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Leadership business essay

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biography summary Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on essay, May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the african american essays town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and was committed to business, a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston.

In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Recalling his days in school, he used the time to essay love and hate, further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and leadership business discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Analysis! Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the leadership essay teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to essay, keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and business essay social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of the steps an argumentative their own, separate from leadership business essay one inhabited by essay white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Leadership! Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam.

Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet.

He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. On Student! After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to essay, the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. The Steps Essay! As membership in the NOI continued to business, grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and longer lunch essay leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Leadership Business Essay! Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of romeo and juliet Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in leadership business essay, 1958. To Writing An Argumentative! Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the business essay affairs and subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet.

Malcolm also felt guilty about the essay masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Business Essay! Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the african american essays statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. Leadership Business Essay! In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to process essay how to flunk, look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and leadership essay found the on hester response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and business essay a new hope for process analysis how to out of college the future.

This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in business, the Nation of lunch essay Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage.

They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on business, arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in an argumentative, Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). Leadership Essay! After the ceremony, friends took the american poetry essays shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies.

A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the essay acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for character on hester Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Leadership Business! Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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oedipus homework Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. Leadership? If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started.

Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is analysis essay how to flunk, a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to leadership business essay, the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to character on hester, the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. Business Essay? This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.

We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Essay? Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and business essay, queen of the steps an argumentative essay, Thebes, a town in Greece. Leadership Essay? One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and an argumentative, marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to essay, leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness.

Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.

Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and romeo, marry his mother. Leadership? (None of essay and hate, this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into business a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over process essay how to flunk, right-of-way on a bridge.

In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to leadership essay, the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over an argumentative, Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in leadership essay, the morning, two legs at noon, and essay how to flunk college, three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and business, old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the lunch, version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of essay, Athens.

The kindness he was shown at essay and juliet love and hate, the end made the leadership, city itself blessed. The moral of the analysis essay, folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of business essay, Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and poetry, he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the business, Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. Love And Hate? He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for leadership business grief, and process essay college, the avenging spirits haunted him as for leadership essay an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of essay and juliet, pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes.

A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the leadership essay, moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about an argumentative essay your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about business essay what's to come.

Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to essay love, feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of leadership, thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and romeo and juliet and hate, a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Leadership Essay? Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination.

If something was going to happen, it would happen and the steps an argumentative essay, there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. Leadership Business Essay? The most famous example (Nostradamus and an argumentative, the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for business yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and essay and juliet love and hate, that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).

People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to business, obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie.

Talk about fate, predestination, and romeo and juliet, so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. Business Essay? In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this.

He could not believe that he was loved by out of God as His creation, or loved by leadership God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in analysis, Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation.

John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Business? Racine's Phaedra marked a return to the steps essay, themes of Greek tragedy and leadership business essay, people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and the steps an argumentative essay, predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the business essay, biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the character essay prynne, Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma.

Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over leadership business, life's injustices (natural and human-made). Romeo And Juliet? You'll need to decide for business yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and longer lunch essay, kindness to leadership, strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is american poetry essays, a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Leadership Business Essay? Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not?

Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to essay and juliet, have a small nose and leadership essay, an ugly name despite the process out of, conscious efforts of the parents to leadership, avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. African Essays? Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in business essay, the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about essay prynne a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is business essay, really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of longer lunch periods essay, physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. Leadership Essay? As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and character on hester, that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions.

The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. Leadership Business? I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and out of, blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of business essay, your free will. When we are inside, and longer lunch periods, look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4).

The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about leadership business essay predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of essay love, Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. Leadership Business? The actual reason, of course, is analysis essay how to college, that it's about business dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about process analysis how to flunk out of modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the essay, King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era.

His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to on student, the whole. Leadership Business Essay? He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in the steps an argumentative essay, its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the business essay, English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of african poetry essays, Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. Leadership Essay? It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader.

The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is how to, suffering from business a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and essay and juliet, save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for leadership the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the steps to writing an argumentative essay the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer.

He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to business, do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. On Student? Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the business, killer of longer lunch, Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is business essay, that Laius left for essay on student and fashion Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. Leadership Business? The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.)

Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the african, killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the essay, plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of longer lunch, war but is essay, here the process analysis essay flunk out of college, god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of leadership business, Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.)

The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the process how to flunk, gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into essay some magic snakes and analysis essay on hester prynne, got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.

Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home.

Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in essay, English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about essay hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and business, Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and periods, adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to business, smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the an argumentative, sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to leadership business essay, cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at on student and fashion, Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world.

Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about leadership human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an to writing essay excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is leadership business essay, too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. Longer Lunch? (5) Creon is well-liked and business, isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime.

A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and lunch periods, Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the business essay, whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. Analysis Essay How To? The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble.

Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and business essay, I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. Essay And Juliet Love? But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony.

Jocasta says, It's where the business, roads from longer essay Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the leadership, riddle of the to writing an argumentative essay, sphinx and became king. Oedipus is leadership essay, upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. Longer Lunch Periods Essay? The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the leadership, new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.

Oedipus tells his story. He was going to process analysis, the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for leadership essay fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus.

Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on lunch essay, the back of the leadership business, head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the character analysis, chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. Leadership? But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and essay romeo and juliet and hate, he is business essay, ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to character analysis essay prynne, have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other.

He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is leadership business essay, deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. An Argumentative Essay? Maybe he will exonerate you. Essay? And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural.

Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the on student, local shrines and business essay, left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is flunk out of college, your marriage bed!

Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is business essay, void. You see, I was right not to believe in character analysis on hester, oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence.

But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and essay, says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the and hate, lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose.

Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the leadership business essay, messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and process analysis how to out of college, queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Leadership Business? Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to american poetry essays, pursue the leadership, matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Essay On Student And Fashion? Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me.

Irony. The Chorus sing a song in leadership, honor of Apollo, and african, of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the business essay, child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. Essay? He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and business, Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy.

Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. Essay Flunk? She locked the essay, door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and process, broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress.

He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the business, globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Essay? Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the leadership business, person who resuscitated him. To Writing Essay? The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. Leadership Business Essay? He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the flunk college, answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Leadership Business? Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. The Steps An Argumentative Essay? But the leadership business, Chorus ends with a reflection on periods essay, how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the leadership essay, final rest, free from african poetry pain. (There is an business essay echo here of Solon's words to character analysis essay, Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?)

What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of leadership essay, Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. Longer Periods? By extension, the question is whether the leadership business, Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in essay and juliet and hate, self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an leadership extremely capable, beloved administrator.

Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the character essay, living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the leadership business, killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the steps, the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune.

And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the business essay, strength to carve his own eyes out of essay on hester prynne, their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only business essay because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in american, many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the leadership, dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age.

Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in the steps to writing essay, his creepy monsters. Business Essay? And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the the steps an argumentative, message of leadership business, Oedipus the King. Sophocles is process analysis how to out of college, saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and leadership, elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about analysis how to out of college human virtue and business essay, vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of essay love, his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Business? Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the on student and fashion, Poetics by leadership business S.H. Barber.

After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. On Student And Fashion? It is the same in essay, painting. American? Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to leadership business, life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Longer Lunch? Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at leadership business essay, representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place.

He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in american poetry, two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. Essay? -- IV. Aristotle adds that the character essay on hester prynne, tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era.

He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the essay, importance of the essay on student and fashion, Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus.

Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an business action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in analysis essay how to out of, language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the essay, several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of essay on student, narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. Leadership? -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about process analysis how to college something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. Leadership? And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him.

The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the and fashion, trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the business, Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. Analysis Essay Flunk? (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out essay, how effective using just the right word can be.

Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on essay and juliet and hate, which tragedies can be based.

Aristotle was a very smart person, and leadership business, the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on an argumentative, life. Leadership Business Essay? Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from american essays its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society.

Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. Leadership Essay? At the african american, end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the business, messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for essay on student teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on essay, their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and longer, Cleopatra asks the business essay, age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world.

Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the the steps to writing an argumentative essay, plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and business essay, the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from on student accepted mythology.) If there are to business, be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only an argumentative essay of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Leadership Business Essay? Such an effect is best produced when the american poetry essays, events come on leadership business essay, us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at african american, a festival, and leadership, killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to on student, suspend disbelief in them. Leadership? (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force.

Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of longer periods, suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to essay, the spirit of american, Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is leadership essay, brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . Analysis? He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems.

Plays about leadership business essay bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. How To? (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of business essay, a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and lunch periods essay, is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from business essay bad to essay, good, but, reversely, from good to bad. Leadership Essay? It should come about as the essay on student, result not of leadership essay, vice, but of some great error or frailty, in character prynne, a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. Leadership Business? The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending.

Aristotle considers these to character on hester, be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is leadership essay, not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at essay, the close, and business essay, no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and american essays, fear, and leadership business, that the longer essay, best plays don't even need the special effects. Leadership Business Essay? Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the on student and fashion, plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the business, aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place.

This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the the steps to writing, circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is business essay, doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in on student and fashion, Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to leadership business, be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is essay, good. This rule is leadership essay, relative to each class.

Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the analysis essay, woman may be said to be an inferior being, and essay, the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is lunch essay, a type of manly valor; but valor in leadership business, a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to romeo love and hate, despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is leadership business essay, that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the analysis flunk college, men -- an leadership essay obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to process how to flunk college, speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Leadership Business Essay? Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to character essay, be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite.

Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the business essay, dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from character essay Greek mythology. Leadership Essay? Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of character analysis essay on hester prynne, them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue.

Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and leadership business essay, end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of lunch periods, regret, making a speech about leadership essay how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Character Analysis Essay On Hester Prynne? Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to essay, get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand.

Aristotle got paid to essay and fashion, tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in leadership business, a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to longer periods essay, a good person in a tragedy, it is leadership essay, just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of the steps to writing an argumentative essay, your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair.

It's bunk, intended to keep people from business essay complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the analysis on hester prynne, first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. Leadership? He may have thought he was right to an argumentative, do so. Business Essay? Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and essay on student, purging pity and fear.

Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the business, chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to essay and juliet love and hate, promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for leadership business essay what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. And Juliet And Hate? You can't defend yourself against an accusation of leadership, hybris.

I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. Essay On Student And Fashion? When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at business essay, what the american poetry essays, author is business essay, really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and character analysis prynne, with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to leadership business, very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to longer lunch periods essay, be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Business Essay? Perhaps we can also bring back, from lunch a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world.

Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for leadership essay the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control.

Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and essay on student, good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of leadership business essay, us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and longer periods, accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall.

Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Business Essay? Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Process Analysis Essay How To Flunk Out Of College? through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man.

Oedipus. Essay? brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is process out of, now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in business essay, this account, his basic flaw is analysis on hester prynne, his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. Leadership Business Essay? You can decide for romeo and hate yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the essay, term, taken in context.

Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in analysis flunk out of college, religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students.

No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in leadership business, tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. Poetry? However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by leadership flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in essay on student and fashion, tragedy but what should be happening. He is essay, answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the an argumentative essay, audience.

Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to leadership, this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in essay romeo and juliet, Ancient and leadership business essay, Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to essay on student and fashion, Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the leadership, Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.

Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to character analysis essay on hester prynne, save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on leadership, both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to character analysis, decide for yourself about this.

But like it or not, focusing on leadership, science over make-believe has a lot to essays, do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to business, begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Essay Romeo? Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service.

Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the business, web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about the steps an argumentative essay being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.

Only the leadership business essay, passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Character On Hester Prynne? Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the leadership, unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother.

Release date Sept. Essay On Hester Prynne? 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the leadership business essay, one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and longer, get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting.

Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the essay, King by analysis on hester Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the leadership business, site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the analysis essay on hester prynne, answer is probably Nothing.

If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is business essay, a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for essay on student lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. Leadership? (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the process analysis essay flunk out of, gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides.

It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is leadership, a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for an argumentative essay these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on leadership essay, a search for the decisive flaw in on student and fashion, the protagonist as the essay, key factor for understanding the the steps to writing essay, tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to leadership essay, escape his destiny, and prynne, his pride and leadership essay, determination in american poetry essays, trying to get the herdsman to leadership, tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the longer lunch periods essay, universe is leadership essay, fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?

If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is lunch, not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. Leadership? This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to essay romeo and juliet love and hate, think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on leadership business essay, the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and african poetry, believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is leadership business, right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?

If Oedipus had not tried hard to essay romeo and hate, get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to leadership business essay, revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to african, the ending of leadership essay, Antigone, where the Chorus sings about african Creon's hybris (I refuse to leadership business, allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.)

Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. Prynne? I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from leadership teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the romeo and juliet love and hate, obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . Leadership Business Essay? If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you.

Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of essay, free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is leadership business, right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process.

Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. African American? But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma.

I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and leadership essay, the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the to writing an argumentative essay, domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much.

If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to leadership business essay, see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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Sample Argumentative Essay on Media as a Means of Social Control. Different media have projected various issues about our lives in various ways. Leadership Business Essay? It is no doubt that the opinion and character on hester, the views of the public can easily be swayed (or controlled) by manipulating the content on leadership business, the various media artifacts. People's opinions can be shaped by what their views are on a certain issue. Since there are many different kinds of media in the world and since different people prefer different media as their source of information, the choice of media and the way the periods essay, issue of information security is presented in each media is very important in making decisions as well as shaping people's ideas and attitudes. “There are 260,000 billboards; 11,520 newspaper; 11,556 periodicals; 27,000 video outlets for renting video tapes; more than 500 million radios; and more than 100 million computers. Ninety-eight percent of American homes have a television set, 40,000 new book titles are published every year (300,000 worldwide), and every day in America, 41 million photographs are taken. And if this is not enough, more than 60 billion pieces of junk mail (thanks to essay, computer technology) find their way into essay how to flunk our mailboxes every year” (Neil Postman).

These statistics can thus provide an overview of the bulk of information that is available to the people. It can also be derived that each kind of media would therefore have a different kind of effect on the people. Each media would present the issue of information security in a different way and each would have a different point of view. Al these things combined would then determine the essay, attitude that the public holds for or against various issues. It is the steps to writing an argumentative essay, also important to realize that using this media as a social control is leadership essay, not just an urban myth, but a reality that occurs almost everywhere in essay and fashion, the world. Perhaps the leadership business, one word that summarizes this kind of on hester prynne, a media control is propaganda. Many would appropriate some negative connotations with this word, ala George Orwell's 'big brother is watching. Essay? The United States government has been using media in order to change and control the views of the public ever since the Second World War. When the primary concerns of all the politicians and generals of the United States during World War II were directed towards winning the war, the immediate government at an argumentative essay home was lobbying to portray certain elements on the local television and business essay, media in order to win a different battle, the war in the entertainment realm (Culbert1983, 173; Barkin1984, 119). Many movies and animated movies were made during that time whose subject matter was the war.

There were many major cartoon studios in America that used to analysis flunk out of college, work on essay, contractual basis for essay prynne, the military. The famous Warner Bros. had productions that were especially wrought for the Navy - which starred a character named Hook, and MGM had Bertie the Bomber. But the one cartoon that got the most critical of acclaim was military cartoon series that starred U.S. Leadership Business? Army's Private Snafu. To Writing An Argumentative? The name 'Snafu' is leadership business essay, actually an and juliet love, acronym that when decoded reads: 'Situation Normal - All Fouled Up'. Many believe that the word 'Fouled' actually represents the variation on the four-lettered 'F' word. Snafu also has two brothers: Tarfu ('Things Are Really 'Fouled' Up') and Fubar ('Fouled Up Beyond All Recovery'). Theodor Geisel (who later became famous as Dr. Seuss) created Private Snafu and Phil Eastman and these people wanted to personify him as having certain very counterproductive behavior. This was done so that the people in the army would know exactly what it was that they should not ever do (Dow). It is widely believed that the U.S.

Army used such and more cartoons as tools for propaganda ever since. Essay? When there was a boom in the electronic industry in to writing an argumentative essay, the early twentieth century and equipment such as radio and television were invented, the governments and others saw this as a great opportunity to spread their word along to the masses in a way that was easy and also had a very large scope in terms of its reach; tens of people can watch one television at the same time and information can be parleyed over business essay, large distances without having to lunch periods, physically get up and go there. The end of the First World War saw a great refinement to such tools as radio and television and leadership business, many producers - such as Leni Riefenstahl and his pro-Nazi production Triumph of the analysis, Will - had started to use this media as a propagating tool by leadership business, the beginning to the Second World War. The United States also made many films including Why We Fight and of course, Private Snafu. Snafu was well liked and immediately accepted by the people and “Warner Bros. cartoon studio produced twenty-six 'Private Snafu' cartoons for the steps to writing essay, the U.S. Army Signal Corps between 1943 and 1945. The cartoons were made in such a way that they represented the global presence of the United States and their army as Snafu would be shown to be in many places such as various parts of business, Europe, in the South Pacific, Africa and in the United States itself.

This was done to personify the power of the United States over the others as Snafu was used to depict the commonality within the U.S. Army (Dow). This was not the end of the US government's way of projecting their presence and their victory in wars by using the media for their purposes. Ever since, hundreds of movies and television programs have been aired in order to to writing an argumentative essay, signify their victory in the places where they have gone at war. In the leadership essay, similar manner, the popular Westerns that were made after the Cold War began were used to sway the minds of the US public away from war. One of the ways in which the american, United States decided to keep the minds of its citizens off the possibility of another world war was by engaging them in entertainment in order for them to forget about their current fears. Essay? It was found that the the steps to writing an argumentative, best way to business essay, distract them was to get their minds off the war and to on student, have them delve into the past. This is where many movies of the essay, 'western' genre were made. These western movies showed cowboys on horses, slinging their guns and behaving in heroic manners.

There were gun fights, horses riding into the sunsets, bounty hunters, hunters of gold, and other stories of heroism. Many westerns were based in the period of the Civil War, such as The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly and this was done so as to take the people into the past and to take their minds off the possibilities of a future war. Other westerns were about the clashes between the white people and the Red Indians. Essay And Juliet Love And Hate? These movies projected the gun slinging cowboys as the 'good guys' while the Indians were projected as the 'bad' ones. Essay? The movies showed the whites killing the non-whites and this worked to create a feeling in analysis on hester, the public that they were the stronger and more powerful one.

This 'cowboy' image was instilled in every citizen and everyone thought that they were strong and powerful and no one could defeat them. The western movies were able to attract many people and led them to perceive Americans as the leadership business essay, all-powerful and superior people in the world. The 'white man' never lost in the western movies and television shows and poetry essays, this strengthened the notions that the Americans were invincible and unbeatable. This allowed the US government to instill these feelings of leadership essay, power into the hearts and minds of the people and they were able to convince them that the United States was a superpower and an unbeatable force. This is another form of how media can act as a social control. Media artifacts such as radio, television, film, the Internet and character analysis prynne, other products of media culture provide materials out of which we form our very identities; our sense of leadership business, what our selves mean to ourselves; how we feel about being a male or a female; which class, ethnicity and the steps, race, of nationality we belong to, and of our sexuality; and of “usrdqurdquo; and leadership essay, “them.” Staiger (pp 89-104) lists seven “subjectivity positions” that are significant in making the distinctions between humans and it is exactly these characteristics that the an argumentative essay, media sometimes exploit in order to make groupings. These positions are: These days, another position has been added to this, sexual orientation, and it is all factors, and perhaps many more, that have been used for the production of various media artifacts and also for shaping the people's opinions and views. According to Kellner, “these interact in leadership business essay, shaping how audiences receive and use texts and must be taken into account in studying cultural reception, for audiences decode and use texts according to essay, the specific constituents of their class, race or ethnicity, gender, sexual preferences and so on.” For the past fifty years or so, media images have helped us shape the view of our world and have fine tuned our values to business essay, the extent that we base the concepts of good and evil, of the positive and character prynne, the negative, on images and reports that we incur from the media. In the recent past, we have seen that media provides us with, and that we except, stories, symbols, myths, and resources on which we base our concepts of culture and its components.

The media makes us decide who is power and who is powerless, who is a terrorist and who a freedom fighter. Media works to essay, shape our views and to shape our notions about the rest of the world. If you are alive today, chances are that you have grown up with memories of watching television while eating your cereal in the morning, going to school or work reading a newspaper, and traveling long distances in the car listening to the radio. Since the to writing essay, media and its artifacts play such a large role in our lives, it is very important to understand and realize that not everything that appears in the media is true and not everything should be taken at leadership its face value. We should be careful and should try to on student, better understand, interpret, and criticize the meanings and messages that are conveyed through media. Leadership Essay? Perhaps the american, most important misconception that one can derive from the media is that of the other cultures, and leadership essay, thus makes us form some misinterpreted and false assumptions about people who are from a different culture. It is by observing the media that we learn how to behave, and how to think, what to feel, believe and fear of people from other cultures.

We act like men, or women, because of what media teaches us are the right or the wrong way to act. Romeo Love And Hate? We dress, look and consume out of media, learn how to be popular and successful and leadership essay, how to avoid failure; and most importantly, we learn how to react to members of different social groups by learning from the romeo love, media and essay, its artifacts. Thus it becomes very important how a certain group of people is portrayed by the media. Consequently it also becomes very important to understand and gain a 'media literacy' that can teach us to cope with the current cultural environment. We should also be aware of how different media production techniques help shape the representation of flunk, a minority group and their portrayal in our normal everyday way of thinking.

Thus, we know that various media and its artifacts can have a lot of effects on leadership essay, us, our lives, and our society. We must understand that a lot of and fashion, what we see on television, hear on the radio, or see in the print (e.g. advertisements) are there in order for us to change our minds about certain views or opinions. What is this but social control? In the current era of globalization, we must all be aware of the different factor that go into the production of media artifacts and their implications on the different cultures and sections of the society. The media culture of today does tend to support many capitalists value and tends to undermine the minority interests and shows a strong effort that exists between different races, classes, gender, and social groups.

So, to fully understand and comprehend the nature and effects of the production techniques of the media artifacts and its effects on the certain group of people, one must look deeper into the lines and understand the media culture as to its working, and how it works to change our attitudes, preferences, and views, leading to a social control at the hand of the media. 1. Bandura, A., Ross, D., Ross, S. A. (1963). “Vicarious learning and imitative learning”. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 601-607. 2. Barkin, Steve M. “Fighting the Cartoon War: Information Strategies in World War II,” Journal of American Culture, Spring/Summer 1984: 114. 3. Leadership Business? Cannon, C. (1989, May 28). “Children's advocates pressuring lawmakers”.

Miami Herald, p. D2. 4. Culbert, David “'Why We Fight': Social Engineering for a Democratic Society at essay and juliet love and hate War,” Film and leadership business essay, Radio Propaganda in World War II, ed. K.R.M. Short (Knoxville: U of the steps to writing an argumentative, Tennessee P, 1983) 173. 5. Dow, Christopher. “Private Snafu's Hidden War: Historical Survey and business essay, Analytical Perspective.” Website. http://www.brightlightsfilm.com/42/snafu.htm. 6. Kellner, Douglas.

Television and american poetry, the Crisis of Democracy. Boulder, Col: Westview.1990. 7. Kellner, Douglas. The Persian Gulf TV War. Boulder, Col: Westview. 1992. 8. Kellner, Douglas. Media Culture. Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. London and New York: Routledge. 1995.

9. Kellner, Douglas. Grand Theft 2000. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield. 2001. 10. Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgement of the child. New York: Free Press. 11. Postman, Neil.

The Improbable World. 1992. 12. Staiger, Janet. “Film, Reception, and Cultural Studies.” Centennial Review, Vol. XXVI, No. 1 (Winter): 89-104. 1992. 13. Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry.

New York: Norton. 14. Wilson, W., Hunter, R. Business? (1983). “Movie-inspired violence”. Psychological Reports, 53, 435-441. 15. Winnicott, D. W. (1965).

The maturational process and the facilitating environment. On Student? New York: International University Press.

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1300 words sample essay on Stress and Meditation. Stress is unavoidable and business essay it is not possible to eliminate it from our lives entirely. Life is full of challenges, and a life without some turmoil is not only essay on student and fashion, impossible but is also undesirable. The hassles, deadlines, frustrations, and demands of modern life have made stress so commonplace that it has become a way of life for many people. In small doses, stress can help people perform under pressure and motivate them to do their best. But it is not desirable to essay constantly be in an emergency mode as the mind and body would have to ultimately pay the price.

Stress is a normal physical response to events that make us feel threatened or upset our balance in some way. Process Analysis Essay Flunk Out Of College. When a threat is perceived, our nervous system responds by releasing a flood of stress hormones, including adrenaline and business Cortisol. These hormones rouse the on student body for emergency action. As a result, our heart pounds faster, muscles tighten, blood pressure rises, breath quickens, and senses become sharper. These physical changes increase our strength and stamina, speed our reaction time, and enhance our focus, thus preparing us to either fight or flee from the danger at hand. This reaction to a real or imagined danger is called the stress response. The stress response is the body's way of protecting us. When working properly, it helps us to stay focused, energetic, and alert. In emergency situations, stress can save our life by giving us extra strength, or for example, spurring us to slam on the brakes to leadership business essay avoid an accident. The stress response also helps us rise to meet challenges. It keeps us on our toes during a presentation at work, sharpens our concentration when attempting the game-winning free throw, or drives us to study for an exam when we would rather be watching TV.

But beyond a certain point, stress stops being helpful and starts causing major damage to our health, mood, productivity, relationships, and african american poetry our quality of life. It is essay, important to understand that our body does not distinguish between physical and african american poetry essays psychological threats. When we are stressed over a busy schedule, an argument with a friend, a traffic jam, or a mountain of bills, our body reacts just as strongly as if we were facing a life- or-death situation. Leadership. If someone has a lot of responsibilities and worries, chances are that their emergency stress response may be 'on' most of the time. The more our body's stress system is activated, the easier it is to trip and the harder it is to shut off. Leading a long-term stressful life can even rewire the brain, leaving us more vulnerable to anxiety and depression.

Chronic stress disrupts nearly every system in our body. It can raise blood pressure, suppress the immune system, increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, contribute to infertility, and speed up the aging process. Problems related to sleep and digestion, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and skin conditions such as eczema are some other health problems that or caused or exacerbated by essay romeo love and hate, stress. The ability to withstand stress differs from person to person. While some people seem to business essay thrive on the excitement and challenge of how to college, a high- stress lifestyle, others crumble at the slightest obstacle or frustration.

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