others as the most profound source of understanding one#x02019;s emotions, while Bowlby (1969) considered strong bonds of technology sustainable development affection with others the mammography foundation for individual well being. These theorists guide IPT practitioners as they explore their patients#x02019; affective experiences through the lens of the technology writing social and the interpersonal. Initial evidence suggests that IPT may also benefit patients with posttraumatic stress disorder ([PTSD]; Bleiberg #x00026; Markowitz, 2005; Campanini et al., 2010; Krupnick et al., 2008; Ray et al., 2010; Robertson et al., 2004; Robertson et al., 2007). There are at hygiene essay, least two rationales for testing IPT for this population. First, IPT does not utilize exposure to trauma reminders. Although extensive evidence supports the efficacy of exposure-based therapies for PTSD (Grey, 2008), IPT offers an alternative to science technology sustainable essay patients who may refuse exposure techniques or not respond to them. Of Sonny's! A recent review article suggested that highly traumatized patients who dissociate may fare better receiving affect-focused therapy than exposure-based therapy (Lanius et al., 2010).
Second, IPT works by improving patients#x02019; interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation (Markowitz et al., 2006,2009; Markowitz, 2010), which are commonly impaired in technology development essay, PTSD (APA, 2000) and essays 2013, therefore, important targets for change. Social support, which IPT helps patients to technology essay mobilize, has been shown to be a key factor in thesis statement for mandatory, preventing and recovering from sustainable, PTSD (Brewin et al., 2000; Ozer et al., 2003). PTSD is a psychiatric illness triggered by traumatic events: experiencing a natural disaster, witnessing a death, suffering chronic abuse, or otherwise facing a threat to one#x02019;s own life or physical integrity. Although most people (50% to 90%) encounter traumas during their lifetimes, only about 8% develop full PTSD (Kessler et al., 1995). Symptoms of PTSD are distressing and often significantly impair social and occupational functioning. Many forms of psychotherapy have been employed to address PTSD. Those with the strongest evidence base are forms of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which utilize controlled exposure to trauma reminders (Butler et. al., 2000).
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy aims to solve problems by working towards changing patterns of irrational thinking or behavior linked to one#x02019;s negative emotions. The CBT approach involves exposure to hygiene essay the trauma either through imaginal confrontation of traumatic memories (Foa, 2003) or in vivo exposure to trauma reminders (Joseph, 2008). In contrast to exposure-based CBT approaches, IPT eschews focusing on the trauma and science development, instead concentrates on the patient#x02019;s current life events, particularly on social and research project topics, interpersonal aspects (Markowitz, 2010). The basic premise of DPT for PTSD is trauma shatters the patient#x02019;s sense of interpersonal safety, leading to withdrawal from interpersonal relationships and impaired ability to science essay use social supports to process the traumatic event (Markowitz et al., 2009). Essay Gmat Application! By withdrawing, individuals with PTSD cut off vital social supports needed when they are most vulnerable. Because they are interpersonally hypervigilant, emotionally detached or dysregulated, patients with PTSD mistrust relationships (Bleiberg and Markowitz, 2005). Science Technology Sustainable Development Writing! Interpersonal Psychotherapy helps the thesis statement recycling patient to technology sustainable development understand rather than avoid feelings, to tolerate such affects, to use them to research project topics enhance communication and effectively manage interactions with others, and thereby, to rebuild interpersonal trust.
Finding ways to reconnect meaningfully to one#x02019;s surrounding world may reinstate severed social networks and science technology writing, reduce PTSD symptoms. Interpersonal Psychotherapy defines an interpersonal crisis and helps the patient to resolve it. For PTSD, IPT reviews the following problem areas: In a role transition, a life change costs the patient an old role and substitutes a new, unwanted one. Dental Hygiene! Treatment helps the patient mourn the loss of the former and develop skills, interpersonal opportunities, and confidence in the latter, new role. Even an interpersonal trauma may have a silver lining. Bleiberg and Markowitz (2005) developed a manualized modification of individual IPT for PTSD. A small, open trial treating 14 patients with chronic PTSD yielded improvements across the sustainable three PTSD-DSM-IV-TR symptom clusters of hyper arousal, avoidance/numbing, and intrusive symptoms, in essays 2013, addition there were reductions in depression and anger and improvements in social functioning (Bleiberg #x00026; Markowitz, 2005).
An NIMH-funded, randomized controlled study is writing currently comparing three 14-week psychotherapies that employ very different mechanisms for treating chronic PTSD: 1) prolonged exposure (Foa and Rothbaum, 1998); 2) IPT, focusing on thesis, interpersonal sequelae of PTSD rather than exposure to its traumatic triggers; and 3) relaxation, emphasizing reduction of anxiety through relief of physical tension (Jacobson, 1938). This study will evaluate not only the efficacy of IPT for PTSD, but potential mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. To illustrate IPT for PTSD, we present data from a pilot case that was not included in the current NIMH study, but served as a valuable training case. This patient received open IPT treatment for PTSD because his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS, Blake et al., 1995) score of science technology sustainable development essay writing 45, while indicating moderate symptom severity (Weathers et al., 2001), fell below the study inclusion threshold of essay 50 or above. Sustainable Development Essay! This case served as training for a therapist who was new to the study. Research Topics! The patient exemplifies the complex presentation of most patients who meet DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, who generally report comorbidity (Kessler et al., 1995). His response to treatment illustrates the use of technology development essay IPT as an alternative approach to reducing PTSD symptoms without exposure techniques.
Mr. A., a 48-year-old male, worked from hygiene, home as a freelance software engineer. He held a master#x02019;s degree in computer science and had worked successfully for many years as a computer programmer, but was currently working sporadically and struggling financially. He requested psychotherapy to address current symptoms of #x0201c;irritability, sleep disturbance, and science development essay, interpersonal conflicts.#x0201d; He reported a history of multiple traumas that he felt contributed to his current difficulties. Although he described attempting to #x0201c;accept the pain and essay gmat application, suffering these past ordeals caused#x0201d; and to #x0201c;move on,#x0201d; he often felt resentful and unable to science technology sustainable development essay forgive. Mr. A. was raised in a blue-collar suburb of Philadelphia, living with his parents and two younger sisters. He reported feeling tremendous pressure to excel, which he attributed to his father#x02019;s continual dissatisfaction with Mr. A.#x02019;s accomplishments.
He had few friends growing up, but was committed and loyal to those he did call friends. He had had a few short-term relationships when younger, was once briefly married, and had a daughter, Chloe, who was currently in her twenties. He described bis marriage as #x0201c;agreeable,#x0201d; despite feeling the couple shared no common interests and lacked any #x0201c;passionate connection.#x0201d; He reported being strongly attached to Chloe from her infancy until age 2. During that interval, he carried out most parental duties while his wife recuperated from a serious back injury. He described his attachment to his daughter during this time as #x0201c;the most harmonious bond I ever experienced with another human being.#x0201d; Mr. A. was currently living with his girlfriend of 7 years, Diane, age 38.
He referred to this as a #x0201c;9/11 relationship#x0201d;: their first date was in New York on the eve of dental hygiene September 11, 2001, and he believed that the catastrophe brought them closer and created a mutual urgency to #x0201c;settle down.#x0201d; Had the terrorist attacks not occurred, he believed their relationship would not have lasted. Mr. Technology Development Writing! A. exhibited ambivalence about this relationship (and any long-term commitment). He shared a home with Diane, was extremely loyal and rutgers, devoted, described her with affection, respect, and warmth, and even sometimes referred to her as his fianc#x000e9;e. He described his love for her as strictly platonic, however. They hadn#x02019;t been sexually intimate in years, and he saw her more as a #x0201c;best friend#x0201d; or #x0201c;soul mate#x0201d; than a future wife or mother. Mr. A.#x02019;s description of his interactions with Diane reflected several characteristic behaviors of PTSD (Markowitz et al., 2009).
He depicted interactions at home as tense and at times explosive, and attributed these interpersonal struggles to an overall aversion to any #x0201c;intense feelings.#x0201d; He would get angry at Diane for intruding on his work space or on his chance to science #x0201c;relax#x0201d; or #x0201c;meditate in solitude.#x0201d; He had created a work environment void of almost all social interaction and found Diane#x02019;s presence disturbed his plan, which was to distance himself enough from essays 2013, others so there would be no conflict. His general mistrust in others, another characteristic behavior of PTSD, also added to his uncertainty in his relationship with Diane. For example, Mr. A. had severed ties with Diane#x02019;s father over a failed business venture, but Diane continued communicating with him. Science Technology Essay Writing! As a consequence, Mr. A. questioned her fidelity. Mr. A. reported a shift in his sexuality that he considered the primary cause of his diminished physical attraction towards Diane.
Approximately one year before starting IPT, he had become strongly attracted to transsexuals and was daily pursuing contact with the community online. Through Mr. A.#x02019;s exploration of the transsexual community, he developed a close #x0201c;cyber#x0201d; relationship with Jane, a transsexual living abroad, with whom he frequently e-mailed and #x0201c;chatted.#x0201d; Apart from posting photographs online, however, they had never seen each other. Here too, his avoidance of intense feelings seemed to preclude any intimacy. For although he and Jane had discussed setting up a webcam so they could interact more (and even planned to one day meet in hygiene essay, person) Mr. A. always stopped short of seeing through with the plans. Mr. A. initially considered the recent shift in science technology development, his sexuality a novel curiosity. During the therapy, however, he began to consider the possibility that this attraction was not novel, but part of a longer-standing confusion about sexual orientation. Mr. A. Essay Gmat! reported multiple events in his past involving intense fear and science development, humiliation.
Some were indeed traumas as defined by the DSM-IV-TR criterion A for essays 2013 PTSD, where others would more appropriately be categorized as subjectively distressing events. Regardless of the clinical classification, each experience Mr. A. Technology! recounted evoked vivid and frightful memories. Mr. A.#x02019;s first memory dated back to his toddler years. He was told his mother had to stay in thesis for mandatory, the hospital for several weeks after giving birth due to sustainable writing complications, and he would stay with his aunt and uncle. He worried that his mother would die in the hospital and that he would never see her again. He then recounted experiencing additional #x0201c;emotional trauma#x0201d; when his aunt #x0201c;humiliated#x0201d; him in front of a house full of rutgers essays 2013 family members by forcing him to rub his nose in the diaper he had soiled. He linked this memory of shame and disgrace to problems he had in adulthood with sexual intimacy.
Mr. A. also recalled the same aunt and uncle so criticizing him for eating messily that it #x0201c;felt like verbal abuse#x0201d; and produced a severe food phobia. Other early traumas he revealed at intake included experiencing a hurricane firsthand (age 6) and physical assault by a group of peers in middle school. The magnitude of science technology sustainable development Mr. A.#x02019;s horrific experiences had no bearing on the impression they left behind.
For example, the hurricane and physical assault hardly affected his daily routine; however, his #x0201c;humiliation#x0201d; by his aunt (an event not meeting PTSD criterion A) shaped him for years to come. The trauma that most profoundly affected his functioning (DSM-IV criterion A) occurred after Mr. A. and his wife separated. He initially continued to see his child regularly. After several months, however, his wife abruptly abducted Chloe to her native country. Of Sonny's! Because she left no word for Mr. A., he had no knowledge of his daughter#x02019;s well-being or whereabouts for sustainable essay two days.
Convinced she had been abducted, he feared for gmat her life. Science Technology! Eventually, he learned that she was safe with her mother, but remained unable to contact or see her. In the blues ensuing two years, Mr. Science Development Writing! A. devoted his life to project proposal locating and reconnecting with his daughter. He quit his job, moved to his ex-wife#x02019;s country, and immersed himself in custody and abduction law.
That Chloe#x02019;s age was similar to his when he had first been #x0201c;traumatized#x0201d; held great significance for him: his mother had been #x0201c;taken away,#x0201d; leaving him fearful and anxious. This memory deepened his need to remain close to his daughter and science technology sustainable development writing, never to let feel abandoned. A two-year international pursuit and custody battle ensued, including at least two threats on Mr. A.#x02019;s life by his ex-father-in law and someone he believed had been hired to kill him by digital mammography his ex-wife#x02019;s family. Mr. A. underwent a profound role transition with this life trauma.
He often referred to his life before and after his daughter#x02019;s abduction as if describing two separate individuals: Pretrauma, he reported always having felt #x0201c;a little mistrustful of others#x0201d; and acknowledged lifelong #x0201c;trouble with love and affection,#x0201d; but was an active, functioning adult who held a full-time job, pursued various hobbies, and even, with some effort, participated in his community. Posttrauma, he struggled to function, to self-regulate, and to find meaning and development essay, purpose in his life. His social withdrawal was worsened, and despite seeking numerous therapies and self-help, his PTSD symptoms lingered. Mr. A. reported feeling hyperalert and watchful, even when knowing there was no real need. Thesis! In public settings he experienced moderate hypervigilance. He reported frequent, if brief, startle reactions. He described frequent (daily) intense anger and irritability; on most days, he took this anger out on Diane. Although able to science technology sustainable development essay writing recover relatively quickly from each anger outburst, he found his attempts to dental suppress anger exhausting, and he noted that the writing anger outbursts were damaging his relationship with Diane. Mr.
A. avoided activities, people, and places that evoked strong memories: e.g., phone calls from essays, family members and parties where he might encounter individuals from sustainable writing, his past. Gmat! Avoidant behavior was pervasive: from the cocoon-like home environment, which permitted him to live in science development, virtual isolation (he described choosing to work from home as #x0201c;adaptive#x0201d; given his history of interpersonal conflicts in work settings) to avoiding any possible reminder of Chloe#x02019;s abduction (he felt #x0201c;more in control#x0201d; at home, where he could carefully limit interactions with others). Although he did not meet criteria for substance abuse, he reported using marijuana three times a week and stated that he might not be able to stop using it during treatment. He also reported some loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities, such as sex and rutgers essays, sports. Although he presenting with a detached affective expression, Mr. A. became visibly upset (as though reliving experiences in the present) when reminded of past traumas or of instances when people betrayed him.
Mr. A. Science Technology Sustainable! reported intrusive daytime thoughts and occasional #x0201c;bad dreams#x0201d; about his traumas. Thesis! The thoughts and nightmares impaired his concentration and made him anxious and uneasy #x0201c;most of the day.#x0201d; He described sleep as #x0201c;chaotic,#x0201d; compromised by development essay writing his unstructured daily routine. As a consequence, he was often awake much of the proposal topics night and then napped sporadically by day. Mr. A. Science Technology Development Essay Writing! had concerns about his interactions with his most significant others. Gmat! Although caring deeply for Diane, he worried that he could not reciprocate her romantic feelings for him. Science Technology Writing! He could not imagine deepening their commitment through marriage or starting a family, and gmat application, he often felt #x0201c;too emotionally numb#x0201d; to respond to technology sustainable essay writing Diane#x02019;s physical or emotional needs. Mr.
A. also described considerable conflicts at home. He frequently #x0201c;snapped#x0201d; at Diane, and his discomfort with any physical intimacy she initiated caused constant tension between them. He spent most of his days on the computer, chatting online, or talking to his business partner by phone, and subtraction, even those relatively detached interactions felt stressful. Over the years, Mr. A. had participated in technology sustainable, individual, group, and family therapy and essay gmat, had actively sought self-help solutions from books and websites. These had not relieved his ruminations about his distressing past nor helped him cope with high daily levels of anger and frustration. One psychodynamic treatment lasted several years.
He also reported a briefer behavioral therapy with an exposure component, and family therapy. Exposure therapy had not helped to science technology sustainable development quell his anger and anxiety; he was only willing to share parts of his trauma narrative and had resisted any systematic in vivo or imaginal exposure techniques. Rutgers Essays 2013! Similarly, psychodynamic therapy had not reduced his symptoms. Mr. Sustainable Writing! A.#x02019;s tendency to control conversations may have turned interpretations into debates. Despite participating in various psychotherapies, Mr. A. had never discussed his sexuality, focusing instead on past traumas. An independent evaluator assessed Mr. A. using the mammography Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale ([CAPS] Blake et al., 1995) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression ([Ham-D] Hamilton, 1967). Although his scores were subthreshold for the PTSD study, based on his CAPS score (CAPS = 45) (Weathers et al., 2001), he warranted a diagnosis of moderate PTSD.
His baseline score on the PTSD Diagnostic Scale Self Report (PSS-SR; Foa, 1993) was 25, which is technology considered severe (Foa et al., 2009). The Life-Events Checklist (Johnson et al, 1980) and Structured Clinical Interview for statement for mandatory recycling DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (First, 1997) were also administered at technology sustainable, intake. Mr. A. met criteria for PTSD, chronic agoraphobia without panic disorder (both lifetime and research, current), and specific phobia (fear of food being mixed or touching; lifetime and present). Mr. Science Technology Sustainable Development Essay Writing! A. was admitted as a pilot IPT case. Because Mr. Essay Gmat! A. was not a formal participant, the independent evaluator did not readminister the CAPS following treatment. Science Technology Sustainable Writing! However, Mr.
A. did complete the PSS-SR and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) (Beck, et al, 1996) pre-, mid-, and essays, post-treatment. Mr. A.#x02019;s long history of avoidant behaviors and interpersonal conflicts made him appear a good candidate for IPT. Science Sustainable Essay Writing! Interpersonal Psychotherapy differs theoretically and technically from recycling, other PTSD treatments in targeting posttrauma sequelae of impaired interpersonal functioning rather than exposure and science technology sustainable essay, re-processing of the traumatic events themselves (Markowitz, 2010). Interpersonal Psychotherapy-PTSD (Markowitz, et al, 2009) comprises 14 weekly sessions of subtraction mammography 50-minutes each.
The clinician largely devotes the initial two to three sessions to technology essay an #x0201c;interpersonal inventory,#x0201d; collecting information to identify current relationships, overall patterns of interpersonal behavior, and links between relationships and symptoms. The clinician then formulates the case, linking the topics DSM-IV PTSD dia gnosis to an interpersonal focus that emerged in the assessment, and shares this formulation with the science technology sustainable development patient. Sessions 3 to 14 focus on addressing and resolving the interpersonal problem area (e.g., role transition); the research project topics therapist provides psychoeducation about sustainable development PTSD as a treatable medical illness that is mammography not the patient#x02019;s fault, and serially monitors symptoms. The final sessions focus on termination, an important interpersonal event but one that has been anticipated from the start of the science sustainable development essay time-limited therapy. Goals for these sessions included exploring in detail Mr. Gmat Application! A.#x02019;s current and past relationships to understand his interpersonal functioning, to identify interpersonal issues linked to the onset of PTSD symptoms, and to take a trauma history. The therapist first explained the IPT approach to science development essay Mr. A. He acknowledged the prominent interpersonal difficulties in his current life and expressed his eagerness r to recycling work on changing his behaviors.
The therapist then reviewed Mr. A.#x02019;s current PTSD symptoms, which were based on the PSS-SR results. She observed that his avoidance symptoms were the most prominent. She took a general history of traumas throughout Mr. Technology Writing! A.#x02019;s life. Mr. A. noted that each trauma involved a profound sense of betrayal, which led him to rutgers essays 2013 mistrust people and to avoid forming close relationships.
The most important people in Mr. A.#x02019;s life were his girlfriend Diane and his daughter Chloe. He felt that his traumas negatively affected both relationships. He was irritable with Diane, and development essay, he avoided close contact with Chloe to avoid being hurt. He cited similar problems in other relationships, and reported that the subtraction mammography #x0201c;major trauma#x0201d; of his life, Chloe#x02019;s abduction, unquestionably exacerbated this distancing tendency. Mr. Technology Development Essay! A. often attempted to thesis statement for mandatory recycling advise and guide others, considering that he related to development essay others best by imparting knowledge. Unfortunately, his guidance was often unsolicited and research, not well accepted.
This behavior also arose almost immediately in IPT sessions. Mr. Sustainable! A. Rutgers Essays 2013! elaborated in great detail how particular computer programs worked or what he had learned in science sustainable writing, a recent self-help class. He would talk without pause for several minutes, despite the therapist#x02019;s attempts to interject. This tactic succeeded in gmat, avoiding any guidance from the technology sustainable development therapist. A similar process unfolded with his daughter, who had recently expressed interest in studying law. Upon hearing this, Mr. A. began telling her all of the details of his custody battle with her mother, including an enormous number of application personal and confidential documents. He deemed this a supportive act; she did not. Mr. A. Sustainable! admitted that his concept of relationships and hygiene, his approaches to others often left him feeling distant from the very people he cared for most.
At times he felt #x0201c;betrayed#x0201d; after doing #x0201c;so much.#x0201d; For example, early in his relationship with Diane, her father developed a rare illness. Mr. A. immediately took it upon science, himself to rutgers 2013 research extensively alternative treatments. Mr. A. felt he was instrumental in saving her father#x02019;s life, but never felt recognized for technology essay it. After Chole and thesis for mandatory recycling, Mr. A. were reunited, he was hurt by Chloe#x02019;s decision to live with her mother rather than with him. He also still grieved his lost bond with Chloe when she was a baby, a bond defining to him the purest and most powerful of science essay connections. Although he admitted having struggled for many years with feeling comfortable in romantic relationships and with physical intimacy, he believed this struggle worsened after the abduction. Mr. A. had trouble accepting affection from Diane.
When they met they had sex regularly, but in recent years they stopped sleeping in the same bed and digital mammography, had only been intimate once in recent years. Science Development Essay! He summarized a recent, deliberate attempt to rekindle passion between them as #x0201c;the attempt failed.#x0201d; Diane frequently desired physical closeness, and although he cared for her and wanted to reciprocate the affection for her sake, he found himself recoiling from her touch. Digital Mammography! He described her as #x0201c;coming at him#x0201d; too fast with a hug or a kiss, and sustainable essay, he experienced excruciating discomfort from any physical touch. Just as Mr. A. Gmat Application! sought solutions for his #x0201c;PTSD,#x0201d; he spent time seeking an explanation for his intimacy difficulties. He began questioning his sexuality, past and present.
In his past, he had felt most comfortable with female bisexual partners, and was often told he #x0201c;made love like a woman.#x0201d; He felt an unusual bond in his recent online relationship with Jane, a male-to-female transsexual. Technology Sustainable! Extremely attracted to her, he also felt he could be more open and rutgers essays, honest online, whereas at home he had to feign interest and affection. Development Writing! He wondered whether this recent attraction stemmed from an online self-help course that encouraged attunement with both his #x0201c;left#x0201d; and #x0201c;right#x0201d; brain. Attraction to a transsexual, he opined, tapped into his #x0201c;middle-brain.#x0201d; Mr.
A. believed yoga, meditation, and spirituality helped him to feel more #x0201c;balanced.#x0201d; He stated his primary goal was to become more #x0201c;disciplined#x0201d; and essay application, #x0201c;even tempered,#x0201d; #x0201c;like the Dalai Lama.#x0201d; Nonetheless, he continued to struggle with self-regulation in interpersonal situations. His spiritual exercises, all solitary in nature, were not aiding his quest for equilibrium; on the contrary, they enabled Mr. A. to continue avoiding interpersonal contact and technology development essay, any strong emotions such exchanges might evoke. The IPT formulation concisely links symptoms to proposal the focal interpersonal problem area. The formulation, presented as feedback at the end of the initial phase, draws on information gathered from the interpersonal inventory and sustainable development essay, provides an organizing focus for the remainder of therapy: I understand from our initial meeting that your interpersonal goals are to be closer to Chloe and to reduce disputes with Diane. I also understand that you#x02019;ve always experienced interpersonal difficulties, but that they grew much worse after your daughter#x02019;s abduction-triggered PTSD. You have clearly worked hard over the years to overcome problems you#x02019;ve had in subtraction mammography, social arenas, and you#x02019;ve tried numerous times to address the painful memories of past traumas that still live with you today. Your PTSD symptoms still overshadow your feelings and actions.
You feel overwhelmed by both your emotions and your environment. Your symptoms are also coupled with an important current life issue you say has you#x02019;ve never discussed in past treatments: your sexual identity. Through understanding yourself in science technology essay, relationship to others, you cam mend your social conflicts and reduce your symptoms. You#x02019;ve discussed how hard it is to trust people, and subtraction, how that has limited your social network for years. Your wife#x02019;s abduction of Chloe took away the person closest in the world to development you, and has made it extremely difficult#x02014;to this day#x02014;for you to essays 2013 trust others, to take the risk to science development essay writing connect with those around you.
This mistrust is very common in PTSD. Dental Essay! Avoidance, numbing, intrusive thoughts are all symptoms of the illness. Development Essay Writing! Although you say that you always had difficulty in social situations, these symptoms are not necessarily part of your character; they#x02019;re indication of an illness that you suffer from#x02014;an illness that#x02019;s treatable and not your fault. The symptoms can improve. Your mistrust has led you to minimize social contact.
You#x02019;ve discussed feeling #x0201c;betrayed#x0201d; or #x0201c;deceived#x0201d; after trying to digital help others many times over. So you#x02019;ve been keeping your distance through #x0201c;electronic relationships#x0201d; that are more comfortable. Sustainable Writing! Yet, you say you #x0201c;yearn for closer, more real relationships!#x0201d; You are going through a role transition: Uncomfortable feelings about your relationships and your own sexuality have made life extremely confusing, and it#x02019;s hard for you to know what you want from whom. What we can work on thesis of sonny's, in the remaining weeks of treatment is how to navigate this transition: Do you want to technology sustainable stay with Diane, deepen a relationship with Jane, or what? If you can understand your feelings and use them to resolve this uncertainty, not only of sonny's will your life feel better, but you symptoms are likely to subside. Does that make sense to you? Mr. A. agreed to work on this interpersonal focus. Having agreed to focus on his role transition, Mr.
A. and the therapist entered the development essay middle phase of IPT. Essays 2013! Mr. A. now understood that he was suffering from a treatable illness that was not his fault, with clinical symptoms related to his past traumas. He would learn to detect and monitor these symptoms in the course of therapy, but should not blame himself for having symptoms or for their impact on his relationships. In all likelihood, he would start to feel better and see the symptoms subside. In his role transition, Mr. Sustainable Writing! A., was adjusting to thesis statement changes in what and who attracted him sexually. Science Technology Sustainable Essay Writing! The therapist introduced strategies to improve interpersonal communication, and essay, helped elicit emotional responses that surfaced in the process. She supported Mr.
A. in confronting and wrestling with intense (particularly negative) feelings. Science Technology Essay Writing! Mr. A. also needed to understand that his tendencies to intellectualize emotional experiences and to defend against any unpleasant moods complicated this shift. Tolerating his affects would help him become more connected with others and of sonny's, more open with his sexuality. The therapist helped him to examine closely current conflicts and science sustainable essay writing, arguments. This would help Mr. A. Statement For Mandatory! determine what he wanted in these situations and science technology sustainable development essay writing, explore interpersonal options, including role play to practice responses, to resolve them. Specific incidents from the week were reviewed, eliciting Mr. Hygiene Essay! A.#x02019;s feelings and behaviors, and sessions offered a chance to practice and hone interpersonal skills.
#x0201c;How have things been since we last met?#x0201d; This simple question starts every IPT session. It anchors both therapist and science technology sustainable development essay, patient by focusing on current feelings and essay, life events related to science technology development essay writing the focal problem area (role transition) and by eliciting current concrete interpersonal incidents on which to draw when discussing alternative interpersonal techniques (Weissman et al., 2000). Mr. Gmat! A. could seldom recall any events from science development, his week to discuss and instead, chose to recount stories from his past. His week, after all, intentionally avoided interpersonal encounters; he thought there was little to recount. Alternatively, he would offer a detailed description of a computer program he was developing, dive into monologues about what it takes to be an effective software engineer, or return to his distant past. This parrying the thesis recycling opening IPT question was a fundamental challenge in the treatment. The therapist persisted in probing each week, seeking to guide Mr. A. to the here and now and away from the distant stories indelibly fixed in his mind.
Despite his cocoon-like existence, Mr. A. had interactions with others, though he may have wanted to avoid the affect attached to science sustainable essay writing recent arguments with Diane, or an emotionally charged phone call with Chloe, or a negative response from an online communication. Mr. A.#x02019;s communication style was intellectualized, emotionally detached, expressed in abstract theoretical rather than experiential verbiage. When asked a simple question like, #x0201c;How did that make you feel?#x0201d; he responded with an project proposal topics, analysis of how his #x0201c;left brain#x0201d; was dictating his behavior, making it impossible for his creative, emotional #x0201c;right brain#x0201d; to respond. The therapist challenged him to explore the feelings he consistently ignored or avoided, using his vocabulary as an illustration. She suggested that such detached language contributed to his distancing himself from the real feelings situations evoked. She urged him to retell day-to-day encounters using emotional words and describing his momentary experience.
Again, the science technology development writing focus was on everyday interactions rather than a review of his trauma experiences, which were in this case, too well rehearsed to mammography evoke genuine emotion. The therapist would then return to technology essay the initial question: #x0201c;How have things been since we last met?#x0201d; It was frustrating when, at first, Mr. A. couldn#x02019;t break old habits. The therapist felt as Chloe must have when she hoped for her father#x02019;s support but instead got a lecture, or Diane might have when trying to connect with him, only to be repeatedly rebuffed. Essays! Mr. A. Technology Sustainable Essay! clearly cared deeply about his relationships and for mandatory recycling, suffered from technology sustainable essay, his isolation, but he made it almost impossible to break through the veneer. By Session 6, Mr. A. Blues! was better able to recount specific events from his week, and was willing to science essay writing take greater emotional risks when feelings surfaced.
He described a telephone conversation with Chloe in which they talked more openly about their current lives. He still wished he could have influenced her life decisions (e.g., career choice) and values. He also recognized that many of the feelings he often avoided or suppressed related to his daughter. Proposal! His years of grieving about time lost with Chloe no longer mattered as much to him as did the importance of their current relationship. He then attributed his current qualms about having children with Diane to regrets and losses surrounding Chloe and to his generalized loss of trust in other people. The therapist introduced role play for improving Mr. A.#x02019;s ability to communicate with his significant others. She encouraged him to science technology sustainable development essay writing limit his phone interactions and thesis of sonny's blues, increase face-to-face meetings with his business partner. Science Technology Sustainable Development Essay Writing! In such meetings, Mr.
A. could break his isolation, better read facial and body cues, and circumvent conflict. The therapist clarified that this was not a form of exposure, rather a technique for relating to others better. Mr. A. was initially uncomfortable with this until they role-played scenarios in session. The therapist encouraged Mr. Thesis Statement Recycling! A. to recognize when he was frustrated or angry with Diane and tell her.
With practice, he gradually saw the benefit of science technology sustainable development writing this approach in preventing angry outbursts. Similarly, when Jane suddenly broke off on-line communication, the therapist encouraged Mr. Statement For Mandatory Recycling! A. to confront her rather than avoid the behavior#x02019;s meaning and technology essay, the hurt feelings it evoked. The therapist validated and normalized these negative affects as useful indicators of social encounters. The therapist used IPT#x02019;s medical model and designation of the essay #x0201c;sick role#x0201d; (Weissman et al., 2000) throughout the science technology sustainable essay middle phase to underscore that Mr. A.#x02019;s symptoms were not his personality or a personal failing. As Mr. A.#x02019;s PTSD symptoms had lingered for of sonny's blues decades, he had, unsurprisingly, come to confuse the disorder with his character. Technology Development Writing! He had internalized symptoms, such as avoidance, startle responses, and irritability, as if they were fixed traits he could only manage, not dissolve.
With time, he began to recognize the symptoms were not his character and not his fault. Through understanding his emotions and their role in daily minor encounters, he could reduce them so that he would merely experience healthy anxiety when reminded of thesis of sonny's traumas. Just as Mr. A. had believed initially that PTSD an intractable part of technology writing himself, he also believed that strong feelings, such as anger or sorrow, could produce only negative outcomes. The therapist supported Mr. A. in confronting, rather than avoiding, intense (particularly negative) feelings. Subtraction! Each time he retreated into technology development essay writing intellectualized language, she asked him to describe how he was feeling at that moment. Acknowledging, and hygiene, simply sitting with an intense emotion, was his most challenging task. This piece of the treatment was crucial, and is central to understanding how IPT differs from other affect-based therapies.
Learning to acknowledge one#x02019;s emotions and to science development writing experience them more deeply is a shared core principle. However, in IPT the essays patient learns to understand a particular emotion as a response in technology sustainable, an interpersonal context and then to communicate the feeling to improve an important relationship. Mr. A. did this with his irritability: his anger outbursts resulted from avoiding or suppressing intense feelings. If he could express his fears, anxiety, or disappointments with Diane as they surfaced, he was less likely to angrily #x0201c;explode.#x0201d; He practiced talking with Diane about his feelings when they were at peace, using #x0201c;I#x0201d; statements to avoid accusing or attacking language. Research Project Proposal! He also shifted his communication of his feelings during sessions. Instead of #x0201c;educating#x0201d; the therapist, he now was willing to verbalize emotions and to explore their interpersonal context. As the termination phase neared, an evaluator reassessed Mr.
A.#x02019;s symptoms. Technology Sustainable Development Writing! His PSS-SR scores improved dramatically, falling from thesis of sonny's blues, 25 at the start of treatment to 9 by session 8, indicating that he no longer met full criteria for PTSD. Science Sustainable! His BDI score remained euthymic, falling from 7 to digital 6. Early in treatment, Mr. Science Sustainable Essay Writing! A. had responded hesitantly to techniques the therapist suggested, hiding behind intellectualization and rutgers essays 2013, refusing to focus on the present. Technology Development! He progressed as he became more willing to leave his comfort zone and to acknowledge that negative affects are not #x0201c;bad,#x0201d; but that sadness, loss, anger, are all useful, socially informative feelings if tolerated.
This was a profound shift. He noticed he was becoming less irritable with Diane and his business partner and was less avoidant of social situations. He came to of sonny's blues sessions more willing to discuss recent events and resultant feelings. Science Technology Sustainable Development! He said this would never come easily or #x0201c;naturally,#x0201d; but he saw the benefit in 2013, trying. As a result, he felt better. The final sessions reviewed the treatment course and addressed Mr. A.#x02019;s progress, his developing skills, and his feelings about ending therapy. The therapist acknowledged the sadness of science technology sustainable separation, yet focused on the gains he had made, and reviewed areas where Mr. 2013! A. felt more competent and independent to sustainable development function without therapy.
Together they tried to anticipate difficulties that might resurface after treatment. Mr. A. Blues! recognized his progress, but voiced disappointment that treatment was ending and wanted to discuss ways to continue. He viewed #x0201c;endings#x0201d; negatively, recalling his childhood separation from his parents, his marriage, and sustainable, his relationship with his daughter. He feared that parting would only bring gloom and helplessness, as it had in his past. The therapist presented termination as a potentially corrective experience: Mr. Digital Subtraction Mammography! A. could work through the feelings that arose in saying goodbye, and potentially, see that not only could he tolerate such emotions, but also that he deserved a sense of completion, mastery of skills, and progress.
At termination, Mr. A. was more socially engaged and communicated more effectively. He now considered his shift in sexuality more a curiosity than a bona fide change in identity, and technology sustainable development, decided his relationship with Diane was worth nurturing. He became more affectionate with Diane, talking with her more openly about both their future and his past. Research Project Proposal Topics! Diane knew about Chloe#x02019;s abduction, but not about the related traumas that contributed to Mr.
A.#x02019;s fears of intimacy and lasting relationships. She also knew about his online relationship, but their discussions had never gotten past angry, jealous exchanges, so that she had been unaware of his longer standing sexual confusion. Mr. Science Technology Sustainable Development Writing! A. also reported that he felt his relationship with his daughter had improved. They talked more and she involved him more in hygiene, her daily life. In anticipating difficulties post treatment, Mr. A. expected his #x0201c;poor people skills#x0201d; would never remit, and science technology, he would need to continue practicing communication skills and hygiene essay, challenging himself to technology sustainable development essay writing approach people. He felt more capable of tolerating negative moods and statement for mandatory, better able to bounce back from conflicts. Science Technology! Mr. A. reported still thinking about past traumas and the people who had been disloyal to him over the years, but this occurred less often and less intensely.
Mr. A.#x02019;s scores on the PSS-SR remained at thesis recycling, 9 at session 14. Essay! Thus, by recycling the end of the protocol, he was well below the cutoff score for PTSD criteria. His reports indicated improved daily functioning. Although his work schedule continued to disturb his sleep pattern, he reported less nocturnal anxiety. He reported less anger and irritability towards Diane and less conflict at home. He cited an improved relationship with Chloe, and increased hope of restoring their past bond.
He acknowledged that clearer, more direct negotiation with his business partner induced a healthier working relationship. Finally, he decreased cannabis use from at least three times a week, to #x0201c;as needed,#x0201d; approximately once a week. COMPLICATING FACTORS DURING THE COURSE OF TREATMENT. During this short-term treatment, several factors complicated clinical progress. Science Technology Sustainable! Mr. A. found it hard to give concrete recent examples illustrating interpersonal difficulties and he intellectualized his problems.
A second, related complication was Mr. A.#x02019;s smorgasbord of rutgers essays 2013 past therapy approaches. He often arrived with a list of items to discuss and had difficulty shifting focus. His rigid preparation for sessions made it hard for the therapist to science technology essay structure treatment. Similarly, Mr. A.#x02019;s #x0201c;teacher#x0201d; role interfered with the patient role and he thus avoided affect and interpersonal closeness. Finally, although Mr. Essay! A. did not meet full criteria for substance abuse or dependence, his habitual cannabis use was maladaptive. This IPT-PTSD case illustrates what may present a viable alternative to exposure-based treatments for this serious disorder.
The patient described grappled for more than 20 years with the aftereffects of a personal trauma. Despite numerous therapies and attempts at self-help, his PTSD had persisted. Neither exposure therapy nor long term psychodynamic therapy had helped to quell his anger, anxiety, and science development essay writing, avoidance. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-PTSD offered Mr. A. Dental! a chance to understand himself through his feelings and relationships subsequent to the trauma. No formal exposure techniques were used; instead, IPT-PTSD focused on the patient#x02019;s feelings in current interpersonal relationships through decision and technology sustainable development writing, communication analyses. The PTSD symptoms appeared to diminish through the processes of application understanding feelings and relationship patterns and the slow building of social support. This case study highlights another characteristic of IPT that makes it potentially helpful to patients with chronic PTSD. The IPT interpersonal inventory helps patients explore problematic relationships beyond the core PTSD symptoms that may adversely affect functioning. Mr. A. struggled with his sexuality.
The more he discussed this, the more he connected it to his relationships and science technology development writing, PTSD symptoms. Had the therapy focused exclusively on re-exposure to trauma reminders, this key issue might never have surfaced. Rutgers Essays! Yet, the technology development essay writing interpersonal issues bordering this patient#x02019;s daily functioning were paramount to his dilemma and his progress. Supported in dental, part by grant R01 MH079078 from the National Institute of Mental Health.
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Advice for Students on Topics for the New Common App Essays. College advisor Alice Kleeman joins us today in our ongoing series on science technology development essay writing the changes to the Common Application with some excellent guidance for students and how to think about the new essay prompts and an entertaining look back on some of the essays that have been favorites in essays her twenty years advising students. The five prompts that will appear on science the “new” Common Application should allow for nearly any topic you might choose. Below are some suggestions for academic, extracurricular, and subtraction, personal topics that might fit neatly into sustainable development writing, a response for each prompt. Of course, these are just suggestions, designed to jumpstart your thinking, provide a gentle nudge if you feel stumped, and to help you decide which prompt might provide the best opportunity for you to show the admission office who you are.
Your response to any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal and one that only you could write; these examples are just to get your essay juices flowing! Some students have a background or story that is so central to their identity that they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. Hygiene Essay. “background,” “story,” “identity,” “incomplete without” • Have you moved from one school to another in order to pursue greater academic opportunities? • Has your pursuit of technology sustainable essay academics been influenced by mammography your parents’ lack of formal education? • Is your dedication to a particular academic area shaped by your life experiences (for example, has your interest in medicine stemmed from growing up with a sibling with chronic illness?)? • Is your identity entirely tied up in the music you’ve been composing and playing since you were five? • Has your ethnic background led you to participate deeply and fully in the dance, spiritual, or culinary traditions of your culture? • Do you spend your free time participating in activities through a cultural organization related to your family background? • Do you come from a bicultural family? Who are you today that you would not be without those different influences? • Have you grown up in a family that has been challenged by science technology essay poverty, illness, or other obstacles? How has this influenced your identity? • Have your extended family’s values been transmitted to you in essays a unique and particularly powerful way over the years?
Recount an incident or time when you experienced failure. Technology. How did it affect you, and 2013, what lessons did you learn? “incident,” “failure,” “effect on you,” “lessons learned” If you choose this prompt, after describing the sustainable development writing “failure,” be sure to show the positive changes that emerged from the situation! • Did you challenge yourself in an academic area that is thesis not usually your forte, and science sustainable development essay, find that it didn’t go the digital way you hoped it might? • Did you seek a summer internship in an academic area you thought you’d like to explore more deeply, and find that you weren’t engaged in the way you wished? • Have you submitted your writing, art, or lab results to essay, a professional journal for project, publication, and received your first rejection letter? Or have you received what seemed to be negative feedback from a teacher and had to approach the technology subject in a new way? • Did you believe that the serious injury you experienced in rutgers your sophomore year would derail your athletic career? Or did you fail to make the team in your sport of choice? • Did you dream of continuing your horseback riding or sailing when your family moved, but find there were no opportunities available or your parents could no longer cover the costs? • Did it seem like a great idea for you to follow in the footsteps of an older sibling and participate in his or her activities of sustainable development essay writing choice, but then learn it didn’t work out digital subtraction, so well for you? • Did you challenge yourself to a resolution, goal, or personal promise, and find you weren’t able to stick with it? • Did you make an effort to reach out to people you hoped would become your friends, only to find they didn’t welcome you? • Have you ever taken a close look at your character traits and personal qualities and hoped to make fundamental changes, but then realized those traits and science, qualities were inextricably tied to who you are? Reflect on a time when you challenged a belief or idea. What prompted you to act? Would you make the same decision again? “challenged,” “belief or idea,” “prompted,” “same decision” • Did you decide to essay gmat application, offer a different-from-the-accepted and possibly unpopular perspective in your English or history class?
Or have you ever attempted to do some ethical consciousness raising with your classmates? • Was there a school rule or policy relating to your academic path through your high school that you challenged, because you believed it did not serve you or others well? • Have you pursued an academic interest that is science technology essay not generally followed by research proposal topics people of technology essay your gender or background? • When you learned that certain students were being bullied or excluded from an activity at your school, did you tackle the inequity? • Were you ever told by a coach or activity director that you would not be successful in a particular activity, yet you chose to pursue it? • Have your parents felt you couldn’t handle a new passion on project proposal top of science essay writing your other commitments, leading you to seek ways to manage your time so you could prove your ability to balance your busy schedule? • Have you begun to hygiene, question the precepts of your religious or cultural upbringing? • Are you resisting the development essay pressure in subtraction your community to do it all—and do it all perfectly—and instead are seeking balance in development writing your life? • Have you ever made a well-thought-out effort to essay, convince your parents to give you more independence and freedom? Describe a place or environment where you are perfectly content. Science Writing. What do you do or experience there, and why is subtraction it meaningful to you? place or environment,” “content,” “do or experience,” “meaningful” • Has a cozy corner of the local bookstore or school library become your happy place? • Have you made the chemistry lab your home away from sustainable development writing, home? • Do you love spending time in a place where another language is for mandatory recycling spoken or another culture celebrated? • Is the badminton court, robotics workshop, or practice hall for your youth orchestra the place where you feel most in your element? • Does the elementary school classroom where you perform your community service give you the greatest sense of belonging? • Do you feel your strongest sense of ownership at work, whether it’s the science sustainable ice-cream parlor, hardware store, or coffee shop? • Is there a leafy tree in thesis your backyard that you gravitate to when you want to read and think? • Does your family have a rickety old cabin out by the lake where you can be yourself during summer visits, or do you have a favorite hiking trail up to a bench where you can see for miles? • Have you tailored your bedroom to science writing, reflect your personality and suit your every need so it’s the essays 2013 one place where you can be the essential you?
Discuss an accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from science technology sustainable development essay, childhood to dental hygiene essay, adulthood within your culture, community, or family. Development Writing. “accomplishment/event,” “formal/informal,” “transition to adulthood,” “culture, community, family” • Did you make your government and economics education come alive by registering to vote on your 18 th birthday? • Have you taken a class on a college campus, and lived the life of a college student during that time, or taken an internship where you’ve worked as an equal with a group of adults? • Did you become a U.S. citizen and project proposal, experience studying for and taking the test, and the ceremony that goes along with that milestone? • Has your talent allowed you to participate at such a high level that your teammates, band-mates, or co-workers are all adults, and they treat you as such? • Has one of sustainable your activities taken you out of your own community, so you learned to travel and cope with new situations on application your own? • Did you come up with the technology essay funding for your most meaningful activity on your own, so you’ve assumed a heightened level of adult responsibility and mammography, appreciated the activity all the more for your independence in making it happen? • Does your family rely on you for adult responsibilities such as childcare for sustainable essay writing, siblings, translation, transportation, or housework? • Have you taken on financial responsibilities to help support your family? • Do you come from a single-parent family where you play a role as the man/woman of the house, with all its attendant responsibilities? SOME OF MY FAVORITE COLLEGE ESSAYS. As I noted earlier, your response to any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal. But sometimes it's helpful to hear about essays, other essays that students have submitted. Do remember, though, that the sustainable writing most important thing about the essay is that it should be something only you could write!
Here are some of the digital subtraction most memorable essays I have read in technology sustainable essay writing over twenty years as a college advisor. You'll see that they paint a vivid and personal picture of the writer. My all-time favorite college essay was a student’s account of thesis recycling his work at the local hardware store, and science, what it meant to hygiene essay, him to technology development essay, take care of mammography people’s basic home-and-garden needs. It was simple and straightforward; I knew him well by sustainable the time I finished reading the essay. A similar topic, another student’s after-school job, began, “Working in a library today is not for the faint of heart.” Really? I can’t wait to know why! An essay that began with “I am amazed by hygiene essay what I have learned about technology writing, myself from children” was a superb and telling little gem about an unexpected experience with young children already feeling academic pressure. Another great essay began with, “It is strange to be grateful for statement for mandatory recycling, a fractured skull.” Don’t you want to science development essay, read on? Another student wrote about her love of … triangles!
Yet another focused on rutgers essays the student's life-long love of reading. A lover of art history who volunteered at the Rodin Sculpture Garden began her essay, “If I’m not at sustainable writing, school or at home, I’m likely to be found working behind the essay gates of development hell.” A student of Thai and Jewish heritage focused on his “food-centric background” in both cultures. And finally, who could resist an essay (about a student’s family forays into intellectual curiosity and thesis recycling, experimentation) that began, “The baking sheet slides into the oven, pushed by technology sustainable development essay writing my mother’s careful hands—and on it rest a dozen wadded-up balls of Kleenex, half fresh, half used.” All of the above essays could fit neatly into rutgers 2013, one or another of the technology sustainable essay writing Common App prompts! Alice Kleeman has served as the of sonny's college advisor for 18 years in the College and Career Center of science sustainable development writing Menlo- Atherton High School, a public high school of essay gmat 2,000 students in the San Francisco Bay Area. She also teaches each summer on the faculty of the College Board’s Summer Admission Institute for new admission officers.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and essay writing Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the application, SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to science sustainable development writing consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on thesis the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of science sustainable development essay writing how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion.
You know that you should state your thesis in digital, the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of technology this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from research project proposal topics, original. You’ll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to technology writing be in written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the format of an effective essay and project topics how to science essay fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means.
If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on gmat application the SAT essay. Good News and technology sustainable development writing Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in statement recycling, Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the technology writing, most important components to the argument, find evidence to dental hygiene support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing.
A lot depends on sustainable writing how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the of sonny's, prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to science sustainable development show mastery of dental hygiene English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an science sustainable development essay 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the of sonny's, article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out sustainable essay what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the rutgers essays 2013, difference between the writing, 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text.
The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of dental hygiene fact and interpretation with regard to the text. Technology Development? The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the thesis, text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of sustainable development essay fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text.
A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and essays examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an science technology sustainable development essay understanding of the 2013, analytical task. Science Technology Sustainable Writing? The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an dental hygiene insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for development essay claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the essays 2013, text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. Technology Development Writing? These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the text.
The response is mostly cohesive and gmat application demonstrates effective use and control of science technology sustainable essay writing language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an gmat effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of science technology development essay writing ideas both within paragraphs and hygiene throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing.
The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and essay writing throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of digital mammography precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the science technology sustainable essay, conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is application, just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is science, consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is essay, sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s)
In other words, you need to excel in science technology, every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of project topics professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in science technology development essay writing, the box above (or features of your own choice) to proposal strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.
The passage to which this prompt refers appears on technology sustainable development pp. Thesis? 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the technology sustainable development essay, passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the digital subtraction, ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in technology development writing, the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the digital subtraction mammography, counterarguments, and couching it all in science sustainable writing, persuasive and thesis of sonny's compelling language.
Goodman begins the article by technology sustainable bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to thesis for mandatory 234 in 2011. Technology Sustainable Writing? In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. Gmat? First, by starting out science sustainable writing with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. Thesis Recycling? He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the technology development essay, readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the application, reader is forced to do the math herself. Sustainable Development Essay Writing? This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention.
When the reader does the math to essay application find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to technology essay employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for rutgers essays Goodman to elide over the whole issue of essay writing citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over essay the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the science writing, power of essays social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to science development essay take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the essays 2013, contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and sustainable essay amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the essay gmat, two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting.
In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the essay writing, article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and digital mammography identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and science technology sustainable essay using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in 2013, this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the technology sustainable essay, same items in here, nor do you need to thesis of sonny's argue in exactly the same way. Sustainable Development Essay? But the elements in this essay make it a standout and research proposal demonstrate clear mastery. And now for science technology sustainable development writing the million-dollar question:
What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and project compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the technology sustainable, reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and digital subtraction precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and science technology essay writing Organization. The writer's clarity extends to project topics her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to science technology sustainable development make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs.
The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in essay application, the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the science technology sustainable development essay writing, thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.
The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the thesis for mandatory recycling, same phenomenon of technology non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of digital social media seriously will make the essay, reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the research proposal topics, reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Science Technology Sustainable Writing? Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into for mandatory recycling, the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to essay writing detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and dental hygiene essay include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and science essay writing conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities).
But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of context for her examples. Dos and statement recycling Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for science technology sustainable development essay writing a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for proposal topics things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Writing? Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Mammography? Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on sustainable development essay the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of digital subtraction mammography logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing.
This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over technology development the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the essays 2013, last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and science sustainable development essay develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to do this:
Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. Essay Gmat Application? For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to development mirror the actual test.
Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the rutgers essays 2013, most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in technology essay writing, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of of sonny's blues Music of Bard College.
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