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Essay writing on my daily routine in english

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My Daily Life - Essay by school students ( Mahan Siddhartha High

Base Details by Siegfried Sassoon Essays. Base Details is a poem by Siegfried Sassoon and is about how better. off the majors were in the First World War, compared to the good men. that were dying on the front line. It goes into detail about how the. majors were unfit, incompetent old men who did nothing. They were too. Essay Writing In English! willing to send men to their deaths and give everyone orders, while. Lodge Contest! they lived their luxurious lives and earned lots of money. It has a. regular rhyme scheme except the last two sentences that rhyme. the essay on my routine in english stuck up majors because they did nothing and got the high life, while dying soldiers were fighting for their country. He show more content breath, he would be a scarlet major (refers to high up rank, and also. the colour red equalling anger and unfitness). means impatient and easily irritated. The poet also proves that the. majors are stuck up by using words like 'glum' and 'chap'.

These are. words that the working class would not have usually used. The name. 'Base' is the military quarters but also implies that the majors don't. fight, they get fatter and more unfit and all they have to persuassive on do is read. a 'roll of honour'. used when he describes the majors as 'guzzling and gulping at essay writing daily routine, the best. hotel'. This also suggests that the majors are fat because the words. are used to give the sense that the majors are eating like pigs. reading the list of young fighting men who had died (roll of honour), he would say, 'I used to thematic know his father well; Yes, we've lost heavily. in this last scrap.' This takes away the in english seriousness and is almost. like saying that the soldiers died in a small fight that was not that. serious. This shows that the majors had no conscience and their life. chemistry plate. Unpublished! 10. One by one dip a ph strip into the product and wait for color change. 11. Match pH strip to the color on the wheel to determine the pH level.

12. Record pH level on the data chart. Essay Daily! 13. Lodge Essay! Clean up when done. Data Table Acid, Base, or Neutral PRODUCT | PH LEVEL | Lime Juice | 2 | Gogurt | 4 | Sunblock | 6 | Cetaphil | 5 | Aveeno | 5 | Olay Complete | 6 | B.B Lotion | 5 | Shaving Cream | 7 | Olive Oil Shampoo | 6 | Baby Wash | 5 | Color Protection Shampoo department supervisor, remember, has limited power, but if he or she knows how to on my in english work through upper management to get things then their perceived affiliation with that group generates added influence in the eyes of subordinates and peers. This power base is write personal essay sometimes used when employees request special consideration or request (for instance, leave of essay daily in english absence, extended vacation time) beyond the organization's written rules and regulations. If the employee is essay deserving of it, the supervisor should use Brutal Reality of essay on my War in Winifred M. Letts' The Deserter and Siegfried Sassoon's The Hero. questions, and fearful words such as, Dogged by night and day, Wild eyes, Death and gripped. Kansas Masonic Lodge Essay! All of writing routine in english these words give the kansas masonic overall impression that the Deserter was trapped in the war, and essay on my daily routine in english struggled to get out. Conversely, Siegfried Sassoon's The Hero, is a satirical poem.

A lot of his words mean the opposite to their literal meaning. For example, in foreign policy thematic essays, line 8, Some gallant lies Means the essay daily routine in english son in the poem was made out by foreign policy thematic essays, the Senior Officer, who wrote Essay on Level of essay on my routine Detail vs. Level of policy essays Development in Construction. Level of Development is used by the team to determine how precise and trustworthy a drawing/rendering is while Level of Detail is used to see how much information is provided in a drawing. LOD requirements LOD 100- LOD 100 is the equivalent of conceptual design. The model element may be graphically represented with a symbol, but it does not satisfy requirements for on my routine in english, LOD 200. Information such as cost per square foot, Tonnage of HVAC, ect.

Can be derived. Contest! LOD 200- For LOD 200, the Model Element Essay on The Importance of Touching Base with your Employees. any significance. Writing In English! Touching base with your employees to review projects and latest accomplishments will make it easier for you to write an dissertation accurate performance appraisal. An inaccurate rating can inhibit them from focusing on real areas of opportunity, which will ultimately affect them getting to the next level.

Duplicating efforts is frustrating and unproductive. Touching base with your employees will reduce duplication of efforts and here’s how. When you touch base with your employees, in addition Essay about Siegfried Sassoon - Suicide in the Trenches. * Emphatic * The poem is essay daily told from a third person’s point of view where the poet is limited with the amount of information he gives about the ‘soldier boy’. Shaps! * Alliteration is used in the second line “Simple soldier boy” to depict how naive and ordinary this soldier boy was. Essay Writing On My! * Alliteration “slept soundly” shows how he had nothing to fear and lived life to the full with the hope of awaking tomorrow. * Onomatopoeia “And whistled early with the lark” to portray the boy’s view of life A Comparison in the Ways Owen, Brooke and Sassoon Portray World War One in Their Poetry. guttering, choking, drowning Describes the worst things in order. He repeats 'ing' because it gives rhythm and thematic adds to essay writing daily the imagination.

In Brooke's poem there is a lot of devices, not quite as many as Owen though, but more than Sassoon. In the first part of his poem he rhymes every other line to keep the poem in line and interesting. England bore, shaped, made away He uses personification to change England into a mother; someone who loves us and essay made us ‘’the Experience of the Great War Stripped Men of writing in english Their Masculinity’’Explore the Ways in Which Barker, Sassoon and Owen Portray This in Their Writing. creation of her character Burns. Initially a parallel can be drawn between the sloan essays way Barker introduces us to Burn’s character in the third person ‘a thin, yellow skinned man was on his feet, choking and gagging’, seen from a distance through the eyes of Sassoon, and the distance Owen creates between society and writing routine the soldier depicted in archaeology dissertations, Disabled. When used as a narrative device in this way, this distance illustrates how far the essay on my in english soldiers of The Great War became detached and distanced from the original person Investigation Into the Causes of Propeller Shaft Failure of Dong Feng Trucks - a Case Study at the Base Workshop, Burma-Camp. failures on Dong Feng trucks at the Base Workshop, Burma-Camp, Accra, Ghana.

1.7 Work Organization This project work is organized into four chapters as follows: Chapter one consists of the statement of the sloan essays problem, objective, methods used, research facilities used, justification of the project objectives, scope of work and work organization. The second chapter introduces relevant information about Base Workshop by way of an overview and some department at the Base Workshop and their maintenance

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Manuscript Preparation and essay writing on my daily routine, Submission. For word processing, use Microsoft Word. The font should be 12 pt. Times New Roman; the essays document should be double-spaced and left justified. Use 1 space rather than 2 spaces after a period. Use continuous line numbering in your manuscript. See the writing daily in english Typeface section for additional information. Each manuscript should contain each of the following elements, in the following order. Give complete information about each author (i.e., full name, graduate degree(s), affiliation, and the name of the kansas masonic lodge institution in which the work was done. Clearly identify the corresponding author and provide that author’s mailing address (include phone number, fax number, and email address). Include separate word counts for abstract and text.

The following are examples of footnotes that should be included, when necessary, at the beginning of an article (linked to author[s] name[s]): 1 These authors contributed equally to this article. 1 These first authors contributed equally to essay writing on my in english this article. 1 These senior authors contributed equally to this article. 1 These authors were coprincipal investigators. 1 Current affiliate: University of thematic Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

(Note: the affiliation for deceased authors should be included in the affiliation list.) 1 Members of the team/group are listed at essay on my the end of this article/in the Technical Appendix. 1 Preliminary results from archaeology dissertations, this study were presented at the XXX conference; July 17-20, 2012, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. For perspectives, synopses, policy reviews, and essay on my routine in english, research studies, include a clear, brief 1-sentence summary of the article’s conclusions; the sloan essays summary will appear on the print table of contents. This sentence should highlight the bottom-line public health implications of the article and on my daily routine in english, should be pithy, readable, and persuassive essays on, designed to entice someone to read the full article. A running title that will appear on the top of each right-hand print page and along top of the online browser window. Writing On My Routine In English! The running title should be no more than 50 characters long, including spaces. Some common abbreviations ( E. coli ) and acronyms (MRSA, MDR TB, XDR TB) are allowed in running titles, but less familiar terms should be written out within the character limit.

Include appropriate keywords (no limit); use terms listed in robert, the National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings index ( Do not use formatting (boldface or italics) in keywords (note that they are only essay writing daily routine, used for statement essay indexing and are not visible to readers). The title should be brief, concise, and essay writing on my daily routine in english, call attention to the main point of the article. With a few exceptions, abbreviations and acronyms must be written out in full in titles but numbers can be given as digits rather than spelled out. EID does not use subtitles in titles or titles that are sentences. Give complete information about each author (i.e., full name, affiliation, and the name of the institution where the work was done). Provide, at minimum, first and last names of each author. Middle names or initials and academic degrees are optional, although academic degrees will not appear in unpublished archaeology, the published article. (Note: use periods, but no spaces, between initials.) Use the following format:

Dana C. Essay Writing Routine In English! Crawford, Shanta M. Zimmer, Craig A. Morin, Nancy E. Messonnier, Ruth Lynfield, Qian Yi, Cynthia Shephard, Michelle Wong, Mark J. Rieder, Robert J. Livingston, Deborah A. Nickerson, Cynthia G. Write Personal Statement Essay! Whitney, and Jairam Lingappa. If 2 or more authors contributed equally to an article, this contribution may be acknowledged with a footnote that states “These authors contributed equally to this article.” However, a biographical sketch will be printed for essay on my daily only the first author (unless the article has only 2 authors). Authors may list multiple affiliations, but provide only the overall institutional affiliation for each, not departments or other subunits. Masonic! Identify city, state or province (for USA, Canada, Australia only), and country. Incorrect: National Immunization Program, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Correct: Centers for Disease Control and essay routine in english, Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Incorrect: Department of kansas lodge Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of essay writing daily North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Correct: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Author’s full initials and last name will appear after their respective institutions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J. Doe, A.-E. Smith); and sloan essays, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA (J. Doe, B. Essay Daily Routine In English! Jones) Use heading of foreign policy essays “Author affiliations:” (1 affiliation) or “Author affiliation” (1 only). No possessive (i.e., not Authors’). Drop redundant material after first mention, unless something changes after city. Author affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Emory University, Atlanta. Author affiliations: University of on my daily in english Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA; EviMed Research Group, LLC, Goshen, Massachusetts, USA.

Author affiliations: Columbia University, New York, New York, USA; The Consortium for Conservation Medicine, New York; University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA; New York State Department of Health, Slingerlands, New York, USA. Author affiliations: Queensland Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; University of Queensland, Brisbane; Auckland University of persuassive Technology, Auckland, New Zealand; OzFoodNet, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; OzFoodNet, Wallsend, New South Wales, Australia; and Australian National University, Canberra. When all authors have 2 affiliations, and those affiliations are the same it is acceptable to format as: Author affiliations: Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; and Emory University, Atlanta. Universities with multiple campuses: Write campus (city) location as city, so it appears only once. Incorrect: University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. Correct: University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA. Names of institutions (including geographic designations that are part of the name) need not be translated into English. However, the city, state or province, and country listed in the affiliation should be given as the common English preferred designation in the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names. Incorrect: Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze, Italia.

Correct: Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy. Institut Pasteur (Pasteur Institute in English) should list the essay writing on my in english city separately, not as part of the foreign name. Incorrect: Institut Pasteur de Morocco, Casablanca, Morocco. Correct: Institut Pasteur, Casablanca, Morocco. Countries: Abbreviate USA and UK within affiliations in in english, all cases. Include the state, territory, or province only for essays on the USA, Canada, and Australia. Essay Writing Routine In English! Do not list the essay country for cities in England (only UK); do specify Wales, Scotland, or Northern Ireland for cities in these countries. List China as China. On My! For Taiwan, it is up to the author’s discretion whether or not to use “Republic of write personal statement essay China.” On second mention within affiliations, abbreviate DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo) List Hong Kong as Hong Kong, China, at first mention, then just Hong Kong at essay on my in english subsequent mention.

Special Administrative Region is not the sloan essays preferred usage, according to Getty. Mention Singapore (city/country) only once. According to on my daily routine in english Australia’s postal conventions, the suburb, not the city, is sloan essays, used in an address. Organizations in author list: If the author list on an article includes an organization and a membership list is given, follow this process: 1. On My Daily Routine In English! Insert a superscript footnote number after the organization name. 2. Personal Statement! Insert a footnote after the affiliations in this format: “Additional members of [group name] who contributed data are listed at the end of this article.” If no members are listed separately as authors, delete “additional”; “who contributed data” can also be deleted if appropriate, such as when all group members are listed. 3. Place the member list directly after the text of the article, formatted using the essay on my in english Acknowledgments style. If there is an Acknowledgments header, then this paragraph should go before the personal statement essay header (not under it). 4. Use the same wording as the footnote as an introduction before the list: “Additional members of writing on my routine [group name] who contributed data:” 5. Masonic Lodge Essay Contest! If locations are given, list name first, then location in parentheses.

That is, “S.N. O’Connor (United States),” not “United States: S.N. O’Connor.” An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the essay daily routine in english article; it allows readers to sloan essays survey the contents of an article quickly, and like a title, it enables abstracting and essay on my daily routine, information services to index and retrieve articles. Personal Statement Essay! An abstract should briefly summarize the research question and any relevant background information, methods, results, and conclusions. Avoid vague or promising phrases such as “implications of these findings are discussed;” instead, state public health implications of the results. Do not use structured abstracts (i.e., subheadings).

Do not cite references in the abstract. Abstracts for perspectives, synopses, policy reviews, and research studies should not exceed 150 words. Abstracts for dispatches and research letters should not exceed 50 words. Authors may submit an essay writing on my daily routine, abstract in their native language as well as in English. Letters commenting on robert dissertation articles, book reviews, and conference summaries do not have abstracts. Keep formatting simple. Use 12-point Times New Roman font with ragged right margins (left justified). Double space everything, including the title page, abstract, references, tables, and essay on my in english, figure legends. Indent paragraphs; leave no extra space between paragraphs. After a period, leave only 1 space before beginning the next sentence.

Italicize (rather than underline) scientific names when needed. Full names only, not titles (e.g., Doctor, Professor) and affiliations, are listed for persons acknowledged. Unpublished! Acknowledgments for materials supplied belong as a parenthetical citation in the text where materials are mentioned. A disclaimer is placed on the inside front cover of the published journal and used periodically throughout the publication. It states, “The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the essay daily in english Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the institutions with which the lodge essay contest authors are affiliated.” Additional disclaimers are discouraged. For all article types, excluding letters, media reviews, and conference summaries, include a short (23 sentences) biographical sketch of only the first author or of routine in english both authors if only 2 authors. Include current position and affiliations (city but not state and country if same as in author affiliation list) and primary research interests. Follow Uniform Requirements style ( Do not use endnotes for references, and do not include article DOIs (digital object identifiers). Place reference numbers in parentheses (do not use superscript style), and italicize the numbers.

Number citations in unpublished, order of appearance, including references in figures and tables. If a reference is used in a figure key or label or in a figure legend, it should be numbered in on my daily in english, order with any reference numbers that have preceded the first figure citation in dissertations, text. For example, if references 110 have been cited in text, and writing on my daily, the figure contains a previously uncited reference, that reference should be numbered as 11 (and text reference citations renumbered accordingly). Journal names should be abbreviated according to sloan essays abbreviations used in PubMed. On My In English! Spell out the full name of journals that are not included in PubMed. List the sloan essays first 6 authors followed by “et al.” For juniors and subsequent sequels, include the designation (with no punctuation) after the first initial: “von Hoffman J Jr” or “Snowden CM III.” When there are 6 individual authors and a working group, list the first 6 authors, followed by et al., then the group. Doe, Smith, Jones, Lane, Carter, James, et al.; The XYZ Working Group. For organizations as author, spell out the full name of the organization (World Health Organization, not WHO) if it is the author, or just give the title with no author. Never use “Anonymous” or No author given. For publisher location, place US states or country names in parentheses.

Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University. Ames (IA): Iowa University Press. Electronic publication (Epub) information for on my daily routine in english articles published online and in print should not be included in a reference citation unless the Epub article is the one the author used during his/her research. Epub references should be cited as follows: Nucci M, Garnica M, Gloria AB, Lehugeur DS, Dias VC, Palma LC, et al. Robert! Invasive fungal diseases in haematopoietic cell transplant recipients and in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplasia in Brazil. Essay On My In English! clin Microbiol Infect. 2013. Epub 2012 Sep 25. Cite personal communications and unpublished data (including manuscripts in masonic lodge essay contest, preparation or submitted for publication but not yet accepted) in parentheses in text: (D.E. Writing! Berg, pers. comm.) (D. Stantio, unpub. data)

Articles in press (accepted for publication but not yet published) should include publication name and current year (no comma). Authors. Article name. Foreign Policy Essays! Publication name. In press 2008. Knopf SA. Writing! Tuberculosis. In: Stedman TL, editor. Twentieth century practice: an international ecncyclopedia of modern medical science by leading authorities of unpublished Europe and America. Essay Writing Daily In English! Vol. XX.

Tuberculosis, yellow fever, and miscellaneous. General index. New York: William Wood and Co.; 1900. p. 3396. Meslin FX, Fishbein DB, Matter HC. Rationale and thematic, prospects for rabies elimination in developing countries. In: Rupprecht CE, Dietzschold B, Koprowski H, editors. Lyssaviruses. Essay Daily Routine In English! New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994:126. Winkler WG. Write Personal Statement Essay! Fox rabies.

In: Baer GM, editor. The natural history of rabies. 1st ed. New York: Academic Press, 1975:322. Tomes N. The gospel of essay writing daily routine germs: men, women, and the microbe in the American life. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press; 1998. Mahy B. The dictionary of virology, 4th ed. London: Academic Press; 2009. Steele JH, Fernandez PJ. History of rabies and global aspects.

In: Baer GM. The natural history of rabies, 2nd ed. New York; CRC Press; 1991. The following cities should be used without the state or country name when listed in robert shaps dissertation, references, meeting, or publisher locations (e.g., New York: John Wiley Sons). Provide state or country name in text for manufacturer locations (e.g., Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) Abstracts can be cited in the references. If the abstract has only a number, cite the name of the booklet (e.g., Program and Abstracts). Galil K, Singleton R, Levine O, Fitzgerald M, Ajello G, Bulkow L, et al. High prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) carriage among Alaska Natives despite widespread use of Hib-conjugate vaccine. In: Abstracts of the 35th Infectious Diseases Society of writing on my daily in english America; San Francisco; 1997 Sep 1316; Abstract 421. Alexandria (VA): Infectious Diseases Society of America; 1997.

Dissertations can be used as references; theses cannot. Cite theses in the text, giving all information that would normally be included in kansas masonic essay, a reference. International variations in terminology occur; the primary distinction is essay writing on my daily routine in english, whether or not the work is published. If a URL is provided, it is kansas lodge contest, not necessary to say “Available from.” The URL alone is sufficient. Essay Writing On My Routine! Do not give a URL for articles that have a Medline link. Include the statement date cited for each URL listed in references. Use the URL for the specific page where information can be found, not to essay routine in english the main page of the website.

Wikipedia information should be cited in text (see ), not as a numbered reference. Below are some examples of references that may not be listed in Uniform Requirements. Ben Amor Y, Nemser B, Sing A, Sankin A, Schluger N. Underreported threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Africa. Persuassive On! Emerg Infect Dis [serial on writing on my the Internet]. 2008 Sep [ date cited ]. Note: If the citation references an e-published ahead of print article, do not update the reference. Write Essay! The reference needs to reflect the source used at the time the essay writing on my daily routine in english reference was cited. World Health Organization. Shaps! Outbreak encephalitis 2005: cases of essay daily Japanese encephalitis in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2005 Oct 21 [cited 2006 Jul 11]. Masonic Essay Contest! Lipkin I.West Nilelike virus: PCR primers and protocols.

ProMed. Essay Writing On My Daily Routine! 1999 Oct 13., archive no. Sloan Essays! 19991013.1826. References published in a foreign language but translated into English should indicate the original language in brackets, after the article title. Pablos-Mendez A, Lessnau K. Writing On My Routine In English! Clinical mismanagement and other factors producing antituberculosis drug resistance [in Dutch]. Journal name;2000:15976. References that appear in a foreign language should be translated into English, if possible. Clearly identify the corresponding author and provide that author’s mailing address, including phone number, fax number, and email address. (The phone and fax number will not be published.) Only 1 author may be designated as corresponding, and only 1 address may be published for that author (i.e., corresponding author may not list 2 email addresses). Follow the foreign thematic conventions used in individual countries for capitalizng or not capitalizing street names.

Capitalize CEDEX in writing on my, French addressed. Essay! Examples: In France: 28 rue du Docteur Roux. In France: 20 rue Leblanc, 7508 Paris CEDEX 15, France. In the writing on my daily United States: Main St. In the United States: 1600 Clifton Rd NE. Use capital letters for the first word of agency names, except for prepositions (e.g., of, with, in); articles (e.g., a, an, the unpublished archaeology dissertations [unless The is part of the agency name]); and routine, conjunctions (e.g., and).

Use the US form of country names. Brazil, not Brasil. For CDC addresses, list CDC only (spelled out), not CIOs; provide mailstop; include NE after Clifton Road. John Doe, Centers for on Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop X55, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. Provide tables within the manuscript file, not as separate files. Essay Routine! Use the MS Word table tool. Do not use any other program or tabs or spaces to foreign policy essays align columns.

If not formatted correctly, the daily tables will be returned to the author for proper formatting. Footnote any use of shaps dissertation boldface. On My Routine In English! Tables should be no wider than 17 cm. Condense or divide larger tables. See section Formatting Tables and persuassive on, Formatting Figures for additional instructions. Place tables within manuscript after References. Submit figures as separate files, in essay daily routine in english, the native format when possible (e.g., Microsoft Excel, PowerPoint).

Photographs should be submitted as high-resolution (600 dpi) .jpeg or .tif files. Other files may be acceptable; contact for guidance. Figures should not be embedded in foreign policy thematic essays, the manuscript file. Use color only as needed. Essay Writing Daily Routine! Use Arial font for figure lettering. Figures, symbols, lettering, and numbering should be clear and large enough to unpublished dissertations remain legible when reduced to print size. Large figures may be made available online only. Place figure keys within the figure. Figure legends should be provided at daily the end of the manuscript file.

See Formatting Tables and dissertations, Figures for additional instructions. Submit multiple panels as individual files. Do not submit multipanel panels. Place figure captions in manuscript after tables. Submit as AVI, MOV, MPG, MPEG, and WMV. Videos should not exceed 5 minutes and should include an audio description and complete captioning. If audio is not available, provide a description of the action in the video as a separate Word file. Published or copyrighted material (e.g., music) is discouraged and must be accompanied by written release. Essay Routine! If video is part of a manuscript, files must be uploaded with manuscript submission. When uploading, choose the file “Video” file.

Include a brief video legend in the manuscript file. Your video upload will not convert to PDF, but will be available during the peer-review process. Tables and figures to appear online only kansas masonic, should be numbered sequentially with tables and figures that will appear in print and are included in the manuscript maximum counts (e.g., no more than 2 tables and 2 figures total for a dispatch). Tables and figures that appear online only will be cited in text with a link to the online file. References within appendix tables or appendix figure legends are included in the manuscript maximum count (e.g., 15 for writing routine a dispatch) and should be numbered sequentially based on where the citations appear in text. Technical Appendixes and Other Materials. For materials outside the sloan essays scope of the article, authors may submit a Technical Appendix that will be presented online only. Essay Daily Routine! Technical Appendixes will be formatted but not edited; these materials are not included in unpublished dissertations, the manuscript maximum word and reference counts. A link to the Technical Appendix will be provided in the text of the article where the materials are cited. Technical Appendixes that are surveys written in a language other than English may be printed in their original language.

Alternatively, readers may be referred to essay writing routine in english the corresponding author for foreign policy supplemental materials, or authors may post supplemental materials on a separate website and provide a link to that site in the article.

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The Certainty of Donald Rumsfeld (Part 1) Four kinds of persons: zeal without knowledge; knowledge without zeal; neither knowledge nor zeal; both zeal and knowledge. When I first met Donald Rumsfeld in his offices in Washington, D.C., one of the essay writing routine, things I said to write personal statement, him was that if we could provide an answer to on my, the American public about why we went to war in Iraq, we would be rendering an important service. He agreed. Unfortunately, after having spent 33 hours over the course of a year interviewing Mr. Rumsfeld, I fear I know less about the origins of the sloan essays, Iraq war than when I started. A question presents itself: How could that be? How could I know less rather than more? Was he hiding something? Or was there really little more than met the eye? Jack McWethy, the ABC Pentagon correspondent, asked Rumsfeld about the containment policies of the essay writing on my daily in english, Clinton administration.[1]

The substance of Rumsfeld’s reply reiterated his previous condemnations of those policies — sanctions aren’t working, the no-fly zones produce little or no benefit, and Saddam is sloan essays developing weapons of mass destruction.[2] It was also a warning: DONALD RUMSFELD: Every year that goes by and the inspectors are not there, the development of their weapons of mass destruction proceed apace, bringing them closer to essay daily routine in english, a time when they will have those weapons developed in archaeology a form that is essay writing routine more threatening than it had been the year before or the year before that. Jim Miklaszewski, the NBC Pentagon correspondent, asked another question. JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: In regard to Iraq weapons of mass destruction and terrorists, is there any evidence to indicate that Iraq has attempted to kansas masonic essay, or is willing to supply terrorists with weapons of mass destruction? Because there are reports that there is no evidence of a direct link between Baghdad and some of these terrorist organizations. DONALD RUMSFELD: Reports that say that something hasn’t happened are always interesting to routine, me, because as we know, there are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns — the ones we don’t know we don’t know. And if one looks throughout the personal statement, history of our country and other free countries, it is the latter category that tend to be the essay on my, difficult ones. And so people who have the omniscience that they can say with high certainty that something has not happened or is persuassive essays on not being tried, have capabilities that are — what was the word you used, Pam, earlier? PAM HESS: Free associate.[3] [The phrase “free associate” came earlier in the press conference in response to a question about drones.]

DONALD RUMSFELD: Yeah. They can do things I can’t do. (laughter) Few people today remember that Rumsfeld was ostensibly responding to Miklaszewski’s request for evidence . Essay On My Routine In English. What evidence do you have that Iraq is supplying terrorists with W.M.D.? Rumsfeld’s answer was a non-answer — not just an foreign thematic essays evasion or a misdirection. Many people believe Rumsfeld’s reply was brilliant. Routine In English. I think otherwise. Miklaszewski was unsatisfied and archaeology was trying to pin him down. I sense his frustration. I share it.

What is he saying? Miklaszewski continued: JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: Excuse me. On My Routine In English. But is persuassive essays on this an unknown unknown? JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: Because you said several unknowns, and in english I’m just wondering if this is an unknown unknown. DONALD RUMSFELD: I’m not going to say which it is. Jamie McIntyre, the lodge contest, senior Pentagon correspondent for CNN, returned to the real question — the question of writing on my daily in english, evidence . JAMIE McINTYRE: I just want to — because you so cleverly buried Jim Miklaszewski’s question by characterizing it as something that was unknowable. But he didn’t ask you [about] something that was unknowable. He asked you if you knew of evidence that Iraq was supplying — or willing to supply weapons of personal, mass destruction to terrorists — DONALD RUMSFELD: He cited reports where people said that was not the case. JAMIE McINTYRE: Right.

He’s done that and essay writing in english — DONALD RUMSFELD: And my response was to that, and I thought it was good response. But McIntyre did not give up. And Rumsfeld slipped into more gobbledygook. JAMIE McINTYRE: But if we are to sloan essays, believe things — DONALD RUMSFELD: I could have said that the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence, or vice versa. JAMIE McINTYRE: But we just want to know, are you aware of any evidence? Because that would increase our level of belief from faith to something that would be based on essay on my routine in english evidence. DONALD RUMSFELD: Yeah, I am aware of a lot of evidence involving Iraq on a lot of subjects. Archaeology Dissertations. And it is not for me to make public judgments about my assessment or others’ assessment of that evidence. I’m going to make that the essay on my, last question. The power of dogma versus evidence. Thematic Essays. We have been transported back to 1633.

To Galileo Galilei standing before the Inquisition disputing the geocentric versus the heliocentric solar system. For the essay writing, Inquisition, Galileo’s calculations conflict with dogma. Foreign Thematic Essays. But for Galileo, his calculations reveal the true nature of the universe — the in english, true nature of masonic lodge essay, reality . (The scene is memorialized in a painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, Galileo Galilei Before Members of the Holy Office in essay on my daily in english the Vatican in 1633 — a painting of a painting with Raphael’s Disputation of the Holy Sacrament looming in the background.) These 17th century debates remind us that if you have an unshakable belief in something, then no amount of evidence (or lack of sloan essays, evidence) can convince you otherwise. (There are always anti-rationalist objections to everything and anything. Writing On My In English. It is curious, however, to hear them in the 21st century rather than in the 17th.) Jim Miklaszewski (NBC Pentagon correspondent), Pam Hess (former U.P.I. Policy Essays. Pentagon correspondent) and writing on my routine in english Jamie McIntyre (former CNN Pentagon correspondent, now at NPR) were three of the reporters who questioned Rumsfeld in that exchange on Feb. 12, and I decided to write statement, interview each one of them. They were hearing about the “known” and essay writing on my the “unknown” for the first time. What did they make of it? I wanted to lodge, interview people who may have shared my frustrations with the answers that Rumsfeld offered to on my routine, questions about unpublished evidence.

Pam Hess was my favorite. She worked for essay daily routine in english, U.P.I. and A.P. and is now the executive director of Arcadia, a center for sustainable food and agriculture. ERROL MORRIS: Rumsfeld clearly liked you. PAM HESS: Yes, I think that’s true. He liked Mik [Jim Miklaszewski] and Jamie [McIntyre], as well.

He liked a lot of the reporters. That was my impression. As the Secretary of Defense, he had so much power, and was obviously so confident, which you could also characterize in other ways — ERROL MORRIS: In what other ways would you characterize it? PAM HESS: [Laughs] Some people would call him arrogant. I just found him to foreign policy essays, be his own version of “extremely confident.” And I think he appreciated reporters because we didn’t have to kowtow to him. He enjoyed that he was finally in writing daily routine a place where people were saying what they thought. Sloan Essays. My impression was that he enjoyed the press conferences because he sort of got to bare-knuckle it.

ERROL MORRIS: He also got to perform. PAM HESS: And he loved it. Essay Writing On My Daily Routine In English. He’s an eminently confident person and unpublished dissertations therefore does not shy away from being the center of attention. ERROL MORRIS: He might have liked to be confronted, but it’s not at all clear to essay writing on my daily routine in english, me that he was responsive to essays, the questions. Before he gave the “known and unknown” speech, Jim Miklaszewski asked, pointedly, “What evidence do you have that Saddam Hussein is providing W.M.D. to Al Qaeda?” PAM HESS: The problem you have as a reporter is that you need facts. To really chase that rabbit down the hole — to take it apart — you needed more information than we had. We didn’t know that there were no weapons of on my in english, mass destruction. ERROL MORRIS: But you certainly you had suspicions — PAM HESS: [The administration] may well have all believed that there were W.M.D. But honestly, if they went there and found nothing, how do you make a case for war?

When Rumsfeld was selected as Secretary of Defense, that group of people came in with him — Feith and Wolfowitz and all the rest. Reporters would just look at essays their resumes and where they were coming from — and essay writing routine this was well before 9/11 — we were like, “How long before this war with Iraq starts?”[4] ERROL MORRIS: Did it seem like an inevitability? PAM HESS: It was a difficult environment to report in. The anti-war crowd really wanted the reporters in that room to take up their fight. Shaps Dissertation. And that is something that we couldn’t do, professionally or ethically. Writing On My Daily In English. We’re not there as antiwar protesters. We’re there as reporters, trying to unpublished archaeology dissertations, assemble a public record. You had to have all your ducks in a row to ask a question and to be able to keep pursuing it, because he would find any weakness and take it apart. I thought of them as exit ramps.

I tried not to give him exit ramps in my questions. ERROL MORRIS: You were good at your job. You asked thought-provoking questions. You confronted him repeatedly. PAM HESS: It was an intimidating room to writing daily in english, be in sometimes. ERROL MORRIS: You said that you were always looking for what would be his possible exit ramps?

Could you give me an example? PAM HESS: The “unknown unknown” is a perfect exit ramp. [Miklaszewski’s questions about evidence were never answered.] I remember a reporter asked a question that began, “It is robert shaps dissertation said that … x.” And Rumsfeld pounced on essay writing on my daily routine the “It is said” part: “Who says that?” If there were any adjectives or adverbs that he could quarrel with, he would. Those were the exit ramps. Masonic Lodge. I learned and others learned not to go in unprepared. You had to put together a question without exit ramps — that is, direct and short and getting exactly to essay writing on my daily routine, what you want to sloan essays, know. And whether or not he answered it is essay daily in english another question.

But at foreign thematic essays least you have a clear question on the record, and then you can judge his answer. Writing On My In English. I don’t mean this as an insult to him — but I think that there’s less there than people imagine. He’s who he is, and that’s it. That guy that you captured on dissertations film, that’s who he is exactly. And I think that freaks people out. Because he doesn’t have these layers of insecurity and self-doubt. Essay Writing Daily Routine In English. He just doesn’t. In 2003, Jamie McIntyre was the senior Pentagon correspondent at robert dissertation CNN.

Now, he is essay on my routine a familiar voice on NPR’s All Things Considered . When I called him, he compared Rumsfeld, the subject of my current film, The Unknown Known , and dissertation Robert S. McNamara, the subject of an earlier film, The Fog of War . Essay Writing On My Daily Routine In English. He told me about a trip he had taken with Rumsfeld. Fog served as inflight entertainment. Did Rumsfeld watch? Was he struck by any similarities? Jamie McIntyre asked him, but his question was quickly dismissed: “No, no, I wasn’t watching … If I have time I’ll watch it.” The story resonated with me. On our first meeting, I’d asked Rumsfeld if he had ever seen The Fog of War — I had actually sent him a copy. But it was never clear to robert, me whether he had watched it. Notwithstanding, he told me, “that man [McNamara] had nothing to apologize for.” ERROL MORRIS: I hadn’t realized that Rumsfeld’s recitation of the known and unknown was a response to a question by essay daily routine, Jim Miklaszewski about evidence.

It was a very, very specific question. And the answer is this evasion — JAMIE McINTYRE: Pentagon reporters don’t really expect to robert shaps dissertation, get much information from briefings. The real reporting at the Pentagon is based on sources and relationships that you have with people — digging out the in english, things that the Pentagon doesn’t want to say. So the briefings are a place where you can get people to persuassive essays on, put stuff on essay routine in english the record, and kansas lodge essay you can be on record asking tough questions. On My Daily Routine. Reporters are trying to unpublished, demonstrate that they’re independent, that they’re asking the tough questions, that they’re not cowed or intimidated by on my, these officials. ERROL MORRIS: Still things do come out of press conferences. Do you remember that press conference? The known and the unknown? JAMIE McINTYRE: When he said it, I remember thinking, “Yeah, that’s true. It’s sort of self-evident, but it’s true: the things that we know, and the things that we don’t know, and the things we don’t know we don’t know.” After that, I remember some people were portraying it as some sort of gaffe — some bit of persuassive essays, nonsense he had said that was convoluted and didn’t make any sense.

Bob Gates, who came after Rumsfeld, had his own version of this thing. He came from an essay daily intelligence background, and he used to robert, talk about the difference between “secrets” and “mysteries” — secrets being things that were knowable but we just don’t know them, and mysteries being things that are basically unknowable — as the difficulty that policy-makers have in making decisions about things because of the information they don’t have, the on my daily routine, imponderables. ERROL MORRIS: I sometimes think of it as the epistemology from hell: the known known, the known unknown — JAMIE McINTYRE: What you see in Rumsfeld is based on foreign policy essays how you feel about him. I actually liked him a lot. There’s a tendency to really demonize him, or, for the few people that really love Rumsfeld, to lionize him. ERROL MORRIS: I was often struck by the difference between Rumsfeld and Robert McNamara. McNamara said that he never answered the question he was asked but rather the question that he wanted to be asked.

Rumsfeld, on the other hand, would never answer the question he was asked or any other question — Ask Rumsfeld a question, and all you get is evasions. But are they just evasions or do they reveal a lack of substance? And McNamara expressed regret — JAMIE McINTYRE: I know Rumsfeld well enough at this point to know that he’s never going to essay writing routine, have this kind of epiphany. He’s never going to unpublished, have this introspective moment where he realizes, even though we had the essay, best intentions, that many of his decisions turned out to be disasters. Write. It was rare that he would ever admit that he was wrong about writing in english anything. Part of dissertations, his defense was that he was very adept at putting caveats into everything that he said so that he could go back later and cite the caveat. “I never said how long the war would last.” “I never said how many troops would be needed.” “I never said how much it would cost.” He was very slippery. You couldn’t pin him down on things. And his favorite technique, of course, was to challenge the premise of your question and never actually answer it.[5]

Jim Miklaszewski has been the on my routine in english, chief Pentagon correspondent at NBC for over 20 years. He’s still there. ERROL MORRIS: Everybody knows about the known known, the known unknown, etc. But the sloan essays, first time Rumsfeld publicly mentioned it was in response to a question you asked — “What evidence do you have that Saddam is giving W.M.D. to daily routine in english, terrorist organizations?” JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: There were many people within the U.S. Sloan Essays. military asking the same questions internally — “Have you seen or heard anything about the existence of W.M.D.s?” Which was a strong indication that many people within the senior military ranks were not convinced.

ERROL MORRIS: I think it’s amazing that people in the military were asking you for information about W.M.D. But you never really got a reply — JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: I mean, what do you do at a press conference? I thought I had challenged him about as far as he was going to let me go. Not that I needed his permission. Writing. But it was clear that he was not going to answer it beyond that, at sloan essays that point … Whenever we go to these briefings and we question anybody — and on my daily in english particularly the secretary of defense — we’re not looking for opinions, we’re not looking for political spin. We’re just looking for robert, facts. That’s what drives this press corps, covering the military in particular: “Just give us the facts and let us report them.” ERROL MORRIS: You have a look on essay on my routine in english your face — maybe this is just my interpreting it — a look of bemusement. JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: Oh, no.

Most good reporters are, in a sense, like lawyers — you ask a question, having a sense of policy thematic essays, what the writing on my daily in english, answer, or at unpublished archaeology dissertations least part of the essay on my daily in english, answer, is going to be. Sloan Essays. But with Rumsfeld, that really was never the case. ERROL MORRIS: Could you see the war coming? Did it seem like the die was cast already in early 2002? JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: Well, I think the die was cast not only concerning weapons of mass destruction, but concerning the essay daily in english, invasion and robert dissertation the immediate aftermath. For months after the Iraq war began, many — not just in the Pentagon but in writing routine in english the administration — failed to recognize that while the invasion was a success, the steps that the U.S. had taken immediately following the invasion were crumbling before their eyes: the de-Baathification, the disarming and dissolution of the entire military. This was something that Rumsfeld used to talk about, too, in the days after Baghdad fell. Kansas Masonic Contest. He was very dismissive of the essay on my, fact that the looting [in 2003] signified anything except a brief period of lawlessness. But, again, I harken back to some of the military leaders who saw that, and immediately recognized that there was no structure left there, which did not bode well for the immediate, if not the distant, future security of Baghdad or of the entire country.

ERROL MORRIS: Do you think that Rumsfeld was in policy thematic essays denial? That even he couldn’t see his way to the facts through the layers of fantasy that he constructed in daily routine promoting the Iraq war? JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: Well, not just him but the entire building was in denial. Doug Feith — don’t get me started on masonic lodge essay Doug Feith — told me that they had a Marshall Plan all set to go in writing on my terms of rebuilding Iraq. And he pointed to this stack of essays, huge three-ringed binders, all of them black. There must have been about 10 of them stacked up on top of a cabinet. And I asked to see them, and he said, “No, you can’t. It’s classified.” And I said, “Well, O.K., I understand that, I guess.” But I raised it to essay daily, somebody else within the next couple of weeks. Unpublished Archaeology Dissertations. I said, “Well, Doug Feith showed me the Marshall Plan for Iraq.” And this person laughed, and he said, “Mik, that was the Marshall Plan.” It was a copy of the original Marshall Plan, not a plan for Iraq.

ERROL MORRIS: Was Feith responsible for these, the two edicts that came out of Bremer — the de-Baathification edict, the disbanding of the military?[6] JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: Well, no, because Rumsfeld would not have delegated that kind of authority or power to Feith, either. There were certain people that you could tell he would listen to intently, but it always looked to me, whenever Feith came around, it was, Rumsfeld was just very dismissive. He’d say, “O.K., well” — and then sort of shoo him away. ERROL MORRIS: So who did Donald Rumsfeld listen to? JIM MIKLASZEWSKI: Donald Rumsfeld. A couple of months after our discussion I received an email from Pam Hess.

She had written down some notes, and finally decided to send them to essay writing on my routine in english, me. She described these thoughts as “the mice running around in her brain opening up old doors.” With regard to your central question: was it frustrating to contest, cover Rumsfeld? The answer is no, mostly. I saw who he was pretty clearly and on my daily routine I didn’t expect to get much out of him — at archaeology dissertations least nothing he didn’t want to share — so I usually wasn’t frustrated. He met my expectations. And to say it was frustrating would suggest that I thought I “knew” the truth and just couldn’t get him to admit it. But the fact is, I didn’t know what was true regarding the intelligence — none of us did. So I tried to nibble around the edges of what was knowable. If I couldn’t see and judge the value of the writing routine, intelligence for myself, I could at least try to figure out his decision process, what his thinking was, why he felt so clearly and strongly that war with Iraq was the right way to go — regardless of what the intel said — and personal statement essay try to capture that for on my routine, the record. I was very curious about the narrative he was building.

The “why” interested me more than the kansas masonic lodge, “what.” A good way to describe the essay daily, situation in that press room in the lead-up to the war was that the personal essay, administration had this black box of writing routine, intelligence, its contents known only to them. We were basically asking 20 questions about what was in the box. But without getting a peek at it ourselves, we were not in a strong position to challenge them factually — which is ultimately our only real power … So I’d turn over robert dissertation everything he said in my head, try to square it up with everything we knew, and essay writing on my daily in english argue it out to myself from his perspective. And many times I’d hit a brick wall — I just couldn’t make sense of what I thought I knew to sloan essays, be true from what he said. In English. And then my hand would shoot up involuntarily. I have seen tape of it actually happening. My brow gets knitted, I cock my head, then up goes the unpublished archaeology dissertations, arm. His confrontational style encouraged me to essay routine in english, have my facts down cold before I went in there. Persuassive Essays. He’d destroy you if there was a weakness in your question, and you’d end up giving him the exit ramp he was looking for to get out of a difficult question while scoring points with his sizable fan base on essay writing in english TV.

I don’t think anyone could ever get him to admit regret or question his past actions. Dissertation. It’s not in his DNA, and I don’t think he feels regret for anything. This is a supremely self-assured person who believes he makes the best decisions possible given the essay writing daily in english, information and the situation at hand, and then lets the chips fall where they may. Critics attacked us because they thought they could do our job better — that if they had the dissertation, opportunity to interrogate Rumsfeld, by on my in english, golly they’d break him and get the foreign thematic, truth! Never gonna happen. He is, I believe, exactly who he presents to the world.

[1] McWethy died in a skiing accident shortly after he retired from ABC News. This was his question: JACK McWETHY: Previous administrations have adopted the policy of writing on my routine in english, trying to contain Saddam Hussein. And it appears from what the president has said and what Colin Powell has said that containment no longer works in the view of this administration, that the essays, threat has somehow changed, increased, that the dynamics are different, and on my routine therefore regime change has become a more substantial goal for this administration than previous ones. Write Personal Essay. Is that true? [2] These assessments appear in essay writing on my routine a Rumsfeld memo from July 27, 2001, over shaps a month before 9/11. Daily Routine. If Clinton’s policy was containment, the policy of the new administration was regime change. [3] Pam Hess, earlier in sloan essays the news conference, had asked Rumsfeld and Richard Myers (the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs) about drones and their use by the C.I.A.

PAM HESS: Could I just get the two of you [Rumsfeld and essay writing daily in english Myers] maybe to unpublished archaeology dissertations, free associate a little bit more on that subject? We’re seeing a — DONALD RUMSFELD: To do what? (laughter) PAM HESS: Free associate. (laughs) It’s a sort of touchy-feely ’70s term. (laughter) RICHARD MYERS: I don’t believe I can — DONALD RUMSFELD: You got the — you got the wrong guys! (laughter) RICHARD MYERS: I don’t think I can do that with you. It’s illegal. (laughter) [4] Doug Feith got his start in government in essay writing on my daily routine in english 1981 working for the National Security Council under his college mentor Richard Pipes, who headed up the Team B study challenging C.I.A. Robert Shaps. estimates of Soviet missile deployment. The next year, he went to daily in english, the Defense Department to serve as Special Counsel to assistant secretary Richard Perle, neoconservative godfather. In the following years, Feith was influential in blocking ratification of changes to sloan essays, the Geneva Conventions that grant non-state actors prisoner of on my daily routine, war status even if they fail to kansas contest, distinguish themselves from the civilian population.

Under the in english, Bush administration, he was the number three man at the Pentagon, overseeing the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Unit, which sought and publicized links between terror organizations and state sponsors, and the Office of Special Plans, tasked with postwar planning in Iraq. Paul Wolfowitz also rose to prominence through his involvement with Team B, though he previously got his start in Washington as an aide to influential Senator Henry M. Jackson. Under Reagan, Wolfowitz became Director of Policy Planning at the Department of write personal statement, State and essay daily routine in english began at policy this point denouncing Saddam Hussein. He served as Undersecretary of writing on my daily routine, Defense for Policy from 1989 to 1993 under then Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, and was the author of the policy that became known as the Wolfowitz Doctrine, promoting unilateralism and pre-emptive military action against robert, potential threats. He repeatedly expressed his regret that Saddam Hussein was not ousted in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Prior to George W. Bush’s election in 2000, Wolfowitz was one of the first members of a group of writing on my in english, political heavyweights called The Vulcans, who were assembled to advise and shaps dissertation coach the future president. JAMIE McINTYRE: Mr. Secretary, here’s a single question that hopefully doesn’t lend itself to a one-word answer. Daily. (Scattered laughter.) What about shaps dissertation Saddam Hussein? (Scattered laughter.) DONALD RUMSFELD: (Sighs.) Exactly what is it about him that you’re interested in? (Laughter.) His health? JAMIE McINTYRE: Where is he?

Do you know where he is? Are you trying to get him? Is he likely to get away? Does it – DONALD RUMSFELD: There’s no question but that — it is hard to find a single person. Essay Writing On My Routine. It is hard to find them when they’re alive and mobile, it’s hard to find them when they’re not well, and it’s hard to find them if they’re buried under rubble.

We don’t know. And he’s not been around. He’s not active. Therefore, he’s either dead or he’s incapacitated, or he’s healthy and persuassive on cowering in some tunnel someplace, trying to avoid being caught. What else can one say? JAMIE McINTYRE: Will you get him? DONALD RUMSFELD: Who knows? Who knows? Time will tell.

The important things that needed to essay on my routine in english, happen will happen. Foreign Policy. The regime will change, and on my routine in english the country will no longer have weapons of mass destruction. It will no longer threaten its neighbors. It will have an personal statement essay opportunity for daily routine in english, the people of Iraq to write personal statement essay, participate in determining what kind of a government they want. And liberated people will be able to be free to say what they want and do what they want. They might even have a free press eventually there. [6] L. Paul “Jerry” Bremer was installed as head of the Coalition Provisional Authority for Iraq in charge of writing on my, reconstruction in May of 2003. In this role, Bremer was permitted to make rules by decree. On. Many people believe that his first two decrees, made in late May, were responsible for plunging Iraq into chaos and fueling the insurgency. On My Daily. Although there’s little disagreement about the effect of these decrees, there’s considerably more about whether they originated with Bremer, or, if not, where they came from. It seems unlikely that policy decisions of this magnitude would have been made without oversight from the Pentagon, the State Department or the White House.

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colorado essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in writing on my Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and stealthy ninja assassins. These figures, often seen in persuassive essays on popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on essay writing on my daily reality.

In fact, many different types of people helped shape the medieval period. Over 400 years, from the write personal late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and on my, priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in write statement tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to essay writing on my in english, an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order. Kansas. Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the essay routine in english fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and lodge contest, society was divided among feudal rulers.

Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the essay on my daily in english period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and personal, warriors played an important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and daily routine in english, the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history?

To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and powerful temples. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to essays on, rivals. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of essay his daughter who had married an persuassive essays, emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in essay writing daily attacking the Taira.

The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the country for robert shaps five years in essay writing on my routine a conflict known as the thematic Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on essay daily routine to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government. Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to unpublished archaeology dissertations, follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the essay writing daily routine in english Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the sloan essays Taira family) just to oppose them. So the essay writing on my daily routine Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government.

The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate. Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over thematic essays entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun.

Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in daily 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun. Archaeology Dissertations. Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace.

It never eliminated the imperial government in essay writing on my daily routine Kyoto, but instead shared power. Write Statement. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the aristocracy, temples, and civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Essay Writing. Outcomes could be appealed.

Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire. Policy. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons.

Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to writing in english, defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the essays early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and daily, arrow over sloan essays other weapons. These samurai were quite independent. They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and daily routine in english, you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of foreign policy essays battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded.

Consider, for example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols. In his version of events, he makes no mention of writing on my daily routine in english fighting to unpublished archaeology dissertations, defend Japan. On My Daily. Instead, he fought to make a name for himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Foreign Policy. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the economy started to expand, and writing daily in english, many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money. Robert Dissertation. If they failed to repay loans, they had to on my routine, forfeit their property.

At the same time, the write essay H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on daily government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by dissertations the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. Essay Writing In English. In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from robert those estates for much of their income. Essay On My Routine In English. Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to personal, collect tax income.

As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of on my routine income. Policy. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Writing On My Daily Routine In English. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in the evolution of personal statement essay Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the essay routine in english final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to unpublished, fully comprehend them.

Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on essay writing their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of personal civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of essay writing on my daily in english mapp#333; . He taught his followers to foreign, place complete faith in the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment.

Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of writing daily routine training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary.

His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and unpublished archaeology dissertations, his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period.

It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in China. The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at essay writing on my routine in english, the heart of the archaeology dissertations city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for on my routine in english women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of robert dissertation a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the on my daily most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest.

The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the masonic lodge contest courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of essay writing on my daily routine Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the lodge essay contest most popular. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare. But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the writing daily routine in english tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of persuassive on impermanence and essay daily in english, show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in personal statement essay Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant.

Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of essay writing on my daily routine in english life in persuassive Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Writing Routine. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Takezaki Suenaga, the masonic lodge samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Essay Writing Daily. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in unpublished dissertations their work. Essay On My Daily Routine. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to lodge essay contest, rule the country by his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous.

The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of on my daily in english a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the personal essay right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and essay writing routine, his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to foreign policy thematic, help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and on my daily, most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and essay, official trade with China. Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts. His patronage of writing on my routine a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over lodge essay contest as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today).

His other great construction project, the on my daily routine in english Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to write personal, outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the writing Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear. Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to sloan essays, monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to daily routine, replace the essays Japanese imperial family with his own line.

Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the writing routine imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure. He ruled for robert dissertation over 20 years and writing on my routine, was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to shaps, cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out.

Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and essay writing on my in english, the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in Japan for write statement essay over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of essay writing on my culture too. As the essay unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions.

Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of routine humble originsled to some of the great art of the contest Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to essay daily in english, distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan. Unpublished Archaeology Dissertations. By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in essay on my daily routine in english order to dissertations, display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and on my daily routine, offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to speak of a Way of shaps Tea.

The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and serve the tea. Writing On My Daily In English. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to shaps dissertation, display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in writing on my gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon lodge, many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of essay daily routine in english Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of unpublished dissertations Noh’s most important playwrights.

Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment. The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period.

Markets began to develop around the country. These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. For example, they might be opened only on essay on my days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over write personal time, markets became increasingly common and essay writing on my daily in english, were open on foreign policy essays more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more.

In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for writing on my daily in english estates to sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in archaeology the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in essay in english units of 1,000 for large purchases. Masonic Lodge. Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in writing on my daily the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. Foreign Thematic. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports.

On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period. The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of writing daily political authorities to masonic lodge contest, tax and essay writing routine in english, regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to persuassive, form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers.

By the Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the essay on my wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property. And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son.

Married women were expected to foreign thematic, join the family of their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the on my in english end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and dissertations, the Age of Warring States. From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in essay on my routine a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War.

The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for personal statement some other important posts). Writing On My Routine In English. The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on sloan essays each side switching to support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the essay writing on my routine late fifteenth century, the sloan essays shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the on my routine in english Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States.

During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over unpublished archaeology lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates. Essay Daily. The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lodge contest lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of essay writing on my daily routine in english arms, and personal statement essay, warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands.

Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in on my Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too. Dissertation. European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and selling goods amongst the various Asian nations. Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity. They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to convert as well.

The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of essay writing daily themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Shaps Dissertation. Opposition by Hideyoshi and essay in english, Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. Persuassive On. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices.

Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to essay on my daily routine in english, change their view of the world. Shaps. Maps from the time reflect the shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan. Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and essay writing routine in english, bringing an end to robert, the violence of the Warring States period. Writing Daily Routine. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to win a battle. His innovations in dissertation castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals.

He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. Essay Routine. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of masonic contest his policies paved the way for early modern growth and stability. Essay Routine. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to unpublished archaeology dissertations, turn over their weapons, creating for on my daily in english the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the statement essay King of Korea refused to on my in english, help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of write personal samurai to invade Korea. The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598.

Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at essay writing on my in english, Sekigahara. Write. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and established the essay writing daily routine last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the persuassive essays Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to writing, profound changes in Japanese society and kansas masonic lodge essay, the start of what most scholars refer to as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of essay writing on my routine Colorado.

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